Historical Cultivation And Usage

Cannabis sativa is among the earliest plants thought to be cultivated by humans. Archeological findings indicate that it has been cultivated for fibers (strings, textiles, ropes, and paper) in China since 4000 BC (Li & Lin, 1974), and in India about 3000 years ago, where it was used as an analgesic, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, antispasmodic, appetite stimulant, digestive, diuretic, and aphrodisiac, among other uses (Aldrich, 1997). Cannabis was considered sacred in Tibet,...

Adverse Effects And Reactions Allergies And Toxicity

There are only limited reports of adverse effects following the consumption of black soybean and black soybean food products. As the black soybean has similar characteristics and nutritional content to yellow soybean, it is probably valid to use research conducted on yellow soybean allergies and toxicity as a substitute. Soybean contains a trypsin inhibitor and phytic acid. Trypsin inhibitors have the potential to derange protein digestion, leading to chronic deficiencies in amino acid uptake....

Adverse Effects And Reactions Allergies And Toxicities

A toxicity study of SA was conducted in albino rats at acute and subchronic levels. SAE from ripe nuts was administered orally at sub-lethal doses (250 mg, 500 mg, and 750 mg kg body weight) for 7 days, and two sub-lethal doses (83.3 mg and 166.6 mg kg body weight) were administered for 21 days. Acute and subchronic studies showed adverse effects on the glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase activities of the...

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the CNPq (the Brazilian Government Organization for grant aid and fellowship to Brazilian researchers), CNPq Ministry of Agriculture, the Araucaria Foundation, PPSUS Brazilian Ministry of Health, Parana Fund SETI and CAPES (Co-ordination for Formation of High Level Professionals) for the financial support for projects on mycotoxins. The authors also thank the CNPq for the productivity fellowships granted to E.Y.S. Ono, E.Y. Hirooka, and M.A. Ono. A special thanks to CAST (the...

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

Buckwheat is considered to have beneficial health effects on the intestinal tract, to favor cerebral circulation, to bind cholesterol, and to support vision. It is also used for weakness of the pancreas and thyroid glands, as well as nephritis. Buckwheat contains rutin, which strengthens capillary walls, reducing hemorrhaging in people with high blood pressure and increasing microcirculation in people with chronic venous insufficiency. Buckwheat substitutes for potato and bread in diabetic...

Conclusions

All the nuts, seeds, currants, and Santalum kernels contained a low level of saturated fatty acids and a high level of unsaturated fatty acids. A high content of 18 3n-3 was found in sativa, walnut, Ribes berries, and Ranunculaceae variable levels of 18 3n-3 were also detected in the Scrophulariaceae, Onagraceae, and Boraginaceae plant families and 18 4n-3 was detected in Ribes berries and Boraginaceae species. Meanwhile, T. kirilowii Maxim and pomegranate seeds were rich in CLNA, while...

Historical Usage

Gallnuts have historically been used mainly for tanning leather, and in the manufacture of inks and dyes. Medicinal uses of gallnuts were known by the ancient Greeks (500 BC) Hippocrates mentioned them as ingredients for the treatment of certain diseases. During an excavation in 1961, 3.5 kg of carbonized oak galls were recovered in a shop of ancient Herculaneum. Gallnuts of Quercus infectoria Oliv. These oak galls, found in a container called a dolia and preserved by the eruption of Mount...

Presentday Cultivation And Usage

Gallnuts (Figure 60.2) are used for treatment mainly in China, India, and The Far East. They are applied in the form of decoctions, infusions, ointments, or powders for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. A decoction of gallnuts is generally employed as an astringent gargle, wash, or injection. Gargling a decoction or infusion of gallnuts is very effective for tonsillitis, stomatitis, and relaxing the throat, while local application of boiled and bruised gallnuts to the skin cures swelling...

Oxidative Stress

Free radicals and other reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) are formed as a result of normal cellular oxidative metabolic reactions. Such molecules are also formed as a consequence of diseases (e.g., inflammations), and from tobacco smoke, environmental pollutants, natural food constituents, drugs, ethanol, and radiation. If not quenched by antioxidants, these highly reactive compounds will react non-enzymatically with, and potentially alter, the structure and function of several...

Total Amounts Of Antioxidants In Foods

We have recently performed a systematic measurement of the total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods. This novel antioxidant food table enables us to calculate the total antioxidant content of complex diets, to identify and rank potentially good sources of antioxidants, and to provide the research community with comparable data on the relative antioxidant capacity of a wide range of foods. There is not necessarily a direct relationship between the antioxidant content of a food sample...

