Adverse Effects And Reactions Allergies And Toxicity

Irvingia gabonensis is part of the staple diet, and is consumed in very large quantities, in various Nigerian and Cameroonian tribes. It is available and sold worldwide in supermarkets and restaurants as Ogbono and Ogbono soup, respectively. Unlike certain nuts and seeds, which form

CHAPTER 32

CHAPTER 32

Beneficial properties of Irvingia gabonensi the most common food allergens, there are no reports in the literature of IG consumption resulting in an allergic reaction. Toxicity studies by Matsinkou (2010) failed to establish any level of toxicity of the ground IG seeds.

In clinical trials reported by Ngondi et al. (2009), a small number of participants reported difficulty sleeping, headaches, and intestinal flatulence after consumption of IGOB131. These conditions were, however, also reported in participants on placebo, indicating that the effect may not necessarily be due to IG.

• Irvingia gabonensis is widely used as a food in many countries in Central Africa.

• The cultivation of IG has only occurred in recent years, as a result of deforestation and an increase in the demand for this non-timber forestry product.

• The seeds of IG are the most important and sought-after part of the plant.

• The seeds and the seed extracts of IG have many health benefits, including the management of the different components of metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress.

• The beneficial health properties of IG are a result of its rich content of various bioactive phytochemicals.

Adamson, I., Okafor, C., & Abu-Bakare, A. (1986). Erythrocyte membrane ATPases in diabetes: effect of dikanut (Irvingia gabonensis). Enzyme, 36(3), 212—215.

Agbor, L. O. N. (1994). Marketing trends and potentials for Irvingia gabonensis products in Nigeria. ICRAF-IITA Conference on Irvingia gabonensis, Ibadan, Nigeria, May 1994.

Albazzaz, M. K., Pal, C., Berman, P., & Shale, D. J. (1994). Inflammatory markers of lower respiratory tract infection in elderly people. Age Aging, 23, 299—302. 277

Fezeu, L. K., Assah, F. K., Balkau, B., Mbanya, D. S., Kengne, A. P., Awah, P., et al. (2008). Ten-year changes in central obesity and BMI in rural and urban Cameroon. Obesity, 16(5), 1144—1147.

Harris, D. J. (1996). A revision of the Irvingiaceae in Africa. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de Belgique, 65(1—2), 143—196.

Howard, B. V., Ruotolo, G., & Robbins, D. C. (2003). Obesity and dyslipidemia. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, 32(4), 855—867.

Ladipo, D. O., Foudoun, J. M., & Ganga, N. (1996). Domestication of the bush mango (Irvingia spp.): some exploitable intraspecific variations in West and Central Africa. From: Domestication and commercialization of non-timber forest products in agroforestry systems. Proceedings of an international conference held in Nairobi, Kenya 19—23 February 1996. Non Wood Forest Products, 9, 193—205.

Leakey, R., & Newton, A. (1994). Domestication of tropical trees for timber and non-timber products. Man and the Biosphere Digest, 17, 67—68.

Matsinkou, R. (2010). Etude des proprietes biologiques d'Irvingia wombolu: Activites antioxydante et anti-diabetique. PhD Thesis. Cameroon: University of Yaounde I.

Moss, R. (1995). Underexploited tree crops: components of productive and more sustainable farming systems. Journal for Farming Systems Research Extension, 5(1), 107—117.

Ndoye, O., Ruiz-Perez, M., & Eyebe, A. (1998). NTFPs markets and potential forest resources degradation in Central Africa: the role of research for a balance between welfare improvement and forest conservation. Presented at the International Export Workshop on Non-wood Forest Products (NWFPs) for Central Africa. Limbe Botanic Gargen, 10—15, May.

Ngondi, J. L., Oben, J. E., & Minka, S. (2005). The effect of Irvingia gabonensis seeds on body weight and blood lipids of obese subjects in Cameroon. Lipids in Health and Disease, 4, 12.

Ngondi, J. L., Fossouo, Z., Djiotsa, J., & Oben, J. (2006). Glycaemic variations after administration of Irvingia gabonensis seed fractions in normoglycaemic rats. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 4, 94—100.

Ngondi, J. L., Etoundi, B. C., Nyangono, C. B., Mbofung, C. M. F., & Oben, J. E. (2009). IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation. Lipids in Health and Disease, 8, 9.

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