Presentday Cultivation And Usage

Lepidium sativum seed extracts are used as an antirheumatic, diuretic, and febrifuge, in 522 abdominal discomfort, in fracture healing, and in the treatment of gout. These medicinal uses of LSS are practiced routinely in Ayurveda. Kasturyadi (Vayu) gutika is an important formulation containing LSS extract which is prescribed by Ayurvedic practitioners for Seeds of Lepidium sativum Linn. (garden cress). Authenticated By Post Graduate Teaching Department of Botany, Rashtra Sant, Tukdoji Maharaj...

Introduction

Pakistan is an agricultural country, and more than 70 of the population resides in rural areas. Those who have migrated into cities in search of a better life also have a rural background. Although the prevalence of common diseases (blood pressure, hypertension, heart attack, and obesity) is negligible, the farming community faces many bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases and has had its own indigenous practices remedies to combat these problems since prehistoric times. The most commonly...

Almond Prunus dulcis Seeds and Oxidative Stress

Arash Mirrahimi , Korbua Srichaikul , Amin Esfahani1'3 , Monica S. Banach , John LSievenpiper1'6, Cyril W.C. Kendall1 3 7 , David J.A. Jenkins1'2'3' 4 1 Clinical Nutrition & Risk Factor Modification Center, 2 Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 3 Department of Nutritional Sciences, 4Department of Medicine, 5 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada...

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

Coriander seed is known for its wide range of healing properties. In folk medicine, the seeds find use against intestinal parasites. Different studies have proven its efficacy as a larvicidal, bactericidal, and fungicidal. It is generally used in gastrointestinal complaints such as anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulence, griping pain, vomiting, sub-acid gastritis, and diarrhea, and in disorders resulting from delayed gastrointestinal transit, including anorexia and indigestion (Tatsuta & Iishi,...

Historical And Presentday Cultivation And Usage

Hazelnuts were and are still typically consumed as the whole nut (raw or roasted), or used as an ingredient in a variety of foods, especially in bakery products, snacks, chocolates, cereals, dairy products, salads, entrees, sauces, ice cream, and other dessert formulations. After cracking the hazelnut's hard shell, the hazelnut kernel may be consumed raw (with its skin) TABLE 73.1 Classification of Main Hazelnut Varieties According to their Final Use Fertile de Coutard Grada de Viseu Griffol...

Adverse Effects And Reactions Allergies And Toxicity

Erythrina alkaloids are known to possess paralysis potency and curare-like neuromuscular blocking activities thus, they cause collapse due to neuromuscular paralysis but without loss of consciousness (Reimann, 2007). Kittler and colleagues (2002) suggested that the alkaloids in Erythrina may alter GABAergic neurotransmission. GABA acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain, and abnormalities in its function are implicated in a number of diseases, including epilepsy, anxiety, and depression....

Antidiabetic Activities of Fenugreek Trigonella foenumgraecum Seeds

Sirajudheen Anwar1, Sandhya Desai1, Maryam Eidi2, Akram Eidi3 1 Department of Pharmacology, Prin. K.M. Kundanai College of Pharmacy, Cuffe Parade, Mumbai, India 2 Department of Biology, Varamin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran 3 Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran Introduction 469 Botanical Description 470 Historical Cultivation and Usage 470 Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 470 Applications to Health Promotion and Disease...

Adverse Effects

For essential elements that can be harmful in large amounts, comparison with UL data can be made to access risks for excessive intake. Of course, such risks can only occur when nuts and seeds are proven to be a rich nutritional source for the element in question (see above). Daily nut and seed consumption levels well above 300 g are needed to reach respective UL values for phosphorus, manganese, copper, nickel, zinc, and iron. However, 10 of the UL threshold will be exceeded by an average 10 50...

Historical Cultivation And Usage

Lepidium sativum thrives on any good light soil or moist loam, and grows at all elevations, throughout the year. Its seeds are sown thickly and covered until germination begins. Mature plants are pulled out, dried, and thrashed to obtain seeds for further germination (Wealth of India, 1998). Ethnopharmacologically, the seeds have been reported to cure breast cancer, nasal polyps, uterine tumors, wound healing, rheumatism, sexual debility, and gastrointestinal and menstrual disorders. In African...

