How To Develop Positive Attitude

Ho'oponopono Certification

The Ho'oponopono Certification will teach you some fundamental strategies that will help you do away with all the negative energies. By so doing, you will become a positive person, leading a positive life as well. The program is a creation of two individuals, Dr. Joe Vitale and Mathew Dixon. The former is an actor and has featured in many books, apart from being a professional in the implementation of the law of attraction in ensuring people lead better lives. Mathew is an influential healing musician. The two individuals teamed up to modernize the Ho'oponopono strategy in the program. The program was established following a thorough research and tests. It is a step by step guide that will ensure you successfully let go of your cognizant and intuitive memory, bringing to an end all your problems. The program consists of 8 eight videos, each taking 40 minutes. These videos will explain each and every detail of the program to ensure that you fully understand all the necessary techniques. There is no reason to hesitate. Purchase it today transform your life for good. Read more here...

Hooponopono Certification Summary

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Cognitive Psychology As A Science

In the years leading up to the millennium, people made increased efforts to understand each other and their own inner, mental space. This concern was marked with a tidal wave of research in the field of cognitive psychology, and by the emergence of cognitive science as a unified programme for studying the mind. In the popular media, there are numerous books, films, and television programmes on the more accessible aspects of cognitive research. In scientific circles, cognitive psychology is currently a thriving area, dealing with a bewildering diversity of phenomena, including topics like attention, perception, learning, memory, language, emotion, concept formation, and thinking. In spite of its diversity, cognitive psychology is unified by a common approach based on an analogy between the mind and the digital computer this is the information-processing approach. This approach is the dominant paradigm or theoretical orientation (Kuhn, 1970) within cognitive psychology, and has been for...

The Cognitive Theory Of Depression

CT rests on a theoretical model of human functioning that has been elaborated over the years. This model is based on a Realist epistemology (Dobson & Dozois, 2001 Held, 1995), which asserts that reality exists independent of human experience. At the same time, the model holds that humans are natural scientists and seek to make sense of the world and their experiences, through the development of broad, organizational cognitive constructs. The constructs were typically defined as core beliefs or underlying assumptions in early descriptions of CT, but over the years the term schema (Kovacs & Beck, 1978) has come to predominate in the literature. Regardless of the specific term, the general concept imparted is that all individuals, through a combination of forces (personal experience, parenting, peer relations, media messages, popular culture), develop global, enduring representations of themselves, people in their world, and the way that the world functions. These cognitive...

Cognitive behavioural therapy CBT

In CBT the patient and therapist will work together to identify problem areas such as the patient's belief that he is fat and stupid. His belief that he is fat and stupid is likely to make him feel low in mood and to withdraw socially. As he becomes more and more withdrawn there is no one to challenge his negative beliefs even if they are not at all true and in reality he is very thin and very clever. It is a vicious circle which, over time, lowers the patients self-esteem and leads the patient to seek more and more comfort from his anorexia. In addition negative thoughts tend to lead to negative feelings, which in turn lead to negative behaviour. Here are three examples 1. Negative thought Eating will make me fat. Negative feeling I am scared of getting fat. 2. Negative thought I must exercise constantly to keep thin. Negative feeling I am scared of putting on weight if I don't exercise. Negative behaviour I must exercise as much as possible. 3. Negative thought I am useless at...

The Effect of Comorbidity on the Process and Outcome of Cognitive Therapy

Most of the literature regarding cognitive therapy (CT) of GAD, OCD, and PTSD describes treatments in which the disorders are considered in isolation. Most well-controlled, randomized clinical trials have focused on pure cases of anxiety or depression and have shown promising outcomes in the treatment of these conditions (Chambless & Ollendick, 2001). Yet the samples utilized in the empirically supported treatment literature include few (if any) participants who have comorbid depression and anxiety (e.g., Ladouceur et al., 2000).

Cognitive Therapy For Depression In Patients With Comorbid Pds

Once some of the symptoms of depression have been relieved, the therapeutic focus switches to core schemas about self and life, which tend to trigger problems and depressive symptoms (Young, Weinberger, & Beck, 2001). Educating the patient about schemas is pertinent in this phase, for instance, explaining that schemas are rules by which people live and how they make sense of the world. Next, it is important for the patient reflectively to explore and identify personal schemas. Through the identification process, CT cognitive therapy aims at counteracting the effects of schemas and replacing dysfunctional techniques and methods with new approaches, making the patient less vulnerable to future depressions (Young, Weinberger, & Beck, 2001, p. 278).

Can Positive Emotions Repair Negative Feelings

This study only tests one negative emotion. It is therefore not possible to generalize it to other negative emotions (except speculatively). Similarly, we cannot really generalize the results beyond the specific population tested - female college students in the United States.

Use of cognitive psychology and technology in facilitating data collection

Little attention is given to the cognitive aspects of questionnaire response in facilitating the collection of self-report data on CRF (Mullin et al. 2000 Tourangeau et al. 2000). This is an overlooked opportunity to ease the data collection burden for respondents and improve the quality of the data generated. When coupled with the use of benchmarks, cognitive psychology techniques may be useful in counteracting the phenomenon of'response shift' (Sprangers et al. 1999) in assessing change in fatigue over the course of treatment. Patients whose fatigue has increased over treatment are likely to view their early fatigue as 'mild' or 'absent' when assessed retrospectively in comparison with their current more severe fatigue. A contemporaneous assessment of their earlier fatigue might have found it 'moderate'.

Impact of Family Problems on Cognitive Therapy for Depression

Although one might speculate that the presence of serious family problems decreases the efficacy of cognitive therapy (CT) for depression, there is actually very little research on this topic. Individuals in CT who reported that relationship problems were a cause of their depression (relative to those who did not) were less likely to complete homework and showed a poorer response to treatment (Addis & Jacobson, 1996). Beach and O'Leary (1992) also found that depressed married women with negative marital environments had more residual depression symptoms after CT than after behavioral couple therapy. Finally, depressed women treated with an antidepressant and either CT or supportive therapy were less likely to remit if they had reported having low support from their husband before beginning treatment (Bromberger, Wisner, & Hanusa, 1994). In summary, the small amount of existing evidence suggests that relationship problems may interfere with response to individual CT.