Toxicological Effects In Humans

Nowadays there is increasing concern about aflatoxin involvement in human diseases, based on epidemiological evidence and several studies on animals. The most prominent means of humans' exposure to aflatoxins is through ingestion of contaminated food, but other routes, such as inhalation and contact, should be considered. Exposure by inhalation can result from handling contaminated materials, or from airborne fungal components. The disease resulting from exposure to aflatoxins, called...

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention Composition of chia

The lipid, protein, fiber, and antioxidant contents of chia are significantly higher than in many other crops. Although chia seed serves mainly as a source of omega-3 fatty acids, it also contains a number of other components that are important for human nutrition. The oil content of chia seed ranges between 30 and 34 , and it contains one of the highest percentages of a-linolenic acid known (62 64 ). Tests by independent laboratories of seed coming from numerous sources (Coates, 2009,...

Bitter Kola Garcinia koia Seeds and Health Management Potential

1 Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria 2 Department of Food Technology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria Introduction 213 Botanical Description 214 Historical Cultivation and Usage 215 Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 215 Applications to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 215 Antibiological activity 215 Preliminary characterization of bioactive components 216 Some aspects of nutritional composition 218 Future prospects and...

Botanical Description

Parinari curatellifolia (Family Chrysobalancaceae, Order Malphighiales, Class Magnoliopsida Figures 91.1, 91.2) is very variable in size and shape, ranging from a small shrub of 3 m tall to a large tree of up to 15 20 m tall. It is an evergreen, with pale-green spreading foliage forming a dense roundish to mushroom-shaped crown. The tree has a single bare stem, with 768 dark gray, deeply fissured bark. The wood is light brown to yellowish-red, with tensile strength varying from location to...

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease

Seeds, leaves, and other anatomical parts of vetch are a rich source of biologically active phenolic compounds. HPLC analysis of a crude extract of vetch (Vicia sativa) seeds revealed the presence of the phenolic acids such as vanillic, caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids (after basic hydrolysis), as well as quercetin and kaempferol (after acid hydrolysis) (Amarowicz et al., 2008). A new flavonol glycoside, quercetin 3-O-galactosyl-(1 6)-glucoside, has been isolated from the...

Historical Background And Usage

According to descriptions in Ayurveda, C. bonduc is used to cure various diseases. In Sushruta Samhita it is described as kantakikaranja, a potherb for producing heat, and curing swellings and elephantiasis. According to Bhaavaprakaash, the fruits of the plant are considered to be hot, and can cure vomiting, biliousness, parasitic infections, piles, skin diseases, and urinary disorders. Commercial cultivation has not, so far, been reported in any of the archives, but seeds of C. bonduc were...

Prevalence Of Allergy

Allergies, and in particular food-related allergies, are a growing entity in the industrialized population. The true prevalence and risk factors are still not well known. Prevalence has different patterns in different age groups, and recent meta-analysis reported occurrences varying from 3 to 35 (Rona et al., 2007). Of note, the number of correctly diagnosed food allergies largely differs from the number of perceived reactions to any food in population-based studies (Zuidmeer et al., 2008)....

What Is An Allergic Reaction

An allergy is an abnormal, inappropriate, exaggerated reaction of the immune system subsequent to contact with a foreign protein. These foreign proteins, usually well tolerated by the healthy population, are known as allergens. The term hypersensitivity is often used as a synonym for allergy. As an example, immune reactions related to foods require an initial encounter with the antigen. The initial sensitization procedure to a food allergen occurs mostly via the gut mucosa, or by skin contact....

Economic Impact Of Food Allergy

Very little is known regarding the economic impact of food allergy. However, it is evident that food allergy induces a cost related to individual health expenses, as well as indirect costs to families and the community. A recent study by a British and Dutch team reported on a questionnaire to measure the cost of food allergy in Europe. They compared the answers given in questionnaires from households with or without a food-allergic member. Annual direct costs were 1000 higher, indirect costs...

Allergies To Nuts And Seeds

The peanut is the seed of an annual plant from the Leguminosae family. More than 2.4 billion pounds of peanuts are consumed each year in the USA. They are eaten fresh, roasted, or boiled. Peanuts account, with other nuts, for the majority of severe allergic reactions. Peanuts have been implicated in the majority (59 ) of deaths due to anaphylaxis in individuals with fatal reactions data documented by the Food Anaphylaxis Fatality Registry in the United States (Sicherer et al., 2003). These...