Mechanisms Of Risk Reduction

There are several proposed mechanisms in which nut consumption confers its cardioprotective benefits lipid lowering, anti-inflammatory, improvements in vascular reactivity, anti-arrhythmic properties, and antioxidant effects. One of the first clinical trials that investigated the role of nut consumption in CV disease was performed by Sabate and colleagues, and evaluated the effects of implementing walnuts into a standard cholesterol-lowering diet. It found that subjects who consumed nuts in...

Vinood B Patel

Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Westminster, London, UK AMSTERDAM BOSTON HEIDELBERG LONDON NEW YORK OXFORD PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier 32 Jamestown Road, London NW1 7BY, UK 30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803, USA 525 B Street, Suite 1800, San Diego, CA 92101-4495, USA Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved No part of this...

And Disease Prevention

Biochemistry and histopathology of sickle cell crisis Sickle cell crisis refers to the symptoms experienced by people who are homozygous for the gene that codes for sickle hemoglobin (HbS). The disease is hereditary, and destroys red blood cells (RBC) by causing them to assume a rigid sickle shape. HbS occurs mainly in descendants from Africa, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and India, and is a defective variant of the normal hemoglobin (HbA), the protein in red blood cells that transports...

Applications For Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

Guava fruits are considered to be ethno-pharmacological medicines, and are commonly utilized to control diarrhea in children. Furthermore, tea made from the leaves of guava trees is used to reduce throat inflammation (Jaiarj et al., 1999), and the aqueous extracts from guava buds are known for their intense activity toward Salmonella, Serratia, and Staphylococcus, which are responsible for diarrhea (Jaiarj et al., 1999). Recently, a study has identified a GRP with antimicrobial activity against...

Beneficial Aspects of Custard Apple Annona squamosa L Seeds

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China Introduction 440 Botanical Description 440 Historical Cultivation and Usage 441 Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 441 Applications to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 441 Adverse Effects and Reactions (Allergies and Toxicity) 443 Summary Points 444 Acknowledgements 444 References 444 HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography MTT, Pam3Cys, trihydrochloride Ps,...

Disease Prevention

Passion fruit has an abundance of vitamins A and C, folic acid, niacin, calcium, iron, potassium, and other nutrients. The leaves have been used for centuries by Latin American tribes as a sedative or calming tonic. The fruit has been utilized in Brazil as a cardiac tonic and medicine, and, as the beverage maracuja grande, is often employed in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, whooping cough, and other recalcitrant coughs. Passion fruit plays an important role in South American traditional...

Indian Mustard Brassica juncea L Seeds in Health

Department of Plant Biology, University of Szeged, Hungary Introduction 671 Botanical Description 672 Historical Cultivation and Usage 672 Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 672 Applications to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 672 Adverse Effects and Reactions (Allergies and Toxicity) 675 Summary Points 675 References 676 GST, glutathione-S-transferase LDL, low density lipoprotein NADPH, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate VLDL, very low density lipoprotein

Allergies to Nuts and Seeds

Eigenmann Child Allergy Unit, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland Pathophysiology 138 Symptoms 138 Treatment and clinical management 139 Economic Impact of Food Allergy 140 Peanut allergy 140 Hazelnut allergy 141 Other Tree Nut Allergies (Almond, Walnut, Pecan, Macadamia, Brazil, Cashew, Pistachio, etc.) 141 Sesame allergy 141 Lupine allergy 142 Other Seed Allergies (Sunflower, Mustard, Quinoa, Buckwheat, etc.) 142

Antibacterial Potential of Neem Tree Azadirachta indica A Juss Seeds

Shyamapada Mandal1, Manisha Deb Mandal2 1 Department of Microbiology, Bacteriology and Serology Unit, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India 2 Department of Physiology and Biophysics, KPC Medical College and Hospital, Jadavpur, Kolkata, India Introduction 803 Botanical Description 804 Historical Cultivation and Usage 805 Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 805 Applications to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 805 Adverse Effects and Reactions (Allergies and Toxicity) 809...

Climbing Black Pepper Piper guineense Seeds as an Antisickling Remedy

Obodozie1, Uford S. Inyang1, Mujitaba S. Abubakar2, Magaji Garba3 1 Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Quality Control, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Garki, Abuja, Nigeria 2 Department of Pharmacognosy and Drug Development, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria 3 Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria Introduction 333 Botanical Description 334 Chemical constituents...