Cognitive behavioural therapy

At our next regular meeting with Fiona, Steve and I had a long discussion with her about Joe's progress. Fiona explained that she couldn't force Joe to discuss his difficulties with her. She also said that it was not unusual for young children to take a long time to build up trust and to engage with their key worker. I wondered if there were any other options to try and get Joe to talk about his problems and we all agreed that it was worth trying cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Fiona arranged for Steve and I to meet with George, the CB therapist at the day centre. We immediately took to him. He was young and enthusiastic and explained things in a very clear manner. He told us that he would offer Joe a session later that week. The first few sessions would be very low key and the aim would be to build a relationship and get to know each other. If these were successful George would start challenging Joe's beliefs, anxieties and any negative thoughts. Joe would be asked to keep a...

Treatment Of Depression Among Adolescents Adaptations of Standard Cognitive Therapy

Three CBT protocols have been developed for use with depressed adolescents. The first of these is based on the standard model of cognitive therapy (CT) for depression developed by Aaron Beck and his colleagues (Beck, As in adult CT, emphasis is placed on maintaining a positive, supportive therapeutic rapport, characterized by collaborative empiricism. Adolescents are taught to adopt the role of a personal scientist as they work with the therapist to understand how negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs or schemas are maintaining their depressed state. Teens are encouraged to participate actively in constructing an agenda for each session. In contrast to CT with depressed adults, the Brent and Poling (1997) model places relatively less emphasis on between-session homework assignments. Like its adult counterpart, however, the model utilizes frequent summaries of main session points. As therapy proceeds, adolescents assume a greater responsibility for directing the treatment process....

Cognitive Behavioral Strategies

Cognitive behavioral strategies are a skill set used to minimize symptom severity and reduce unhelpful thinking. Many people, when first diagnosed with FM, experience an existential crisis that may last several years. This crisis has to do with loss of their previous selves and acceptance of their new selves. The cognitive behavioral strategies outlined on the following pages work to help the newly diagnosed move toward acceptance of their changed lifestyle and can ultimately improve their quality of life. The first strategy is pacing. Understandably, people with FM are concerned about what the future holds for them. Quite a few people with FM enjoyed healthy childhoods and young adulthoods. They are often well educated and involved with careers, their community, and raising families. When FM suddenly hits, they are generally helpless in their attempts to return to life before FM, and they often wonder, How could everything go so wrong so quickly In cases of sudden FM onset, a...

Discovering and Challenging Change Blocking Beliefs

The quizzes in this section are designed to help you discover whether any change-blocking beliefs create obstacles on your road to change. After the quizzes, you can find an exercise that assists you in ridding yourself of these beliefs through careful, honest analysis of whether each belief helps or hurts you.

Cognitive Modeling Symbolic

Symbolic cognitive models are theories of human cognition that take the form of working computer programs. A cognitive model is intended to be an explanation of how some aspect of cognition is accomplished by a set of primitive computational processes. A model performs a specific cognitive task or class of tasks and produces behavior that constitutes a set of predictions that can be compared to data from human performance. Task domains that have received considerable attention include problem solving, language comprehension, memory tasks, and human-device interaction. The scientific questions cognitive modeling seeks to answer belong to cognitive psychology, and the computational techniques are often drawn from artificial intelligence. Cognitive modeling differs from other forms of theorizing in psychology in its focus on functionality and computational completeness. Cognitive modeling produces both a theory of human behavior on a task and a computational artifact that performs the...

Historical roots of cognitive psychology

The year 1956 was critical in the development of cognitive psychology. At a meeting at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chomsky gave a paper on his theory of language, George Miller presented a paper on the magic number seven in short-term memory (Miller, 1956), and Newell and Simon discussed their very influential computational model called the General Problem Solver (discussed in Newell, Shaw, & Simon, 1958 see also Chapter 15). In addition, the first systematic attempt to consider concept formation from a cognitive perspective was reported (Bruner, Goodnow, & Austin, 1956). The field of Artificial Intelligence was also founded in 1956 at the Dartmouth Conference, which was attended by Chomsky, McCarthy, Minsky, Newell, Simon, and Miller (see Gardner, 1985). Thus, 1956 witnessed the birth of both cognitive psychology and cognitive science as major disciplines. Books devoted to aspects of cognitive psychology began to appear (e.g., Broadbent, 1958 Bruner et al.,...

Personal beliefs and treatment selection

The decision on a treatment modality for LPCa could, therefore, be described as a challenging one requiring patients to weigh up a range of physical and psychological outcomes of treatments. Indeed, it has been shown that patients can experience decision-related distress at diagnosis, which can persist over time and lead to poorly informed treatment decisions 15 . The difficulties associated with making a treatment choice can be further magnified by patients making their decisions based on their personal beliefs. These personal beliefs can help patients construct a mental representation about their disease and its treatment, which can guide their adjustment to their disease. Such beliefs are of particular importance to treatment decisions when there is great uncertainty around the long-term effects of treatment. Extensive research has found that personal beliefs can predict a range of outcomes, including quality of life, help-seeking behaviour and treatment adherence 16-18 . These...

Cognitive Therapy For Depression

Cognitive therapy (CT) was first named and identified as a distinct type of treatment in an article in 1970 (Beck, 1970), in which Aaron Beck described CT, and distinguished it from behavior therapy, based on the increased attention paid to negative thinking in CT and the importance of core negative beliefs, also seen to be pivotal in the genesis of depression. In the mid-1970s, Beck and colleagues engaged in the first trial of this new form of treatment for depression (Rush, Beck, Kovacs, & Hollon, 1977 Rush, Hollon, Beck, & Kovacs, 1978). In a trial that compared the efficacy of CT relative to antidepressant medication, superior outcomes were reported for CT, particularly at the follow-up assessment. It is fair to say that these results caused a minor sensation in the fields of psychiatry and psychology first, because the results presented a credible research trial that challenged the gold standard of medications for depression, and second, because they provided a manualized...

