Despite the numerous advantages of consuming Indian mustard seeds, side effects and prejudicial interactions may occur. When a poultice made of mustard flour is used externally on adults, it must be removed after 10—15 minutes because allyl isothiocyanates (volatile components) can cause burns on the skin, as well as local vasodilation and blushing. The components mentioned above may also cause thyroid disorders. During internal application, overdose must be avoided, especially in cases of ulcer or nephrosis, since this can cause or aggravate inflammation (Duke, 2002).
Although glucosinolates are considered to have chemoprotective influences in several types of cancer, some of them, and their breakdown products, may cause damage or physiological disorders. One of the most notable disadvantageous glucosinolates is progoitrin, which is toxic and may result in goiter or growth retardation, but these effects have only been observed in animals and not in humans. However, progoitrin is the precursor of goitrin, which is an inhibitor of thyroperoxidase (a key enzyme of thyroid hormone synthesis), and it has been discovered that goitrin can get through nitrosation in the human stomach if the nitrate level of water consumed is high, and form a mutagen molecule, N-nitroso-oxazolidone (Cartea & Velasco, 2008).
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