Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

In a recent study, the seed coat extracts of C. bonduc (CBSC) exhibited better in vitro antimicrobial activity than did those prepared from seed kernel (CBSK). Methanol and water extracts of CBSC showed activity against nine bacterial species used in the study, with the exception of

TABLE 67.1 Antimicrobial Activity of Seed Extracts by Microbroth Dilution Assay

Microorganisms

Extracts

Water Extract

Methanol Extract Pet. Ether Extract

Amp

Met

P. aeruginosa MTCCB 741

CBSC

88

22

175

2.5

ND

CBSK

350

175

P. aeruginosa 135 (AR)

CBSC

175

22

350

ND

CBSK

350

175

P. aeruginosa 1124 (AR)

CBSC

88

22

175

ND

CBSK

175

175

P. aeruginosa 325 (AR)

CBSC

88

22

175

ND

CBSK

175

175

S. aureus MTCCB 737

CBSC

175

44

88

ND

2.5

CBSK

88

175

S. aureus 187 (MR)

CBSC

878

22

175

ND

CBSK

44

350

S. aureus 349 (MR)

CBSC

175

22

88

ND

CBSK

88

88

S. aureus 674 (MR)

CBSC

88

88

ND

CBSK

350

175

350

E. coli MTCCB 82

CBSC

88

88

2.5

ND

CBSK

88

175

P. mirabilis MTCCB 564

CBSC

22

88

175

5.0

ND

CBSK

K. pneumoniae MTCCB 109

CBSC

350

88

175

2.5

ND

CBSK

350

88

S. typhi MTCCB 733

CBSC

22

44

44

2.5

ND

CBSK

88

175

V. cholera MTCCB 458

CBSC

88

88

350

2.5

ND

CBSK

175

88

22

B. thuringiensis MTCCB

CBSC

175

175

88

5.0

ND

1824

CBSK

175

175

175

B. cereus MTCCB 1272

CBSC

22

22

2.5

ND

CBSK

ND

ND

ND

Amp, ampicillin; Met, methicillin; —, no activity; ND, not detected; CBSK, C. bonduc seed kernel; CBSC, C. bonduc seed coat; MR, methicillin resistant; AR, ampicillin resistant.

Amp, ampicillin; Met, methicillin; —, no activity; ND, not detected; CBSK, C. bonduc seed kernel; CBSC, C. bonduc seed coat; MR, methicillin resistant; AR, ampicillin resistant.

Escherichia coli, in the range of 22.0—350 mg/ml (Table 67.1). Petroleum ether extract also exhibited broad range activity at the higher concentrations. CBSK extracts exhibited variable activity at higher concentrations than did CBSC (Arif et al., 2009). It was observed that the extracts of C. bonduc were effective against the methicillin- and ampicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. The results of in vivo experiments revealed no mortality in any of the infected groups. P. aeruginosa was cultured from the lungs of most of the surviving rats 2 weeks after challenge, and colony forming units (CFU) were counted (Table 67.2). The CBSK extract

TABLE 67.2 Macroscopic Pathology, Abscess Incidence and Median Numbers of CFU of P. aeruginosa in Rat Lungs after 14 Days' Intratracheal Challenge (n = 9 in Each Group)

Treatment Median (Range) Bacterial No. (%) of Rats No. of Rats with Lung Lung Abscess

Group Count (CFU)/Lung with < 100 CFU Pathology Score Incidence (%)

Grade Grade Grade

Treatment Median (Range) Bacterial No. (%) of Rats No. of Rats with Lung Lung Abscess

Group Count (CFU)/Lung with < 100 CFU Pathology Score Incidence (%)

Grade Grade Grade

1

2

3

Control

2.4 >

< 102 (1.3 x 101—5.6 >

< 10 4)

2 (22.2)

1

2

6

66.6

CBSK

1.9 >

< 101 (0—2.4 x 103)

6 (66.6)

5

3

1

11.1

Cortisone

5.6 >

< 103 (0.4 x 102—6.7 >

< 105)

2 (22.2)

0

2

7

77.7

Two-tailed P values showed significant difference (P < 0.05) in CBSK-treated group as compared to control.

Two-tailed P values showed significant difference (P < 0.05) in CBSK-treated group as compared to control.

reduced bacterial load significantly in the treated rats as compared to the controls (P < 0.046). Of nine CBSK-treated rats, six were found to have less than 100 CFU in their lungs. Abscesses, atelectases, hemorrhage, and fibrinous adhesion to the thoracic wall or diaphragm were found in all groups after 2 weeks from challenge. However, the lung pathology in the CBSK-treated group was found to be significantly milder as compared to the control and the cortisone-treated groups (Arif et al., 2009).

Seed-coat as well as kernel extracts were reported to have anti-stress activity when administered orally at a dose of 300 mg/kg (see Kannur et al., 2006, for further information). Ethanolic extract (70%) of C. bonduc seed kernel has been reported as having antipyretic and antinociceptive activities in doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg (Archana et al., 2005). Aqueous and ethanol extracts of C. bonduc seeds produced a hypoglycemic effect and anti-hyperglycemic activity as well as hypolipidemic activity (Sharma et al., 1997).

C. bonduc seeds are one of the ingredients of the Ayurvedic drug Ayush-64, used for treating malaria and filaria. It has also been reported to effectively suppress or cure infections due to several species of Ascaris (Amarsinghe et al., 1993; Rastogi et al., 1996). Recently, hepatopro-tective and antioxidant roles of C. bonduc were reported (Gupta et al., 2003). Preliminary screening for antimalarial activity carried out on a rodent system infected with Plasmodium berghei gave promising results. It is used effectively as an antidote against opium, aconite, arsenic, and copper poisoning. Powdered seeds of C. bonduc were reported to have anti-estrogenic and contraceptive effects. In a clinical trial, seeds of C. bonduc were used for treating patients with griping pain and loose bowel motions mixed with mucus and blood. It was observed that the drug, at a dose of 2.0 g three times daily for 15 days, showed 100% improvement in the symptoms, and eradication of Entamoeba histolytica infection from the stool, indicating it to be an effective drug for dysentery. Seeds or nuts of C. bonduc are valuable in simple, continued, and intermittent fevers, asthma, colitis, etc., at a dose of 10—30 grains of the powdered seeds or kernel mixed with an equal quantity of powdered black pepper.

The seed extract of C. bonduc inhibited human trypsin and chymotrypsin in intestinal secretion. The seeds showed a 50% inhibitory activity against carrageenan-induced edema in rats' hind paw, at an oral dose of 1000 mg/kg, when given 24 hours and 1 hour prior to intraperitoneal (IP) carrageenan injection. The activity (66.67% inhibition) was comparable with that of phenylbutazone at a dose of 100 mg/kg.

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