Recognizing and Dealing With Nut Allergies

Recognizing and Dealing With Nut Allergies

Protect your children, your family and your lives by reading this important book. Recognizing And Dealing With Nut Allergies There are dozens of different nut allergies that exist and each allergy requires different methods to treat it. Don't assume that your doctors will tell you if there's something wrong, you need to learn for yourself what the warning signs are, what the symptoms are and how to treat the allergy if in fact you or someone in your family has it.

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Peanut Allergies

Peanut allergies, which are among the most widespread food allergies, affect more than 1.5 million people in the United States. Symptoms of an allergic reaction may include a flushed face, hives, difficulty breathing or swallowing, vomiting, dizziness, chills, and loss of consciousness. The reaction of an allergic person to peanuts can be rapid and dramatic, sometimes causing death within minutes. The incidence of peanut allergies among children doubled in the United States between 1997 and 2002, prompting some schools to consider banning peanuts and peanut products from

Allergies To Nuts And Seeds

Peanut allergy The peanut is the seed of an annual plant from the Leguminosae family. More than 2.4 billion pounds of peanuts are consumed each year in the USA. They are eaten fresh, roasted, or boiled. Peanuts account, with other nuts, for the majority of severe allergic reactions. Peanuts have been implicated in the majority (59 ) of deaths due to anaphylaxis in individuals with fatal reactions data documented by the Food Anaphylaxis Fatality Registry in the United States (Sicherer et al., 2003). These life-threatening reactions can be elicited with only a small amount of protein allergen. Peanut allergy tends to manifest itself early in life, and only some affected patients will outgrow their allergy. The prevalence of peanut allergy is increasing rapidly. In 2002, 1.1 (i.e., 3 million) of the population of the United States reported hypersensitivity to peanut and tree nuts, while the proportion in 1997 was only 0.6 . The cause of this increasing prevalence is unknown, but may be...

Adverse Effects And Reactions Allergies And Toxicity

Our current understanding of almond allergy derives from what has been learned during the course of investigation of tree nuts as a collective group of allergenic foods. Prevalence of tree nut allergy in US and Europe is estimated at less than 1 of the adult population, but for those individuals affected the reaction can range from mild oral symptoms to severe anaphylaxis. Most research work on almond allergy has focused on the chemical identification of the allergenic proteins, and the effects of various food matrices on allergenicity (Tiwari et al., 2010). From a European and US regulatory viewpoint, analytical detection techniques of these proteins are needed to assess their presence as an ingredient in processed foods. Detection levels between 1 and 100 mg kg are of interest, and, slowly, analytical methods of these levels are being approached.

Management of Food Allergy

Avoidance of food allergens focuses on dietary avoidance but attention must also be paid to exposure via skin (e.g. peanut oil in cosmetics), mucous membranes (e.g. kissing) or inhalation (e.g. peanut dust, steaming milk or fish). Accidental reactions are common in children with peanut allergy, 50 reported reactions to peanuts despite avoidance over a 2-year period 38 . Individuals with a history of immediate allergic reactions, anaphylaxis, those with asthma, and those with allergy to foods typically associated with severe reactions (i.e., peanut, tree nuts, fish, shellfish) should be prescribed an epinephrine self-injector.

Specific Immunotherapy for Food Allergy with Mutated Proteins

Currently not recommended because of the allergic side effects of the therapy. A study by Oppenheimer et al. 17 showed that patients with peanut allergy tolerated an increased amount of peanuts following a rush immuno-therapy but an unacceptable rate of adverse systemic reactions occurred. In peanut-sensitized mice, the use of these modified proteins showed some protection however, alone it did not appear to be adequate for the treatment of peanut allergy 19 . However, using co-administration of modified peanut proteins and heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes as an adjuvant resulted in much better protection 19 . However, although modified proteins reduce the concern regarding activation of mast cells during immunotherapy, the safety of subcutaneous injections of heat-killed L. monocytogenes remains to be determined. Another promising approach appears to be the rectal administration of mutated proteins with heat-killed Escherichia coli as an adjuvant. This novel immunotherapeutic...

Management Dietary Elimination

The management of food allergy consists largely of elimination from the diet of the trigger food or foods. Elimination diets are used either for the diagnosis or the treatment of food intolerance, or for both. A diet may be associated with an improvement in symptoms because of intolerance to the food, a placebo effect, or the improvement may have been a coincidence. The degree of avoidance that is necessary to prevent symptoms is highly variable. Some patients are intolerant to minute traces of food, but others may be able to tolerate varying amounts. Strict avoidance and prevention of symptoms are the aims in certain instances, but in many cases it is unknown whether allowing small amounts of a food trigger could lead to either enhanced sensitivity or to the reverse, increasing tolerance. The duration required for dietary avoidance varies. For example, intolerance to food additives may last only a few years, whereas intolerance to peanuts is usually lifelong. Although food allergy is...

Drug Treatment in the Management of Food Allergy

A number of new approaches to the treatment of IgE-mediated food allergy are being examined. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study of monthly injections of a preparation of anti-IgE antibodies, treated patients with peanut allergy required significantly greater amounts of peanut protein to elicit allergic symptoms compared with control subjects. Another anti-IgE preparation has been used in the treatment of asthma but has not been evaluated in peanut allergy. Theoretically, anti-IgE antibody treatment should be protective against multiple food allergens, although it would have to be administered indefinitely. Other experimental approaches include a concoction of traditional Chinese herbs, injection of heat-killed Escherichia coli containing mutated recombinant peanut proteins Ara h 1 to Ara h 3, the use of immunostimulatory sequences, and the use of chimeric protein that could form complexes with allergen-specific IgE bound to mast cells and basophils.