Health Benefits of Garden Cress Lepidium sativum Linn Seed Extracts

Badole2, Subhash L. Bodhankar2 1 Department of Chemistry, J. L Chaturvedi College of Pharmacy, MIDC, Nagpur, India 2 Department of Pharmacology, Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Maharashtra, India Introduction 521 Botanical Description 522 Historical Cultivation and Usage 522 Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 522 Applications to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 523 Adverse Effects and Reactions (Allergies and Toxicity) 524 Summary...

Therapeutic Use of Caper Capparis spinosa Seeds

Tzi-Bun Ng1, Sze-Kwan Lam1, Randy C.F. Cheung1, Jack H. Wong1, He-Xiang Wang2, Patrick H.K. Ngai3, Xiujuan Ye1, Yau-Sang Chan1, Evandro F. Fang1 1 School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China 2State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, Department of Microbiology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China 3School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China Introduction 279 Botanical...

References

W., Al-Ali, A., & Al-Jedah, J. (2000). Aflatoxin contamination in edible nuts imported in Qatar. Food Control, 11, 157-160. Bankole, S. A., Ogunsanwo, B. M., Osho, A., & Adewuyi, G. O. (2006). Fungal contamination and aflatoxin B1 of egusi melon seeds in Nigeria. Food Control, 17, 814-818. Cariello, N. F., Cui, L., & Skopek, T. R. (1994). In vitro mutational spectrum of aflatoxin B, in the human hypo-xanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene. Cancer Research,...

Other Seed Allergies Sunflower Mustard Quinoa Buckwheat

In theory, each individual seed could be responsible for an allergic reaction, but in practice few cases have been published. Recently, two cases of sunflower seed allergy have been reported in children with positive oral challenge. The first patient responded positively to the food challenge at a low dose (2 g), but the second ingested 14 g and developed a severe systemic reaction, requiring treatment with epinephrine (Caubet et al., 2010). The same report outlined a case of an anaphylactic...

TABLE 42 Fatty Acid Composition of Total Fatty Acid of Common Consumed Nuts

Walnut Pistachio Filbert Pine Nut Almond Macadamia 16 0 9.6 0.3 16 1n-7 0.2 0.1 17 0 0.1 0.0 18 0 3.9 0.2 18 1 40.7 1.4 18 2n-6 44.7 1.4 18 3n-3 0.8 0.2 SFA 13.7 0.4 MUFA 40.9 1.4 PUFA 45.4 1.5 8.8 0.7 19.4 6.8 71.7 7.5 10.5 3.5 0.8 0.3 0.1 0.0 1.4 0.1 53.4 1.8 16.8 0.1 1.0 0.8 7.3 0.2 5.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 2.6 0.3 1.5 0.1 63.2 1.3 26.9 1.3 8.6 0.4 64.2 1.5 27.1 1.2 4.3 0.3 57.1 0.4 2.5 0.2 0.3 0.1 14.7 0.3 7.7 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.0 3.4 0.0 17.7 0.5 55.7 0.5 15.2 0.3 11.1 0.2 18.0 0.6 70.9 0.7...

Applications In Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

In Africa, bambara groundnut is generally cultivated by women on small plots. Production is primarily at subsistence level, and only the surplus is sold. There has been relatively little research on the BG crop, and this has mainly concentrated on characterization of landraces and their testing to assess the potential yield of components and yield-related characters (Adeniji et al., 2008). The contribution of BG crops to improving human health can be classified into two broad categories. First,...

Summary Points

Lepidium sativum is a herbal plant known by different names, such as Al-Thuffa and garden cress, in different communities, with a wide spectrum of usage both medically and non-medically. The effects of the plants are through their different anatomical parts, such as the green leaves, sprouts, shoots, and particularly seeds. Seeds are consumed fresh and dry with an outer layer of mucilage, which is possibly an important factor in accelerating fracture healing in rabbits. Fracture-healing...

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention Adverse Effects And Reactions

Seeds from sweet almonds are a valuable food source. They contain very low levels of carbohydrates, and may therefore be made into flour for low-carbohydrate diets or for patients suffering from diabetes mellitus or any other form of glycosuria. Almond flour is gluten-free, and is therefore a popular ingredient in cookery in place of wheat flour for gluten-sensitive people, and people with wheat allergies and celiac disease. In addition, almonds are a rich source of riboflavin, magnesium,...