Cognitive Therapy

Layden, Newman, Freeman, and Morse (1993) presented the first extended guide to conducting CT for BPD. Treatment is multifaceted, but focuses on helping patients to identify early maladaptive schemas, core unconditional beliefs about the self and the world, and the behavior patterns seen as driven by those schemas, and to work on changing the schemas. Layden et al. suggest that of 15 early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) identified by Young (1990), those most commonly present in BPD are unlovability, incompetence, mistrust, abandonment, emotional deprivation, lack of individuation, and dependency, and that these schemas often conflict with one another, such as dependency and mistrust. In our own experience, many patients with BPD also score high on most of Young's other EMSs, such as fear of losing control, vulnerability to harm, unrelenting standards, guilt punishment, and social undesirability. They propose that it is important for the clinician to also know the Ericksonian stage of...

Cognitive Theory

Cognitive theory recognizes the importance of the subjective experience of oneself, others, and the world. It posits that irrational beliefs and thoughts about oneself, the world, and one's future can lead to psychopathology. In cognitive theory, thoughts or cognitions regarding an experience determine the emotions that are evoked by the experience. For example, the perception of danger in a situation naturally leads to anxiety. When danger is truly present, anxiety can be adaptive, leading to hypervigilance and self-protection. When the situation is only perceived as dangerous (such as in fear of public speaking), the resulting anxiety can be psychologically paralyzing. A person may fear public speaking because of an irrational fear that something disastrous will occur in public. A principal type of irrational belief is a cognitive distortion (Table 17-3).

Information processing Diversity

Cognitive science is a trans-disciplinary grouping of cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, philosophy, neuroscience, and anthropology. The common aim of these disciplines is the understanding of the mind. To simplify matters, we will focus mainly on the relationship between cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence. At the risk of oversimplification, we can identify four major approaches within cognitive psychology Experimental cognitive psychology it follows the experimental tradition of cognitive psychology, and involves no computational modelling.

Cognitive Neuropsychology

Cognitive neuropsychology is concerned with the patterns of cognitive performance in brain-damaged patients. Those aspects of cognition that are intact or impaired are identified, with this information being of value for two main reasons. First, the cognitive performance of brain-damaged patients can often be explained by theories within cognitive psychology. Such theories specify the processes or mechanisms involved in normal cognitive functioning, and it should be possible in principle to account for many of the cognitive impairments of brain-damaged patients in terms of selective damage to some of those mechanisms. The intention is that there should be bi-directional influences of cognitive psychology on cognitive neuropsychology, and of cognitive neuropsychology on cognitive psychology. Historically, the former influence was the greater one, but the latter has become more important.

Concepts And Similarity

One of the oldest and most successful models in cognitive psychology is Tversky's contrast model (Tversky, 1977). This model accounts for the similarity judgements made by people involving concepts described verbally or diagrammatically. Until recently, it was also the model implicitly or explicitly assumed by many concept theorists (see Smith, 1988). Since 1977, the contrast model has been developed and tested extensively by Tversky and his colleagues (Tversky, 1977 Tversky & Gati, 1978).

From Puzzles To Expertise

In the next few sections, we consider how experts solve ill defined problems in specific domains like chess, physics, and computer programming. The keynote of this work is the importance of knowledge to the solution of ill defined problems. Problem-solving expertise hinges on having considerable knowledge of the problem domain by definition, expertise means being good at specific problems in a specific domain. In the domain of physics, an undergraduate student has less knowledge than a lecturer. Even though both of them may have equivalent intellectual abilities, the differences in their knowledge makes one a novice and the other an expert problem solver. Many of the domains studied in expertise research have enormous practical significance and represent a major move in cognitive psychology away from laboratory-based puzzles and towards everyday, ecologically valid problems. We review chess, physics, and computer programming because they manifest several important theoretical and...

Evaluating Problemsolving Research

Problem-solving research is important to cognitive psychology because it is a testbed for the methodology of cognitive science. Since the advent of information-processing psychology, problem-solving research has been at the forefront in combining the use computational techniques and empirical testing (cf. Newell & Simon, 1972). During this time, the area has made steady progress and is quite unified in embracing a common theoretical stance, based on problem-space theory. To conclude these chapters on problem solving, we consider a number of core issues that are posed by this research. First, we consider what problem-space

Present And Future Directions

The four approaches of experimental cognitive psychology, cognitive neuropsychology, cognitive science, and cognitive neuroscience differ in their strengths and weaknesses. As a result, what is needed in order to maximise our understanding of human cognition is to use the method of converging operations. This method involves making use of a variety of approaches to consider any given issue from different perspectives. When this method is applied with two approaches, there are two possible outcomes Rugg (1997) has identified some of the key ways in which the present approach to human cognition differs from those used in the past. As he pointed out, the historical emphasis within cognitive psychology, is placed on models of cognitive function that make no reference to their possible biological substrates, and the idea that biological data might constrain or inform functional models is treated with scepticism (Rugg, 1997, p. 5). In contrast, the current (and probably future) approach is...

Evaluating Research On Puzzles

The research on solving puzzles in cognitive psychology has been one of the most successful areas in the discipline. Since it was first proposed in the later 1950s, problem-space theory has been quite successful and has continued to expand steadily to encompass more and more problem-solving phenomena. Later on in this and the next chapter we will look at some further extensions of the theory. But before we do this it is perhaps a good idea to review the progress afforded by puzzle problems. Newell and Simon's problem-space theory makes substantial and fundamental contributions to cognitive theory and to our understanding of people's problem-solving abilities. Theoretically, a fundamental contribution of problem-space theory that cannot be overstated, is that it contains a normative theory of problem solving. It allows us to specify the structure of problems in an idealised way and to define the best solution to a problem. For most of the puzzles described here we can elaborate the...

Empirical methods

In most of the research discussed in this book, cognitive processes and structures were inferred from participants' behaviour (e.g., speed and or accuracy of performance) obtained under well controlled conditions. This approach has proved to be very useful, and the data thus obtained have been used in the development and subsequent testing of most theories in cognitive psychology. However, there are two major potential problems with the use of such data

Outline Of This Book

One problem with writing a textbook of cognitive psychology is that virtually all the processes and structures of the cognitive system are interdependent. Consider, for example, the case of a student reading a book to prepare for an examination. The student is learning, but there are several other processes going on as well. Visual perception is involved in the intake of information from the printed page, and there is attention to the content of the book (although attention may be captured by irrelevant stimuli). In order for the student to profit from the book, he or she must possess considerable language skills, and must also have rich knowledge representations that are relevant to the material in the book. There may be an element of problem solving in the student's attempts to relate what is in the book to the possibly conflicting information he or she has learned elsewhere. Furthermore, what the student learns will depend on his or her emotional state. Finally, the acid test of...

