Although previous studies have been inconclusive about LBG toxicity, some authors have suggested that fibers, like LBG, used to thicken infant formulas can decrease the availability of minerals such as calcium and iron (Bosscher, 2001). Regarding carob seed germ, some searchers argue that extracts of carob seed germ were found to decrease trypsin activity (Filioglou & Alexis, 1987) and protein digestibility (Filioglou & Alexis, 1989). Fortunately, the antinutritive substances, such as trypsin inhibitors, generally contained in leguminosae seeds (Weder, 1986) can be deactivated by heating (for example, at 121°Cfor25 minutes, according to Martinez-Herrera et al., 2006) to make carob seed germ flour suitable for food and animal feed products. Carob seed germ also contains tannins which could create palatability problems due to their astringent taste, and could also reduce feed digestibility. It has been suggested that protein digestibility is reduced by tannins either by direct binding to certain parts of the protein molecule, or through non-competitive inhibition of the digestive enzymes
(Filiglou & Alexis, 1989).
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