Adverse Effect And Reactions Allergies And Toxicity

GSE has been shown to be non-toxic at quantities many times greater than the recommended dosages. Even when taken daily, GSE seldom produces a significant allergic reaction. However, those individuals who suffer from allergy to citrus fruits should exercise caution in the use of GSE. Studies on commercial preparations have demonstrated that GSE may contain the compound benzalkonium chloride, which is a synthetic antimicrobial commonly used in disinfectants and cleaning products. From this, it...

Dietary Compounds With The Ability To Induce Production Of Endogenous Antioxidants

An important antioxidant defense mechanism involves detoxification enzymes such as members of the glutathione S-transferase family, g-glutamyl cysteine synthetase, and NAD(P) H quinone reductase (quinone reductase) (Talalay 2000). These enzymes are generally referred to as phase 2 enzymes because they catalyze conversion of xenobiotics, mutagenic metabolites, or their precursors to compounds that are more readily excreted. It is believed that 57 if benign or non-damaging plant compounds induce...

Potential Health Effects Of Dietary Antioxidants

The highly reactive and bioactive phytochemical antioxidants are postulated to in part explain the protective effect of plant foods. An optimal mixture of different antioxidants with complementary mechanisms of action and different redox potentials is postulated to work in synergistic interactions. Still, it is not likely that all antioxidant-rich food items are good sources, or that all antioxidants provided in the diet are bioactive. Bioavailability differs greatly from one phytochemical to...

Dietary Compounds With The Ability To Directly Scavenge Or Neutralize Reactive Oxidants

In addition to the well-known antioxidants, vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium, there are numerous other antioxidants in dietary plants. Carotenoids are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom, and as many as 1000 naturally occurring variants have been identified. At least 60 carotenoids occur in fruit and vegetables commonly consumed by humans (Lindsay & Astley, 2002). Besides the provitamin A carotenoids, a- and P-carotene, and P-cryptoxanthin, lyco-pene and the hydroxy-carotenoids (xanthophylls)...

Antioxidant Activity of Longan Dimocarpus Longan L Seed Extract

Kai Wang1'3, Ying Liang2, Ye Zhang3, Xianghui Yi3, Hengshan Wang1, Yingming Pan1 1 School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin, China 2 Department of Environmental Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, China 3 Department of Chemistry and Engineering Technology, Guilin Normal College, Guilin, China Introduction 705 Botanical Description 706 Historical Cultivation and Usage 706 Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 706 Applications to...

The Presentday Use Of Nuts And Seeds For Health Promotion And Disease Prevention In Pakistan

In Pakistan, the majority of the rural population is catered for by Unani herbal practitioners, who prescribe single-herb or compound formulations to alleviate disease or health problems. About three-fourths of the population depend upon folklore and the tradition system of medicine, due to both the high costs and the side effects of allopathic medicines, which have encouraged the manufacture of Greco-Arab and Ayurvedic medicines (Shinwari & Khan, 2000). Most of the people in rural areas...

Introduction

Pakistan is an agricultural country, and more than 70 of the population resides in rural areas. Those who have migrated into cities in search of a better life also have a rural background. Although the prevalence of common diseases (blood pressure, hypertension, heart attack, and obesity) is negligible, the farming community faces many bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases and has had its own indigenous practices remedies to combat these problems since prehistoric times. The most commonly...

Almond Prunus dulcis Seeds and Oxidative Stress

Arash Mirrahimi , Korbua Srichaikul , Amin Esfahani1'3 , Monica S. Banach , John LSievenpiper1'6, Cyril W.C. Kendall1 3 7 , David J.A. Jenkins1'2'3' 4 1 Clinical Nutrition & Risk Factor Modification Center, 2 Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 3 Department of Nutritional Sciences, 4Department of Medicine, 5 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada...

Historical And Presentday Cultivation And Usage

Hazelnuts were and are still typically consumed as the whole nut (raw or roasted), or used as an ingredient in a variety of foods, especially in bakery products, snacks, chocolates, cereals, dairy products, salads, entrees, sauces, ice cream, and other dessert formulations. After cracking the hazelnut's hard shell, the hazelnut kernel may be consumed raw (with its skin) TABLE 73.1 Classification of Main Hazelnut Varieties According to their Final Use Fertile de Coutard Grada de Viseu Griffol...

