Thyroid Factor

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Bromine is a halogen (atomic weight 79.9); bromides (BrX) and bromates (Br(Oi)X) are its salts.


Br bromine

Nutritional summary

Function: Bromine I Br I is used by eosinophilic leukocytes for immune defense. Food sources; Significant contributors to dietary intake grains, nuts, sea salt, seafood, and bread.

Requirements. No requirements have been established. Intakes around X mg/day appear to be adequate.

Deficiency: The consequences of chronically low intake are uncertain; growth retardation and insomnia have been suggested. People on chronic hemodialysis may be at increased risk,

Excessive intake: I ligh acute exposure, such as from swallowing excessively brominatcd pool water during swimming, or from inhalation, may cause bronchospasm, headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, fatigue, reduced exercise tolerance, and myalgia.

Dietary and other sources

Grains, nuts, seafood and sea sail are significant dietary sources. Brominatcd Hour is sometimes used for bread and other baked goods. Average Br intake in young Dutch adults has been reported to be 8 mg day (van Dokkum el at.. 1989).

Occasional sources may be Br-based sanitizing agents and brominatcd swimmingpool water.

Digestion and absorption

Dietary bromide is taken up into intestinal cnterocytes. presumably by chloride transporters (Prat et at.. IW|. Other bromide-carrying systems, such as ihc dual ton exchange mechanism of Na II' and CI 'HCO, . have been postulated for colon (Mahajan elat., 1996ยป.

Transport and cellular uptake

Blood circulation: Br is present in blood as bromide at a typical concentration in blood of 4 nig; I. Transport into cells may utilize systems for the uptake of other anions such as chloride-selective channels in neurons (Carpaneto et al.. [W)|. or the Na-K-2CI cotransporter in teeth t Rajendran et al.. 1995; Prostak and Skobc. 1996).

Storage lissue bromide concentrations are highest in lungs (Hou et at., 1997) and liver (0.1 H)1 mmol/kg dry weight; Laursen et at., 199X). Radiolabel experiments in rats indicated that a large portion of ingested bromide distributes to skin due to its large \olume (Pavelka et al.. 2000). Preferential storage of Br thyroid gland was not observed by some (Pavelka el at., 2000), but not by others (Vobecky et at., 1996). It has been suggested that, especially in a state of iodine depletion, iodine atoms are replaced by bromine atoms (Vobecky et at.. 1996).


Several hundred milligrams of bromide arc filtered daily in the kidney and are likely to be recovered via chloride transporters and other carriers discussed earlier. Information on the precise nature of renal reabsorption of bromide is very limited. Excretion with urine is the main route of bromine losses (Pav elka el at., 2000).


Little is known about mechanisms that might control the bromide content of the body. Function

Immune defense: A specilie peroxidase (ECL1L1.7) in the cytoplasmic granules of eosinophils uses Br to generate a halogenating oxidant (Wu et al.. 1999), which bromi-nates tyrosines and other amino acids in proteins (Henderson ei al.. 2001), This heme-enzyme is structurally distinct from myeloperoxidase in neutrophils, myelocytes, and macrophages. While other peroxidases generate hypochlorous acid (HOC1) as an oxidative reactant, eosinophil peroxidase produces hvpobromousacid in an analogous reaction:

HOBr potently brominates the deoxycytidine moieties of DNA and thereby disrupts replication of invading parasites (Henderson et al.. 2001). Additional corrosive reactants are generated by both eosinophils and neutrophils, including the interhalogen CIBr as shown in the following reaction scheme:

This very volatile interhalogen is readily hvdrolyzed:

Taurine can be brominated to the corrosive oxidant N-bromotaurine by reacting w ith hvpobromous acid or with hypochlorous acid in the presence of bromide, N-bromotaurine brominates the deoxycytidine in UNA at neutral pi I. while N-chlorotau-rine can do this only in an acid environment. These reactive molecules can also attack tissue proteins and DNA. Prolonged and excessive production due to inflammation has been tentatively linked to cancer and atherosclerosis.

Taurine CH,



Figure 11.22 Bromotaurine ,ind other bromi noted primary aminpi arc corrosive reactants that attack DNA



Figure 11.22 Bromotaurine ,ind other bromi noted primary aminpi arc corrosive reactants that attack DNA

Thyroid function; Br may compete wiili iodine for transport into the thyroid gland (Vobecky et a!.. 1 996 > and thereby mildly inhibit thyroid {unction (Velicky cud.. 1997). Sleep: Low Br status has been related to insomnia in patients whose hemodialysis constantly removes a significant portion of the bromide in blood.


Carpaneto A. Aceardi A. Pisciotta M. Oambale F. Chloride channels activated by hypo-

tonicity in N2A neuroblastoma cell line. Exp Brain Res 1999:124:193 9 Dhatluin C. Carlson JE. Zeng L. He C. Aggarwal AK. Zhou MM. Structure and ligand of a histone acetyltransferase hromodomain. Nature 1999:399:491 -6 van Dokkum W de Vos Rll. MuysT. Wesstra JA. Minerals and trace elements in total diets in The N etherlands. Br J Nutr 1989;61:7-15 Henderson JP. Bvun J. Williams MV. Mueller DM. MeCormick ML. Heinecke JW. Production of brominating intermediates by myeloperoxidase. A transhalogenation pathway for generating mutagenic nucleobascs during inllammalion. d Biol Chem 201)1:276:7867-75

Hou X, Chai Z. Chen Q. | Determination of tissue chlorine, bromine, and iodine concentrations in normal persons with neutron activation method], Chung-Una Yu long i Hsueh Tsa Chili [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine j 1997;31:288 91 Laursen J, Mil man N. Petersen HS, Mulvad G. Jul F.. Saahy II. Hansen JC. Elements in autopsy liver tissue samples from Greenlandic Itiuil and Danes. 1. Sulphur, chlorine, potassium and bromine measured bv X-ray fluorescence spectrometry../ Trace Elem Med Bio! 1998:12:109-14 Mahajan RJ. Baldwin ML. 1 larig JM, Ramaswamy K.. Dudeja PK Chloride transport in human proximal colonic apical membrane vesicles. Biochim Biophys tela 1946: 1280:12-18

Pavelka S, Babicky A. Vobecky M, Lener J. Bromide kinetics and distribution in the rat.

II Distribution of bromide in the body. Biol Trace Elem Res 2000:76:67- 74 Prat AG, Cunningham CC, Jackson GR Jr. Borkan SC. Wang Y. Ausiello DA, Cantiello HE Actin lilament organization is required for proper cAMP-dependent activation of CFTR. Am J Physiol 1494;277:CI 160 9 Prostak K.S. Skobe Z. Anion translocation through the enamel organ. Idv Dental Res 1946:10:238 44

Rajendran VM. Geibel J. Binder H.I. Chloride-dependent Na-H exchange. A novel mechanism of sodium transport in colonic crypts. J Biol Chem 1445:270:11051 4 Velicky J. Tit I bach M. Duskova J, Vobecky M. Strbak V. Raska I. Potassium bromide and the thyroid gland of the rat: morphology and imniunn histochemistry. R1A and IN A A analysis. Anatom Anzeiger 1997:179:421 31 Vobecky M, Babicky A. Lener J. Effect of increased bromide intake on iodine excretion in rats. Bio! Trace Elem Res 1996:55:215 19 Wu W, Chen Y. d*Avignon A. Ha/en SL. 3-Bromotvrosine and 3.5-dihromoiyrosinc arc major products of protein oxidation by eosinophil peroxidase: potential markers for eosinophil-dependent tissue injury in vivo. Biochem 1999;38:3538 4X

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