Figure 1416

Common-sense suggests that one way to become an expert is to practice something. Chase and Simon (1973a) estimated that most grand masters had studied for at least 9 to 10 years to reach their level of expertise. The relationship between practice and performance in perceptual-motor skills has been captured by one of the few laws in cognitive psychology the Power Law of Practice (see Figure 14.16). This law states that if the time per trial and number of trials are graphed on log-log co-ordinate axes, then a straight line results (Fitts & Posner, 1967). It is now generally accepted that the power law also holds for purely cognitive skills, so much so that Logan (1988, p. 495) has said that the power-function speed-up has been accepted as. a law, a benchmark prediction that theories of skill acquisition must make to be serious contenders. Not surprisingly several researchers have suggested a number of mechanisms to explain these effects of practice and the acquisition of expertise...

Figure 164

The percentage of subjects who solved Wason's selection task correctly in each condition as a function of provision of a rationale. Figure from Cheng and Holyoak Pragmatic reasoning schemas in Cognitive Psychology, Volume 17, 391 416. Copyright 1985 by Academic Press, reproduced by permission of the publisher.

Figure 184

The greatest strength of the Williams et al. approach is that it is based on an analysis of the functional differences between anxiety and depression. This leads Williams et al. to predict that the pattern of cognitive biases will differ between anxious and depressed individuals. This contrasts with the approaches of Beck and of Bower, both of whom predict the existence of global cognitive biases applying to all emotional states. As we will see, the evidence is more supportive of the Williams et al. view. However, the differences in cognitive biases between anxious and depressed individuals are less clear-cut than predicted theoretically. Thus, even the revised theory of Williams et al. is oversimplified.

Figure 189

The focus in this section will be on two main cognitive biases. First, there is attentional bias, which is selective attention to threat-related rather than neutral stimuli. Second, there is interpretive bias, which is the tendency to interpret ambiguous stimuli in a threatening rather than an innocuous fashion.

Figure 1812

The effects of depression on interpretation of ambiguity have been assessed in several studies. The evidence consistently indicates that there is an interpretive bias in depressed individuals. Various studies (discussed by Rusting, 1998) have made use of the Cognitive Bias Questionnaire. Events are described briefly, with participants having to select one out of four possible interpretations of each event. Depressed patients consistently select more negative interpretations than controls. Experimentally, there has been too much emphasis on the processing of threat-related environmental stimuli (e.g., words). Anxious individuals often exhibit cognitive biases for internal stimuli. For example, patients with panic disorder catastrophically misinterpret their own physiological activity (Clark, 1986), and patients with social phobia have an interpretive bias for the adequacy of their own social behaviour (Stopa & Clark, 1993), assuming it to be much less adequate than is actually the...

Cognitive Science

The computational modelling of psychological theories provides a strong test of their adequacy, because of the need to be explicit about every theoretical assumption in a computational model. Many theories from traditional cognitive psychology have been found to be inadequate, because crucial aspects of the human information-processing system were not spelled out computationally. For example, Marr (1982) found that previous theoretical assumptions about feature detectors in visual perception were oversimplified when he began to construct programs to specify precisely how feature extraction might occur (see Chapter 2). Alternatively, it can be shown that a particular theory is unfeasible in principle, because it proposes processes that would take forever to compute. For example, early analogy models suggested A second advantage of computational modelling is that it supports the development of more complex theories in cognitive psychology In many cognitive theories, theorists can...

The Place of Psychology within Cognitive Science

As the science of the representation and processing of information by organisms, psychology (particularly cognitive psychology) forms part of the core of cognitive science. Cognitive science research conducted in other disciplines generally has actual or potential implications for psychology. Not all research on intelligent information processing is relevant to psychology. Some work in artificial intelligence, for example, is based on representations and algorithms with no apparent connection to biological intelligence. Even though such work may be highly successful at achieving high levels of competence on cognitive tasks, it does not fall within the scope of cognitive science. For example, the Deep Blue II program that defeated the The field of psychology has several major subdivisions, which have varying degrees of connection to cognitive science. Cognitive psychology deals directly with the representation and processing of information, with greatest emphasis on cognition in adult...

The Science of Information Processing

A fundamental property of biological information processing is that it is capacity-limited and therefore necessarily selective. Beginning with the seminal work of Broadbent, a great deal of work in cognitive psychology has focused on the role of attention in guiding information processing. Attention operates selectively to determine what information is received by the senses, as in the case of EYE MOVEMENTS AND VISUAL ATTENTION, and also operates to direct more central information processing, including the operation of memory. The degree to which information requires active attention or memory resources varies, decreasing with the AUTOMATICITY of the required processing.

The Typical Course Of Therapy

Figure 1.2 is an attempt to show how these phases of treatment roughly relate to symptom change in a typical case of depression. Approximately the first one-third of treatment is focused on behavioral change the middle one-third of treatment, on negative automatic thoughts and the final one-third of treatment is focused on the assessment and modification of core beliefs and schemas. Typically, the first phase of treatment is associated with the greatest reduction in depressive symptomatology, because over half of the changes in symptomatology takes place within the first six sessions of treatment. The second phase of treatment is usually associated with more gradual but continued reduction in levels of depression. Patients typically transition from meeting the diagnostic criteria for major depression to no longer meeting such criteria during this middle phase of treatment. By implication, the third phase of treatment is largely conducted with a patient whose depression has recently...

