Santos and colleagues (2005) reported M. oleifera seeds to be non-toxic, and recommended their use as an effective coagulant. However, they also concluded that heat treatment of MOS-purified water maybe necessary for denaturation of lectin protein, which is known to be an antinutritional factor. Oral acute and chronic toxicity tests in rats with both Moringa steno-petala and MOS (dosages 50 and 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively) have been reported to produce no toxic effects, but rather increased the weights of the rats (Jahn, 1988). On the contrary, the toxicity and mutagenic effects of MOSE at 200 mg/l in guppies, protozoa, and bacteria were reported, which accounts for its therapeutic utility more than environmental disadvantage (Ndabigengesere, 1995). Oluduro and Aderiye (2009) reported the high activities of aspartate amino transferase, alkaline transferase, and alkaline phosphatase in kidney and heart tissues of rats, and their corresponding decreased activities in the serum, indicative of non-toxicity of MOSE in these organs. Therefore, most toxicity reports confirm high safety margins for plant (seed as well as other parts) extracts, yet more studies may be required. Moreover, it is important to consider the wide clinical exposure of all parts of the plant as part of the regular diet and in medicinal utility for generations, without any reported adverse effects.
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