Pumpkin Mechanism In Ethiopian Traditional Drug Drug

Bombardelli, E., & Morazoni, P. (1997). Cucurbita pepo L. Fitoterapia, 68, 291-302. Brawley, O. W., & Barnes, S. T. (2001). Potential agents for prostate cancer chemoprevention. Epidemiologic Reviews, 23, 168-172. Caili, F., Huan, S., & Quanhong, L. (2006). A review on pharmacological activities and utilization technologies of pumpkin. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 61, 73-80. Desta, B. (1995). Ethiopian traditional herbal drugs. Part I Studies on the toxicity and therapeutic...

Olive Olea europaea L Seeds From Chemistry to Health Benefits

1 Department of Biotechnology, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Pakistan 2 Institute of Biochemistry, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria Introduction 848 Botanical Description 848 Historical Cultivation and Usage 848 Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 849 Applications to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 849 Health promoting chemical components 849 Health benefits and disease prevention 850 Antioxidant activity 850 Cardiovascular disease 851 Immune function 851 Gastrointestinal...

Medicinal Constituents Of Seeds

The chemical constituents of seeds are responsible for their medicinal properties. Most seeds have a certain general chemical composition. All seeds contain reserve foods for the nourishment of the embryo during germination. These foods may be present in the endosperm or the perisperm, or in both, or they may be present in the embryo itself either in the cotyledons or in the axis. Sometimes, as in linseed, the food is found in both endosperm and cotyledons. The reserve foods present are usually...

Application To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

In alternative and complementary systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Siddha, Amchi, Chinese, and aromatherapy, plants are used to combat several diseases and pathological conditions. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy, with less (or no) toxicity and less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Sea buckthorn seed oil combines high levels of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids (ALA, LA, oleic, palmitoleic, and vaccenic), natural antioxidants and vitamins (E, K), carotenoids, and...

Biological Activities of Eugenia jambolana Family Myrtaceae Seeds

Department of Pharmacology, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt Introduction 685 Botanical Description 686 Historical Cultivation and Usage 686 Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 687 Applications to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 687 Antidiabetic activity 688 Hepatoprotective effect 689 Anticancer activity 689 Adverse Effects and Reactions (Allergies and Toxicity) 689 Summary Points 690 References 690 CNRS, National Centre of Scientific Research IMRA, Malagasy Institute of...

Rehnumay Aqaqeer

K., Agrawal, S. S., Srivastava, S., & Saxena, R. (2008). Oculohypotensive effects of Foeniculum vulgare in experimental models of glaucoma. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 52, 77 83. Usage and Significance of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Seeds Ahmad, M., Hussain, S. A., Zubair, M., & Rab, A. (2004). Effect of different sowing seasons and row spacing on seed production of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 7, 1144 1147....

Aniseeds Pimpinella anisum L in Health and Disease

Department of Home Science, Sri Sathya Sai University, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India Introduction 175 Botanical Description 176 Nutrient composition 176 Chemical composition 176 Historical Cultivation and Usage 176 Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 176 Applications to health promotion and disease prevention 177 Secretolytic and expectorant effects 177 Antibacterial and antifungal effects 178 Local anesthetic activity 178 Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects 178 Sedative effect 180 Adverse...

Use of Jackfruit Artocarpus heterophyllus Seeds in Health

Industrial Unit, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria Introduction 677 Botanical Description 678 Historical Cultivation and Usage 678 Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 678 Applications to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 679 Antimicrobial activity 679 Adverse Effects and Reactions (Allergies and Toxicity) 682 Summary Points 682 References 682 a2-HSG, a2-HS glycoprotein AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome CD, cluster of...

Botanical Description

Endocarp Coconut

The coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) (Figure 43.1) is an important member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) (Harries, 1978). The coconut palm can have a long life-span of up to TABLE 43.1 Nutritional Composition of Coconut Fruit Carbohydrates Sugars Dietary fiber Fat monounsaturated polyunsaturated Protein 1481 kJ (354 kcal) 15.23 g 6.23 g 9.0 g 33.49 g 29.70 g 1.43 g 0.37 g 3g TABLE 43.2 Proximate Vitamin and Mineral Content of Coconut Fruit Thiamine (Vit. B-Riboflavin (Vit. B2) Niacin (Vit....

Applications To Heath Promotion And Disease Prevention

Kolaviron and drug-induced hepatotoxicity Garcinia kola seeds and seed extracts have shown to be of benefit to health, and relevant in the management and chemoprevention of life-threatening diseases. The effects range from antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities to strong hepatoprotective properties. In this section, the focus will be on the experimental evidence and biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying the hepatoprotective properties...