Antidiabetic Activities of Fenugreek Trigonella foenumgraecum Seeds

Sirajudheen Anwar1, Sandhya Desai1, Maryam Eidi2, Akram Eidi3 1 Department of Pharmacology, Prin. K.M. Kundanai College of Pharmacy, Cuffe Parade, Mumbai, India 2 Department of Biology, Varamin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran 3 Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran Introduction 469 Botanical Description 470 Historical Cultivation and Usage 470 Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 470 Applications to Health Promotion and Disease...

Adverse Effects

For essential elements that can be harmful in large amounts, comparison with UL data can be made to access risks for excessive intake. Of course, such risks can only occur when nuts and seeds are proven to be a rich nutritional source for the element in question (see above). Daily nut and seed consumption levels well above 300 g are needed to reach respective UL values for phosphorus, manganese, copper, nickel, zinc, and iron. However, 10 of the UL threshold will be exceeded by an average 10 50...

Mechanisms Of Risk Reduction

There are several proposed mechanisms in which nut consumption confers its cardioprotective benefits lipid lowering, anti-inflammatory, improvements in vascular reactivity, anti-arrhythmic properties, and antioxidant effects. One of the first clinical trials that investigated the role of nut consumption in CV disease was performed by Sabate and colleagues, and evaluated the effects of implementing walnuts into a standard cholesterol-lowering diet. It found that subjects who consumed nuts in...

Vinood B Patel

Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Westminster, London, UK AMSTERDAM BOSTON HEIDELBERG LONDON NEW YORK OXFORD PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier 32 Jamestown Road, London NW1 7BY, UK 30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803, USA 525 B Street, Suite 1800, San Diego, CA 92101-4495, USA Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved No part of this...

And Disease Prevention

Biochemistry and histopathology of sickle cell crisis Sickle cell crisis refers to the symptoms experienced by people who are homozygous for the gene that codes for sickle hemoglobin (HbS). The disease is hereditary, and destroys red blood cells (RBC) by causing them to assume a rigid sickle shape. HbS occurs mainly in descendants from Africa, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and India, and is a defective variant of the normal hemoglobin (HbA), the protein in red blood cells that transports...

Applications For Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

Guava fruits are considered to be ethno-pharmacological medicines, and are commonly utilized to control diarrhea in children. Furthermore, tea made from the leaves of guava trees is used to reduce throat inflammation (Jaiarj et al., 1999), and the aqueous extracts from guava buds are known for their intense activity toward Salmonella, Serratia, and Staphylococcus, which are responsible for diarrhea (Jaiarj et al., 1999). Recently, a study has identified a GRP with antimicrobial activity against...

Beneficial Aspects of Custard Apple Annona squamosa L Seeds

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China Introduction 440 Botanical Description 440 Historical Cultivation and Usage 441 Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 441 Applications to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 441 Adverse Effects and Reactions (Allergies and Toxicity) 443 Summary Points 444 Acknowledgements 444 References 444 HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography MTT, Pam3Cys, trihydrochloride Ps,...

Disease Prevention

Passion fruit has an abundance of vitamins A and C, folic acid, niacin, calcium, iron, potassium, and other nutrients. The leaves have been used for centuries by Latin American tribes as a sedative or calming tonic. The fruit has been utilized in Brazil as a cardiac tonic and medicine, and, as the beverage maracuja grande, is often employed in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, whooping cough, and other recalcitrant coughs. Passion fruit plays an important role in South American traditional...

Indian Mustard Brassica juncea L Seeds in Health

Department of Plant Biology, University of Szeged, Hungary Introduction 671 Botanical Description 672 Historical Cultivation and Usage 672 Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 672 Applications to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 672 Adverse Effects and Reactions (Allergies and Toxicity) 675 Summary Points 675 References 676 GST, glutathione-S-transferase LDL, low density lipoprotein NADPH, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate VLDL, very low density lipoprotein

Antibacterial Potential of Neem Tree Azadirachta indica A Juss Seeds

Shyamapada Mandal1, Manisha Deb Mandal2 1 Department of Microbiology, Bacteriology and Serology Unit, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India 2 Department of Physiology and Biophysics, KPC Medical College and Hospital, Jadavpur, Kolkata, India Introduction 803 Botanical Description 804 Historical Cultivation and Usage 805 Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 805 Applications to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 805 Adverse Effects and Reactions (Allergies and Toxicity) 809...