The Final Phase of Treatment

The cognitive model of depression assumes that individuals who become depressed generally have schemas or core beliefs that make them vulnerable to precipitating events (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003). More generally, according to the cognitive model, everyone has schemas that are the heritage of early experience, cultural and media messages, peer relationships, a history of mental health or disorder, and other developmental issues. Hypothetically, every person has his her own areas of schema vulnerability. These vulnerabilities remain latent, however, unless activated by relevant or matching triggers. For example, a perfectionist is theoretically vulnerable to depression if he she experiences failure or lack of perfection, but he she does not demonstrate depression as long as his her perfectionistic goals are met. As I noted earlier, by the time that an intervention addressing core beliefs takes place in CT, the patient often is no longer clinically depressed. Rather, he or she...

How This Book Is Organized

Chapter 7 shows you how certain core beliefs darken and distort your view of yourself, your world, and your future as surely as eyeglasses with the wrong prescription muddle normal sight. We include tools for regrinding your life-lenses so you see things more clearly. Finally, in Chapter 8, you have the opportunity to practice mindfulness and acceptance more techniques for handling troubling thoughts.

Initial Assessment Case Conceptualization And Treatment Planning

With the trend toward manualization of psychosocial interventions, there have been increased attempts to clarify a distinction between the essence of a treatment and its specific components (Abramowitz, 2006) that is, along with certain techniques that make up an intervention, it is important that there exist an empirically based theoretical rationale to guide the treatment. This approach is at the heart of evidence-based practice generally, and of cognitive therapy (CT Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979) for depression specifically. CT is grounded in an empirical and conceptual model that implicates certain underlying and maladaptive cognitive schemas as risk factors for depression onset and maintenance (Clark, Beck, & Alford, 1999). Building upon this model, the aim of the therapist is to work collaboratively with the patient to identify and modify negative cognitions, using specific strategies such as automatic thought monitoring and cognitive restructuring. As such, cognitive...

A systematic review of the literature

An initial scope for existing literature reviews in prostate cancer research yielded two reviews 25, 26 . The more recent review 26 was conducted five years ago and restricted its search period to a 14 year time span, used a small number of literature databases and only searched for original, peer-reviewed studies to explore broadly the personal (not just beliefs specifically) and external factors pertaining to the decision-making process of patients. It concluded that there is a general lack of understanding about the role of patients' beliefs in treatment selection and that this was an area worthy of enquiry. Our aim was, therefore, to provide an updated review on factors influencing treatment selection for LPCa, as well as specifically examine the literature pertaining to patients' personal beliefs about LPCa and or its treatments.

Underlying Mechanisms

At the presumed root of a patient's overt difficulties lie the underlying psychological mechanisms, which represent the second level ofPersons's (1989) case formulation model. Indeed, an underlying psychological mechanism represents a problem or deficit that causes or contributes to an individual's overt difficulties. According to the cognitive theory of depression (Clark et al., 1999), maladaptive schemas are the underlying psychological mechanisms for depression and associated difficulties. The specific content of these schemas represents one's core beliefs one's most central ideas about the self, others, and the world (J. S. Beck, 1995). These schemas may be represented as conditional beliefs, such as If I put others' needs before my own, they will love me, or unconditional beliefs, such as I am a worthless person. Furthermore, the underlying psychological mechanisms may represent other deficits, such as a lack of problem-solving skills (Nezu, Wilkins, & Nezu, 2004). In...

Integrating Overt Difficulties and Underlying Mechanisms

According to Persons's (1989) case formulation model, overt difficulties and underlying mechanisms are closely linked. Indeed, just as underlying negative beliefs may influence one's cognitions, behavior, and mood, overt difficulties may serve to reinforce one's underlying beliefs. Yet, in contrast to overt difficulties, which may be relatively accessible to patients and amenable to assessment by clinicians, it is more difficult to access and identify these underlying core beliefs. As such, it is important to emphasize that formulations of the underlying psychological mechanisms should be considered working hypotheses to be evaluated over the course of therapy.

Nonparental Contextual Characteristics

In distinguishing contextual influences on child temperament from influences of child temperament on context, one approach would be to look at aspects of the environment which are potentially less sensitive to the influence of child temperament. One such aspect is the physical environment the stage or setting on which social transactions between child and caregiver take place (Wohlwill & Heft, 1987). The extent to which a child's temperamental characteristics can act to influence dimensions of the physical environment, such as number of wall decorations or rooms to people ratio, is both less likely and less intuitively obvious. Rather, it is more likely that specified dimensions of the physical environment can act to influence child temperament characteristics. One such dimension is environmental chaos, which involves factors such as crowding (e.g., rooms to people ratio), and levels of nonhuman noise in the home. Several studies provide converging evidence of the importance of...

Recommendation for health care

It is clear that the use of patients' beliefs in their decisions on a treatment modality has led them to base their decisions on misconceptions rather than on evidential information. HCPs may need to challenge misinformed beliefs held by patients to help them make more informed decisions regarding their treatment. In order to make more conclusive recommendations for health care practice, further research is required to establish the extent to which personal beliefs alter treatment selection.

Exercise Can Be a Positive or Negative Stressor

The effect of a stressor depends on how it is interpreted that is, whether the person perceives positive or negative consequences. A positive interpretation creates positive emotion, motivation, and mood, which result in positive adjustments of peripheral responses such as musculoskeletal locomotion. Negative thoughts about the situation lead to negative emotions and unwelcome consequences, such as an imbalance of the musculoskeletal system as a result of tight muscles. The emotional demands of competition, the desire to win, the fear of failure, and unrealistically high expectations can all be the source of psychologic stress.

The basics of emotion cognition

Clearly, this is an example of anxiety and one that is shared by many people, and it seems equally clear to understand. However, consider the elements that go to make up the reaction. It is your beliefs or knowledge about the nature of root canal operations that lead to the anxiety. You have considered what is to come and judged how it is likely to affect you. The result is anxiety. The emotional reaction has followed on the heels of cognitions in the form of beliefs and knowledge. If you had already experienced a root canal procedure and found that it was easy and painless, then your beliefs would be different and you would not be anxious.