Seeds As Herbal Drugs And A Source Of Medicinally Active Compounds

This section deals with the seeds used, either in crude form or as preparations, or as a source of medicinally active natural products other than fixed oils and fatty acids, in traditional and contemporary medicine. These seeds show diverse medicinal actions due mainly to the TABLE 2.1 Seeds as a Source of Medicinally Important Fixed Oils TABLE 2.1 Seeds as a Source of Medicinally Important Fixed Oils TABLE 2.1 Seeds as a Source of Medicinally Important Fixed Oils continued gum, sucrose,...

Mosquito Species

Annona crassiflora A. glabra A. squamosa Pterodon polygalaeflorus Senna occidentalis Dorstenia sp. Ammi visnaga Annona squamosa Apium graveolens Carum carvi Carum carvi Apium graveolens Pimpinella anisum Argemone mexicana Azadiracta indica Azadiracta indica (neem seed kernel) Azadiracta indica Melia azedarach Azadiracta indica Momordica charantia Ricinus communis Azadiracta indica Pongamia glabra Carica papaya Chenopodium spp. Cinnamomum camphora Citrus reticulate Coriander sativum Petroselinum...

Seed Components And Their Role In Cancer Prevention

Phenolic compounds or polyphenols constitute one of the most numerous and widely distributed groups of substances in the plant kingdom. They are formed to protect the plant from photosynthetic stress, reactive oxygen species, wounds, and herbivores. In legumes and cereals, the main polyphenols are flavonoids, phenolic acids, and tannins. Flavonoids are important in contributing flavor, color, and taste, and are also central to the normal growth, development, and defense of a plant. Several in...

Triacylglycerol And Fatty Acid Composition In Nuts And Seeds

In total, 264 TG species were identified and quantified using HPLC APCI-MS in 26 plant oils important in different branches of the nutrition and cosmetic industries. Identified TGs were composed of 28 FAs with 6 26 carbon atoms and 0 4 double bonds Table 5.1 . ECNs of all identified TGs ranged from 32 to 58. Only six TGs PLP, OOO, OOP, POP, SOO and SOP were detected in all samples. The number ofTGs Table 5.2 ranged from simple almond oil and cacao butter containing only 25 TGs to very complex...

TABLE 22 Seeds as Herbal Drugs and a Source of Medicinally Active Compounds

Strychnos ignatti Loganiaceae Physostigma venenosum Leguminosae Alkaloids, viz. strychnine, brucine, vomicine, a-colubrine, pseudostrychnine, chlorogenic acid Alkaloids, viz. strychnine, brucine Alkaloids, viz. physostigmine, eseramine, physovenine, 8-norphysostigmine, isophysostigmine Alkaloids, viz. atropine, L-hyoscyamine, hyoscine, belladonine, scopoletin Alkaloids, viz. hyoscine, atropine, l-hyoscyamine Bitter stomachic, tonic, central nervous system stimulant in cardiac failure, as...

Total Amounts Of Antioxidants In Nuts And Seeds

Our analyses Table 6.2 demonstrate that walnuts contain massive amounts of antioxidants about 20 mmol antioxidants per 100 g. Pecans, chestnuts, peanuts, pistachios, and sunflower TABLE 6.2 Antioxidants in Nuts and Seeds TABLE 6.2 Antioxidants in Nuts and Seeds Manufacturer Product Label Country of Origin Chest nuts, with pellicle purchased TABLE 6.2 Antioxidants in Nuts and Seeds continued TABLE 6.2 Antioxidants in Nuts and Seeds continued TABLE 6.2 Antioxidants in Nuts and Seeds continued...

Historical Aspects Of The Use Of Nuts And Seeds For Health In Pakistan

History relates the similarity in the cultural heritage of Pakistan and India. The Materia medica of the Greco-Arab Unani system that is utilized in the subcontinent contains an inventory of Abutilon indicum L. Amomum sabulatum Roxb. Anethum graveolens L.or Anethum sowa Roxb. Apium graveolens L. Areca catechu L. Artemisia parviflora Roxb. Avena fatua L. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Bergenia stracheyi H amp T. Engl. Brassica compestris L. Brassica juncea L. Butea monosperma Lam. Taub Cannabis...