Climbing Black Pepper Piper guineense Seeds as an Antisickling Remedy

Obodozie1, Uford S. Inyang1, Mujitaba S. Abubakar2, Magaji Garba3 1 Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Quality Control, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Garki, Abuja, Nigeria 2 Department of Pharmacognosy and Drug Development, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria 3 Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria Introduction 333 Botanical Description 334 Chemical constituents...

Health Benefits of Garden Cress Lepidium sativum Linn Seed Extracts

Badole2, Subhash L. Bodhankar2 1 Department of Chemistry, J. L Chaturvedi College of Pharmacy, MIDC, Nagpur, India 2 Department of Pharmacology, Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Maharashtra, India Introduction 521 Botanical Description 522 Historical Cultivation and Usage 522 Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 522 Applications to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 523 Adverse Effects and Reactions (Allergies and Toxicity) 524 Summary...

Therapeutic Use of Caper Capparis spinosa Seeds

Tzi-Bun Ng1, Sze-Kwan Lam1, Randy C.F. Cheung1, Jack H. Wong1, He-Xiang Wang2, Patrick H.K. Ngai3, Xiujuan Ye1, Yau-Sang Chan1, Evandro F. Fang1 1 School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China 2State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, Department of Microbiology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China 3School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China Introduction 279 Botanical...

References

W., Al-Ali, A., & Al-Jedah, J. (2000). Aflatoxin contamination in edible nuts imported in Qatar. Food Control, 11, 157-160. Bankole, S. A., Ogunsanwo, B. M., Osho, A., & Adewuyi, G. O. (2006). Fungal contamination and aflatoxin B1 of egusi melon seeds in Nigeria. Food Control, 17, 814-818. Cariello, N. F., Cui, L., & Skopek, T. R. (1994). In vitro mutational spectrum of aflatoxin B, in the human hypo-xanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene. Cancer Research,...

Other Seed Allergies Sunflower Mustard Quinoa Buckwheat

In theory, each individual seed could be responsible for an allergic reaction, but in practice few cases have been published. Recently, two cases of sunflower seed allergy have been reported in children with positive oral challenge. The first patient responded positively to the food challenge at a low dose (2 g), but the second ingested 14 g and developed a severe systemic reaction, requiring treatment with epinephrine (Caubet et al., 2010). The same report outlined a case of an anaphylactic...

TABLE 42 Fatty Acid Composition of Total Fatty Acid of Common Consumed Nuts

Walnut Pistachio Filbert Pine Nut Almond Macadamia 16 0 9.6 0.3 16 1n-7 0.2 0.1 17 0 0.1 0.0 18 0 3.9 0.2 18 1 40.7 1.4 18 2n-6 44.7 1.4 18 3n-3 0.8 0.2 SFA 13.7 0.4 MUFA 40.9 1.4 PUFA 45.4 1.5 8.8 0.7 19.4 6.8 71.7 7.5 10.5 3.5 0.8 0.3 0.1 0.0 1.4 0.1 53.4 1.8 16.8 0.1 1.0 0.8 7.3 0.2 5.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 2.6 0.3 1.5 0.1 63.2 1.3 26.9 1.3 8.6 0.4 64.2 1.5 27.1 1.2 4.3 0.3 57.1 0.4 2.5 0.2 0.3 0.1 14.7 0.3 7.7 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.0 3.4 0.0 17.7 0.5 55.7 0.5 15.2 0.3 11.1 0.2 18.0 0.6 70.9 0.7...

Applications In Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

In Africa, bambara groundnut is generally cultivated by women on small plots. Production is primarily at subsistence level, and only the surplus is sold. There has been relatively little research on the BG crop, and this has mainly concentrated on characterization of landraces and their testing to assess the potential yield of components and yield-related characters (Adeniji et al., 2008). The contribution of BG crops to improving human health can be classified into two broad categories. First,...

Summary Points

Lepidium sativum is a herbal plant known by different names, such as Al-Thuffa and garden cress, in different communities, with a wide spectrum of usage both medically and non-medically. The effects of the plants are through their different anatomical parts, such as the green leaves, sprouts, shoots, and particularly seeds. Seeds are consumed fresh and dry with an outer layer of mucilage, which is possibly an important factor in accelerating fracture healing in rabbits. Fracture-healing...