Behavioral Strategies

The BA therapist generates hypotheses about the function of the patient's activity and notes particularly behaviors that function as avoidance these behaviors are hypothesized to maintain or exacerbate depression and, as such, are the initial targets of treatment. Depressed patients often engage in behaviors that may provide some temporary relief and yet have negative long-term consequences for mood and quality of life. Staying in bed, for example, may be reinforced by the relief of not having to address problems at work or in one's family. Therapy focuses on monitoring the short- and long-term consequences of such behaviors, and using graded task assignment and activity scheduling to interrupt avoidance patterns and increase activation. Essentially, patients learn to approach and engage rather than to avoid and withdraw. The acronym TRAP (Trigger, Response, Avoidance Pattern) can be used to teach patients to recognize situations that lead to negative feelings (or thoughts) to which...

The Ethics of Good Intentions

The key lesson learned from early research on self-help therapies, that good intentions do not assure effective therapies, continues to be demonstrated. Ehlers and colleagues randomly assigned motor vehicle accident survivors diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder to receive therapist-administered cognitive therapy, a self-help booklet, or repeated assessments (Ehlers et al., 2003). While cognitive therapy was demonstrated to be effective, the self-help booklet was not superior to simple repeated assessments. Of greater concern, outcome for the self-help group was actually worse than for repeated assessments on two measures.

The Situation Before The Intervention

Group members explored positive and negative feelings about other issues in their lives. At this point, the group was developing into an advanced stage. A greater working-together stage Members were talking freely about relationships with their mothers, exploring voids in oneself, being angry toward me for not giving enough care, and jealousy toward one another's assets (Bern rdez, 1996).

Have had a problem with binge eating Does this mean I am not a candidate for bariatric surgery

It is important to point out that people with BED often have underlying depression. Sometimes treating the underlying condition with antidepressants dramatically improves BED. If depression is diagnosed, treatment should begin before undergoing surgery. Other beneficial therapies for BED include cognitive therapy and bariatric surgery.

Conceptualization Of Chronic Depression

Chronic depression is not a homogenous problem, and patient history, course of current episode, and presentation can vary widely. As in the standard CT model for acute depression (Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979), the theme of loss (actual and perceived) and the negative cognitive triad (negative view of self, world, and future) are helpful as an initial starting point for formulating the patient's problems. However, in the model of chronic depression, the losses are often more enduring and may arise as a consequence of the depression itself. Similarly, the negative thoughts that characterize a chronic presentation are more enduring in nature and have over time become interwoven with associated behavioral strategies, and their social and environmental consequences. On the basis of this observation we propose a chronic cognitive triad as follows low self-esteem (negative view of self), helplessness (negative view of the world), and hopelessness (negative view of the future)....

Challenges Results and Implications

Thus far, the emphasis in this initiative in educational neuroscience has been primarily focused on identifying, meeting, and overcoming challenges. The main challenge has been to muster evidence and rationale to justify this initiative to funding agencies traditionally supporting educational research (Campbell, 2005). The Canada Foundation for Innovation, the British Columbia Knowledge Development Fund, and Simon Fraser University have collectively funded the development of my lab, and the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada has supported initial efforts for conducting research therein. Another huge challenge has been to transform the lab from an idea to a reality. The task was daunting, but there are benefits from being able to design such a facility from the ground up (Campbell, 2010). In essence, and what makes the ENGRAMMETRON such a unique facility, is that it integrates observational methods and techniques from cognitive neuroscience, psychophysiology,...

Interest Driven Reasoning

But such a system would be hopelessly inefficient. The behavior of any satisfactory reasoner must be guided by the conclusions it is trying to establish rather than just reasoning randomly until it happens upon its desired conclusion. All actual reasoners, human or artificial, are guided in some way or other. There is a rather obvious general account of how this works in default human reasoning. The basic idea is that reasoning proceeds both forward and backward (it uses forward chaining and backward chaining). We reason forward from our existing beliefs, and backward from what we are interested in establishing, and try to bring the two chains of reasoning together. Reasoning backward can be regarded as deriving interests from interests. A reasoning system that combines such forward and backward reasoning will be said to be interest-driven. (The logical structure of interest-driven reasoning will be investigated further in chapter 4.)

Using the Mind BodySpirit Connection to Eliminate the Effects of Stress

While negative thoughts cause a lowering of the immune system and disease, positive thoughts can enhance the immune system. It is the spirit within us that needs to guide us positively. Use the mind-body-spirit connection to transform stress into positive energy. Life is a series of lessons to be learned, and once they are learned, their adversity can disappear. The mind-body-spirit connection can control our level of stress. If a problem exists and you do your daily cleaning routine, emphasizing your health first, it will help you put stress into proper perspective.

Consumer Attitudes and Public Awareness

The media coverage on obesity is viewed by the public, parents, and other stakeholder groups in a variety of ways, depending on their personal beliefs regarding issues such as personal responsibility, the role of government and other institutions in promoting personal freedoms, media influences, free speech and the rights of advertisers, and the ways in which parents should raise their children, as well as on consequent responses to various population level approaches being proposed to address obesity.

Worksheet 35Jasmines Reflections

I can see that I do have some of these change-blocking beliefs. I guess I've always thought that this is just the way my life is. But now that I reflect on it, I guess I can see how these beliefs could get in the way of doing something about my problems. Nothing is going to change if I hold on tightly to these assumptions. But what can I do about them In the next section, Jasmine sees what she can do about her problematic beliefs. But before jumping to her resolution, try filling out your own Top Three Change-Blocking Beliefs Summary in Worksheet 3-6. Go back to the three change-blocking belief quizzes and look at the items you checked. Then write down the three beliefs that seem to be the most troubling and the most likely to get in the way of your ability to make changes.

Overview And Structure Of

The goals of cognitive-behavioral treatments tend to be somewhat broader than those of 'strict' behavioral approaches, and the choice of treatment goals will dictate the specific interventions implemented. For example, in broad spectrum cognitive-behavioral treatments (e.g., Azrin et al., 1976 Monti et al., 1989), the patient and therapist may select a wide range of target behaviors in addition to a treatment goal of abstinence, including improved social skills or social functioning, reduced psychiatric symptoms, and reduced social isolation, entry into the work force. Cognitive behavioral therapy also differs from cognitive therapy through greater emphasis on building specific behavioral skills (e.g., coping with craving, avoiding high risk situations, understanding behavioral patterns) and somewhat lesser emphasis on targeting and challenging maladaptive cognitions in the earlier stages of abstinence.

