Dietary Reference Intakes Recommended Intakes for Individuals Continued

Vitamin B6, mg/d

Folate,

Vitamin B12, ^g/d

Pantothenic acid, mg/d

Biotin ^g/d

Choline", mg/d

Vitamin C, mg/d

Vitamin E', mg/d

Selenium, ^g/d

Life stage group

Infants

0.1*

65*

0.4*

1.7*

5*

125*

40*

4*

15*

0-6 mo

0.3*

80*

0.5*

1.8*

6*

150*

50*

5*

20*

7-12 mo

Children

0.5

150

0.9

2*

8*

200*

15

6

20

1-3 y

0.6

200

1.2

3*

12*

250*

25

7

30

4-8 y

Males

1.0

300

1.8

4*

20*

375*

45

11

40

9-13 y

1.3

400

2.4

3*

25*

550*

75

15

55

14-18 y

1.3

400

2.4

5*

30*

550*

90

15

55

19-30 y

1.3

400

2.4

5*

30*

550*

90

15

55

31-50 y

1.7

400

2.4g

5*

30*

550*

90

15

55

51-70 y

1.7

400

2.4g

5*

30*

550*

90

15

55

>70 y

Females

1.0

300

1.8

4*

20*

375*

45

11

40

9-13 y

1.2

400"

2.4

5*

25*

400*

65

15

55

14-18 y

1.3

400"

2.4

5*

30*

425*

75

15

55

19-30 y

1.3

400"

2.4

5*

30*

425*

75

15

55

31-50 y

1.5

400

2.4g

5*

30*

425*

75

15

55

51-70 y

1.5

400

2.4g

5*

30*

425*

75

15

55

>70 y

Pregnancy

1.9

600'

2.6

6*

30*

450*

80

15

60

<18 y

1.9

600'

2.6

6*

30*

450*

85

15

60

19-30 y

1.9

600'

2.6

6*

30*

450*

85

15

60

31-60 y

Lactation

2.0

500

2.8

7*

35*

550*

115

19

70

<18 y

2.0

500

2.8

7*

35*

550*

120

19

70

19-30 y

2.0

500

2.8

7*

35*

550*

120

19

70

31-50 y

dAs dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 |ig (mcg) food folate = 0.6 |ig of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 |ig of a supplement taken on an empty stomach.

dAs dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 |ig (mcg) food folate = 0.6 |ig of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 |ig of a supplement taken on an empty stomach.

e Although Als have been set for choline, there are few data to assess whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages.

fAs a-tocopherol. a-Tocopherol includes RRR-a-tocopherol, the only form of a-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2r-steroisomeric forms of a-tocopheral (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and rss-a-tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of a-tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, sss-a-tocopherol) also found in fortified foods and supplements.

^Because 10 to 30% of older people may malabsorb food-bound B12, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with B12 or a supplement containing B12.

Aln view of evidence linking folate intake with neural tube defects in the fetus, it is recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 pg (mcg) from supplements or fortified foods in addition to intake of food folate from a varied diet.

'It is assumed that women will continue consuming 400 |ig from supplements or fortified food until their pregnancy is confirmed and they enter prenatal care, which ordinarily occurs after the end of the periconceptional period—the critical time for formation of the neural tube.

Source: Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine—National Academy of Sciences.

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