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention Adverse Effects And Reactions

Seeds from sweet almonds are a valuable food source. They contain very low levels of carbohydrates, and may therefore be made into flour for low-carbohydrate diets or for patients suffering from diabetes mellitus or any other form of glycosuria. Almond flour is gluten-free, and is therefore a popular ingredient in cookery in place of wheat flour for gluten-sensitive people, and people with wheat allergies and celiac disease. In addition, almonds are a rich source of riboflavin, magnesium,...

Pumpkin Mechanism In Ethiopian Traditional Drug Drug

Bombardelli, E., & Morazoni, P. (1997). Cucurbita pepo L. Fitoterapia, 68, 291-302. Brawley, O. W., & Barnes, S. T. (2001). Potential agents for prostate cancer chemoprevention. Epidemiologic Reviews, 23, 168-172. Caili, F., Huan, S., & Quanhong, L. (2006). A review on pharmacological activities and utilization technologies of pumpkin. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 61, 73-80. Desta, B. (1995). Ethiopian traditional herbal drugs. Part I Studies on the toxicity and therapeutic...

Olive Olea europaea L Seeds From Chemistry to Health Benefits

1 Department of Biotechnology, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Pakistan 2 Institute of Biochemistry, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria Introduction 848 Botanical Description 848 Historical Cultivation and Usage 848 Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 849 Applications to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 849 Health promoting chemical components 849 Health benefits and disease prevention 850 Antioxidant activity 850 Cardiovascular disease 851 Immune function 851 Gastrointestinal...

Medicinal Constituents Of Seeds

The chemical constituents of seeds are responsible for their medicinal properties. Most seeds have a certain general chemical composition. All seeds contain reserve foods for the nourishment of the embryo during germination. These foods may be present in the endosperm or the perisperm, or in both, or they may be present in the embryo itself either in the cotyledons or in the axis. Sometimes, as in linseed, the food is found in both endosperm and cotyledons. The reserve foods present are usually...

Application To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

In alternative and complementary systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Siddha, Amchi, Chinese, and aromatherapy, plants are used to combat several diseases and pathological conditions. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy, with less (or no) toxicity and less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Sea buckthorn seed oil combines high levels of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids (ALA, LA, oleic, palmitoleic, and vaccenic), natural antioxidants and vitamins (E, K), carotenoids, and...

Biological Activities of Eugenia jambolana Family Myrtaceae Seeds

Department of Pharmacology, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt Introduction 685 Botanical Description 686 Historical Cultivation and Usage 686 Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 687 Applications to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 687 Antidiabetic activity 688 Hepatoprotective effect 689 Anticancer activity 689 Adverse Effects and Reactions (Allergies and Toxicity) 689 Summary Points 690 References 690 CNRS, National Centre of Scientific Research IMRA, Malagasy Institute of...

Rehnumay Aqaqeer

K., Agrawal, S. S., Srivastava, S., & Saxena, R. (2008). Oculohypotensive effects of Foeniculum vulgare in experimental models of glaucoma. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 52, 77 83. Usage and Significance of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Seeds Ahmad, M., Hussain, S. A., Zubair, M., & Rab, A. (2004). Effect of different sowing seasons and row spacing on seed production of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 7, 1144 1147....

Aniseeds Pimpinella anisum L in Health and Disease

Department of Home Science, Sri Sathya Sai University, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India Introduction 175 Botanical Description 176 Nutrient composition 176 Chemical composition 176 Historical Cultivation and Usage 176 Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 176 Applications to health promotion and disease prevention 177 Secretolytic and expectorant effects 177 Antibacterial and antifungal effects 178 Local anesthetic activity 178 Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects 178 Sedative effect 180 Adverse...

Use of Jackfruit Artocarpus heterophyllus Seeds in Health

Industrial Unit, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria Introduction 677 Botanical Description 678 Historical Cultivation and Usage 678 Present-Day Cultivation and Usage 678 Applications to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention 679 Antimicrobial activity 679 Adverse Effects and Reactions (Allergies and Toxicity) 682 Summary Points 682 References 682 a2-HSG, a2-HS glycoprotein AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome CD, cluster of...

Applications To Heath Promotion And Disease Prevention

Commerce Durable

Kolaviron and drug-induced hepatotoxicity Garcinia kola seeds and seed extracts have shown to be of benefit to health, and relevant in the management and chemoprevention of life-threatening diseases. The effects range from antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities to strong hepatoprotective properties. In this section, the focus will be on the experimental evidence and biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying the hepatoprotective properties...