Self Help Therapies for Anxiety Disorders

SH materials for anxiety problems have largely focused on written materials. According to Carlbring, Westling, and Andersson (2000), there are at least 14 published SH books for panic attacks or general fear that provide cognitive-behavioral strategies, though few were empirically validated. Written materials have several advantages (a) they are readily accessible and, to date, are paramount in the consumer's mind as a means for obtaining

Treatment by Health Providers

The ultimate goal of health treatment is to reduce symptoms, promote physical fitness, and optimize the ability to perform activities of daily living. One health-care provider alone cannot hope to accomplish this breadth of goals. An interdisciplinary team of providers is generally required for the best treatment outcome. The most important player on the team, however, is the person with FM. A patient who is active in the management of his or her FM is critical. A passive person with FM who expects a doctor will cure them will be disappointed. The FM patient who is proactive in his or her own health will need to assemble a treatment team and, further, become well educated about their own disorder. This will mean staying informed about any current medication and its possible side effects, learning about common FM co-morbidity symptoms, exploring cognitive behavioral strategies along with complementary and alternative therapies, participating in exercise, and maintaining a nutritional...

The Central Role of Evaluation and FollowUp in Relapse Prevention Prerequisites to Learning and to Providing CCT

A therapist with a firm foundation in cognitive theory and diagnostic and behavioral assessment has the background to learn to provide C-CT to promote remission and recovery, and to reduce relapse. Cognitive theory guides therapists in identifying patients' emotional vulnerabilities, and learning theory guides them in teaching patients new behaviors to cope with the inherent vulnerabilities of suffering from a recurrent, often chronic illness, to cope with coming to painful conclusions about the self, world, and future. Behavioral assessment aids the therapist in knowing when to modify the therapy content, homework, or schedule. Specific prerequisite skills that therapists need to produce preventive effects with C-CT include (1) mastery of CT (as described by Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979), defined as scores above 39 on the Cognitive Therapy Scale (Young & Beck, 1980) and (2) competence in diagnosing psychiatric syndromes and symptoms both at initial presentation and...

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Few studies exist that examined the effectiveness of SH interventions for people with a diagnosis of PTSD. One recent study (Ehlers et al, 2003) compared an SH booklet, cognitive therapy, and repeated assessments in people with PTSD after a motor vehicle accident. Comparisons based on self-report measures as well as clinician-rating scales were made at 12-weeks posttreatment and 6 months after the conclusion of treatment. Although the SH treatment reduced some symptoms, the therapist-directed cognitive therapy was clearly superior to the SH booklet. In addition, treatment using the SH booklet was only slightly more effective than the assessment group at posttreatment and slightly less effective than the assessment group at follow-up. In contrast to these relatively small therapeutic effects, Hirai and Clum (2005) reported significant improvement on symptoms produced by an online SH treatment. These authors developed an 8-week online SH program for trauma victims that consisted of four...

Responses To Intervention

When a member overpays, group members can help each other guess why a member might feel that the therapist has more than earned his or her pay last month. Sometimes members worry that their free expressions of negative feelings or their acting-out behaviors have injured the therapist or the group. They can benefit from hearing feedback about their participation. This is especially useful when the member has been venturing into more self-disclosure or participating in conflict. An overpayment may also be an unconscious attempt to establish oneself as a special favorite of the group therapist. Uncovering this wish can lead to a fruitful discussion of competitive strivings in the group.

Coping And Drug Use Coping is the

The association between ATOD use and coping is complex. In some individuals there is a direct connection. In effect, PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS are consumed to reduce tension and associated negative emotions. The consumption of drugs is motivated by their palliative effects. In most individuals, however, the connection between drug consumption and coping is more complicated. Numerous factors such as psychiatric illness, low self-esteem, deviant social values, maladaptive learned behaviors, inadequate social support, poor social skills, and personality disposition moderate and mediate the relationship between ATOD use and coping. No specific association has been established between coping style and VULNERABILITY to drug use or abuse. Thus, whereas it is generally recognized that a substantial proportion of the ATOD-using population is deficient in coping capacity, it is important Substantial variation among individuals occurs with respect to both coping capacity and drug-use behavior across...

Assume 100 responsibility for your results

We create our circumstances through positive thinking and positive action, and we create negative circumstances through negative thinking, lack of action and wrong actions. In other words, you are responsible for who you are, where you are, and what you have - and that includes the way your body looks.

Computer Administered Therapy

In an uncontrolled study of both inpatients and outpatients with diagnoses of depression or anxiety spectrum disorders, Wright et al. (2002) tested a multimedia program providing computer-assisted cognitive therapy. This six-module program, which provides clinicians with progress reports based on participant responses, was developed to serve as an adjunct to therapist-implemented cognitive therapy. The program includes an interactive video format to provide examples of cognitive therapy strategies being applied appropriately. In theory, by using this program to teach basic cognitive concepts and reinforce self-help exercises, a clinician could focus on interventions demanding the expertise of a live therapist. Participants continued with treatment as usual while using the computer program at their own pace. Treatment as usual varied depending upon participant but included individual psychotherapy, medication management, and no additional treatment. Program use was not monitored...

Worksheet 51Information Reality Scramblers Exercise

Dismissing evidence Your mind discards evidence that may contradict its negative thoughts. For example, suppose you're preparing a speech and have the thought that when it comes time to give the speech, you'll be so scared that you won't be able to talk. Your mind automatically dismisses the fact that you've given numerous speeches before and have never been so afraid you couldn't talk.

The emotional effects of a Caesarean birth

Once you're discharged from the hospital, you may begin to experience negative feelings about having had a Caesarean birth, even if you were accepting of the surgery at first. You may be angry that childbirth didn't happen the way you had hoped it would. You may grieve that you weren't able to give birth vaginally. You may feel like a failure as a woman, doubting your femininity and self-worth. To make things worse, you may feel guilty about having these feelings Comments from friends and family like, You took the easy way out, or Are you going to have your next baby naturally may be making you feel even worse.