Avoiding Foods to Prevent Allergy

Food allergy has been estimated to affect approximately 1 or 2 of infants and young children in Western Europe and is assumed to be increasing in line with other forms of atopic disease, although evidence to support this is limited. Some food allergies (e.g., peanut allergies) can persist into adulthood and in severe cases can be life threatening. Most confirmed food allergies are associated with a relatively limited range of foods, including cow milk, eggs, tree nuts, peanuts, soybeans, wheat, fish, and shellfish. The development of food allergy depends on several factors, including genetic factors and early exposure to allergenic proteins in the diet, food protein uptake and handling, and the development of tolerance. However, it remains uncertain whether sensitization occurs in utero and, if so, whether this occurrence is restricted to specific stages of gestation. There is little evidence to support any benefit of avoiding specific foods during pregnancy to reduce the risk of...

Other Seed Allergies Sunflower Mustard Quinoa Buckwheat

In summary, allergies to nuts and seeds are among the most common allergies seen in the Western world. They are characterized by symptoms with a high potential for severity (IgE mediated symptoms), which merit an appropriate diagnostic work-up and require measures to prevent subsequent accidental reactions. Allergies to nuts and seeds are usually long-lasting, and are currently incurable. Continuous introduction of new foods into the Western diet will inevitably lead to new seed and nut allergies.

Classification of Food Allergy Disorders

Peanut 15 patients with symptomatic peanut allergy and 16 patients who were sensitized but tolerant. Ten of these 16 patients had 'outgrown' their allergy. Eight peptides representing the immunodominant sequential epitopes on Ara h 1, 2 and 3 synthesized on SPOTs membranes and immunolabeled with individual patients' sera Regardless of their peanut-specific IgE levels, at least 93 of symptomatic, but only 12.5 of tolerant patients, recognized 1 of the 'predictive' epitopes on Ara h 1 or 2. The cumulative IgE binding to the peanut peptides was significantly higher in patients with peanut allergy than in tolerant patients Peanut 77 patients with peanut allergy and 15 controls overlapping 20-amino acid peptides covering the entire sequence of Ara h 1, 2 and 3 were used for microarray immunoassay

Food Allergies

Food allergies may cause only an itchy mouth and throat other allergies trigger a rash or cramping, with nausea and vomiting or diarrhea, as the body attempts to flush out the irritant. Still other common allergic food symptoms include hives, and in more severe cases, shortness of breath. In severe reactions (such as in tree nut or peanut allergies), the child may develop a sudden, life-threatening reaction called anaphylactic shock. Severity of food allergies and when they develop depends on the quantity of the food eaten, the amount of exposure the child has had, and the child's sensitivity to the food. Common foods that may cause allergies include cow's milk, soy, egg, wheat, seafood, nuts, and peanuts. Severe symptoms or reactions to any allergen require immediate medical attention. Children with a severe allergy to foods must carry injectable epinephrine (Epipen), which can reverse anaphylactic shock. Fortunately, severe or life-threatening allergies occur only in a small group...

Discussion

Sorensen It is commonly said that people in India and China have less peanut allergy because of different food preparation but there may also be a big difference in hygiene and the hygiene hypothesis may be the other explanation for it. What do you think is the most important part, the way the food is prepared or hygiene

Heat Treatment

Heating can increase the allergenicity of certain proteins through the induction of covalent modifications that lead to new antigens or increased stability. In peanuts, for example, the roasting process produces end products with greater resistance to digestion and heightened allergenicity compared with those produced by frying or boiling. This finding may partly account for the low prevalence of peanut allergy in China, where peanut is widely consumed but not roasted.

Natural History

Whereas peanut allergy is usually lifelong. In the North American study referred to previously, it was found that the offending food or fruit was back in the diet after only 9 months in half the cases, and virtually all the offending foods were back in the diet by the third birthday. A further study of nine children with very severe adverse reactions to food showed that despite the severity, three were later able to tolerate normal amounts of the offending food and four became able to tolerate small amounts.

Peanut Avoidance

Peanut is also known as groundnut or arachis, so these three names need to be sought on labels of manufactured foods as well as some pharmaceutical products. The difficulty comes with 'vegetable oil,' which may include peanut oil only by writing to the manufacturer of individual products can the composition of the vegetable oil be determined. It is not known to what extent subjects with peanut allergy should avoid peanut oil. Most peanut oil used in food manufacture is highly refined, and contains only very minute quantities of peanut protein. In a number of small-scale studies, subjects with peanut allergy were found not to react when given highly refined peanut oil. However, it remains possible that such oil contains traces of protein sufficient to result in enhanced reactivity, such that when the subject does ingest peanut accidentally the reaction is worse than previously. On this basis, subjects with peanut allergy should really be advised to avoid peanut oil.

Future Directions

All IgE-mediated, allergic diseases, the efficacy of omalizumab in other allergic diseases needs to be fUrther considered. Several large studies have already established efficacy in allergic rhinitis (83,86,87), and preliminary investigations have already shown efficacy in other IgE-mediated diseases such as peanut allergy (94) and latex allergy (90). Future studies are likely to evaluate omalizumab in patients with severe allergic asthma and with concomitant rhinitis and eczema. In the latter case, pretreatment, e.g., with pimecrolimus and antibiotics, could drastically reduce total IgE levels and thus lead to a situation where anti-IgE treatment had a realistic chance to eliminate IgE antibodies relevant for the allergic disease.