Seeds As Herbal Drugs And A Source Of Medicinally Active Compounds

This section deals with the seeds used, either in crude form or as preparations, or as a source of medicinally active natural products other than fixed oils and fatty acids, in traditional and contemporary medicine. These seeds show diverse medicinal actions due mainly to the TABLE 2.1 Seeds as a Source of Medicinally Important Fixed Oils TABLE 2.1 Seeds as a Source of Medicinally Important Fixed Oils TABLE 2.1 Seeds as a Source of Medicinally Important Fixed Oils continued gum, sucrose,...

Mosquito Species

Annona crassiflora A. glabra A. squamosa Pterodon polygalaeflorus Senna occidentalis Dorstenia sp. Ammi visnaga Annona squamosa Apium graveolens Carum carvi Carum carvi Apium graveolens Pimpinella anisum Argemone mexicana Azadiracta indica Azadiracta indica (neem seed kernel) Azadiracta indica Melia azedarach Azadiracta indica Momordica charantia Ricinus communis Azadiracta indica Pongamia glabra Carica papaya Chenopodium spp. Cinnamomum camphora Citrus reticulate Coriander sativum Petroselinum...

Seed Components And Their Role In Cancer Prevention

Phenolic compounds or polyphenols constitute one of the most numerous and widely distributed groups of substances in the plant kingdom. They are formed to protect the plant from photosynthetic stress, reactive oxygen species, wounds, and herbivores. In legumes and cereals, the main polyphenols are flavonoids, phenolic acids, and tannins. Flavonoids are important in contributing flavor, color, and taste, and are also central to the normal growth, development, and defense of a plant. Several in...

Triacylglycerol And Fatty Acid Composition In Nuts And Seeds

In total, 264 TG species were identified and quantified using HPLC APCI-MS in 26 plant oils important in different branches of the nutrition and cosmetic industries. Identified TGs were composed of 28 FAs with 6 26 carbon atoms and 0 4 double bonds Table 5.1 . ECNs of all identified TGs ranged from 32 to 58. Only six TGs PLP, OOO, OOP, POP, SOO and SOP were detected in all samples. The number ofTGs Table 5.2 ranged from simple almond oil and cacao butter containing only 25 TGs to very complex...

TABLE 22 Seeds as Herbal Drugs and a Source of Medicinally Active Compounds

Strychnos ignatti Loganiaceae Physostigma venenosum Leguminosae Alkaloids, viz. strychnine, brucine, vomicine, a-colubrine, pseudostrychnine, chlorogenic acid Alkaloids, viz. strychnine, brucine Alkaloids, viz. physostigmine, eseramine, physovenine, 8-norphysostigmine, isophysostigmine Alkaloids, viz. atropine, L-hyoscyamine, hyoscine, belladonine, scopoletin Alkaloids, viz. hyoscine, atropine, l-hyoscyamine Bitter stomachic, tonic, central nervous system stimulant in cardiac failure, as...

Total Amounts Of Antioxidants In Nuts And Seeds

Our analyses Table 6.2 demonstrate that walnuts contain massive amounts of antioxidants about 20 mmol antioxidants per 100 g. Pecans, chestnuts, peanuts, pistachios, and sunflower TABLE 6.2 Antioxidants in Nuts and Seeds TABLE 6.2 Antioxidants in Nuts and Seeds Manufacturer Product Label Country of Origin Chest nuts, with pellicle purchased TABLE 6.2 Antioxidants in Nuts and Seeds continued TABLE 6.2 Antioxidants in Nuts and Seeds continued TABLE 6.2 Antioxidants in Nuts and Seeds continued...

Historical Aspects Of The Use Of Nuts And Seeds For Health In Pakistan

History relates the similarity in the cultural heritage of Pakistan and India. The Materia medica of the Greco-Arab Unani system that is utilized in the subcontinent contains an inventory of Abutilon indicum L. Amomum sabulatum Roxb. Anethum graveolens L.or Anethum sowa Roxb. Apium graveolens L. Areca catechu L. Artemisia parviflora Roxb. Avena fatua L. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Bergenia stracheyi H amp T. Engl. Brassica compestris L. Brassica juncea L. Butea monosperma Lam. Taub Cannabis...