Pistacia vera L. is a diploid member of the order Sapindales, family Anacardiaceae. This plant is a tree that grows up to 10 m tall, with a single or several trunks. Leaves are deciduous, compound-pinnate, 10—20 cm long, with three to five oval leaflets. Pistachio is dioecious, with staminate and pistillate inflorescences; both types of flowers are apetalous, and wind is the pollinating agent. Mature pistillate flowers consist of two to five tepals and a pistil with three stigmas. Although commercial pistachios are known as nuts, the pistachio fruit is actually a drupe with an exocarp, a mesocarp (hull), and a hard, dehiscent endocarp (shell) that splits longitudinally when the fruit has ripened. Commercial pistachios comprise the shell and the edible kernel, which has a papery seed coat (skin), the color of which ranges from yellow to green (Hormaza & Wunsch, 2007).
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