Plan Based Practical Reasoning 1 Practical Cognition

The philosophical model might equally be called the economics model or the cognitive psychology model, because it is shared by all three fields. It is more commonly called simply the ''decision-theoretic model.1 On this model, a decision problem arises when we have a finite set A of alternative acts between which we must decide, a finite set O of exhaustive and exclusive possible outcomes, a function u assigning numerical utilities to the possible outcomes, and reasonable beliefs about (or assignments of) the values of the probabilities

Group CT May Reduce Relapse and Recurrence

For example, Teasdale et al. (2000) randomized patients with recurrent MDD who were in recovery remission (i.e., who did not meet MDE criteria) for 12 or more weeks after discontinuing antidepressant medication, to treatment as usual (TAU i.e., patients sought help on their own, as needed) or to TAU plus mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). CT included eight weekly group sessions followed by four monthly group sessions lasting 2 hours. Over 60 weeks, for 105 patients with a history of more than three depressive episodes, CT reduced relapse (40 defined as meeting MDE criteria) compared to TAU (67 ) alone. For a smaller subset of 32 patients with two depressive episodes, relapse recurrence rates did not differ significantly (56 CT, 31 TAU). Very similar results were found in a replication study (Ma & Teasdale, 2004). Over 60 weeks, MBCT reduced relapse

What Needs to Happen for Education and Neuroscience to Interact

There are a number of practical issues that need to be addressed before interactions between educators and neuroscientists of the sort described above can become a reality. Here we focus on the teacher preparation issue mentioned above as an example. We believe that teacher education programs need to integrate courses on cognitive neuroscience into their curricula, or integrate cognitive neuroscience methods and findings into their current courses. Such courses should provide not only a basic introduction to structural and functional brain development as well as the brain mechanisms subserving core domains of cognitive functions such as the typical and atypical development of reading and mathematical skills, but also discuss wider topics of relevance to education such as the effects of culture on brain function. Of course, such courses should not be focused solely on results from brain imaging studies, but should also discuss evidence from behavioral research by definition, Cognitive...

Current Position Of Adults With Learning Disabilities

Whilst there may have been key changes made in the delivery and provision of some services that support adults with learning disabilities, the reality is that this has had little impact on overcoming obstacles that relate to social exclusion and access to services, facilities, housing and employment. This continued exclusion adds to the vulnerable position that many adults with learning disabilities find themselves in.

Marjan Ghahramanlou Holloway Gregory K Brown Aaron T Beck

There is a paucity of studies that have examined patient response to cognitive therapy (CT) and completed suicide. Dahlsgaard, Beck, and Brown (1998) investigated response to CT as a predictor of suicide completion in a group of psychiatric outpatients. In this matched cohort study, suicide completers attended significantly fewer psychotherapy sessions and had a significantly higher rate of premature termination of therapy, as well as significantly higher hopelessness scores as compared to controls. Overall, the study suggested that nonresponsiveness to psychotherapy, as measured by the number of sessions attended level of hopelessness and premature termination serves as an important risk factor for suicide.

Social Networks Emotions and Gender

In addition to studying dyadic friendships, researchers have also explored the structure and functions of children's larger social networks. With the possible exception of research showing that young adolescents who are aggressive tend to form networks with other aggressive youth (Cairns, Cairns, Neckerman, Gest, & Gariepy, 1988), little research has explored processes of emotion regulation among children's social networks. However, research and theory suggests that children might form networks based on similar styles of emotion management, and also socialize each other in how to manage strong feelings. For example, one study of the relation between children's naturally occurring social networks and their motivation in school found that children formed networks with others of similar academic motivation, but also that network members became more similar over time in their motivation for doing well in school (Kindermann, 1993). Given the centrality of emotion regulation in forming...

Description of the Cognitive Protocol

The cognitive protocol for treatment of suicidal behavior (Brown, Henriques, Ratto, & Beck, 2002) comprises one 60- to 90-minute psychoeducation session and approximately 10 (45- to 50-minute) weekly psychotherapy sessions. During the psychoeducation session, patients are informed that the offered treatment is short term and time limited. Patients are provided with a copy of Choosing to Live How to Defeat Suicide through Cognitive Therapy (Ellis & Newman, 1996). Treatment is initiated with patient consent and following the psychoeducation session. For patients who have recently experienced a suicide attempt or an interrupted suicide attempt, it is recommended that the first treatment session be scheduled within 72 hours after the attempt or discharge from the hospital.

Chemicals Increasing Arousal

In these studies (Marshall & Zimbardo, 1979 Rogers & Deckner, 1975), subjects were injected with adrenalin and placed in conditions that should have aroused euphoria or at least happiness. Instead, participants reported increased negative emotions. In company with similar effects with a different, hypnotic manipulation of arousal (Maslach, 1979), these results led Marshall and Zimbardo, as well as Maslach, to propose that arousal had a negative bias and was experienced as unpleasant, even when the situation and its attendant cognitions implied a happy experience.

Human Computer Interaction

The historical roots of human-computer interaction can be traced to a human information-processing approach to cognitive psychology. Human information processing (Card, Moran, and Newell 1983 Lindsay and Norman 1977) explicitly took the digital computer as the primary metaphorical resource for thinking about cognition. HCI as a field grew out of early human information-processing research and still reflects that lineage. Just as cognitive psychology focused on identifying the characteristics of individual cognition, human-computer interaction has, until very recently, focused almost exclusively on single individuals interacting with applications derived from decompositions of work activities into individual tasks. This theoretical approach has dominated human-computer interaction for over twenty years, leading to a computing infrastructure built around the personal computer and based on the desktop interface metaphor.

Results and Discussion

Both genders seem to be masters of dissemblance in hiding negative emotions during middle childhood (Saarni, 1999) both girls and boys believe that when provoked to anger peers will respond negatively no matter how they respond (Underwood, 1997). Gender differences in peer relations, and in particular anger expression and aggression, are more complex than girls behaving less angrily than boys and girls manipulating and boys fighting (Bjorkqvist, Lagerspetz, & Kaukiainen, 1992). In some of our laboratory studies, girls do respond a bit more negatively to peer provocation than do boys, but these differences are not large (Underwood et al., 1999). Overall, there are not consistent relations between peer status and children's responses to provocation in our studies nor do these relations differ for boys and girls. Both girls and boys who are rejected by peers believe that any response to anger will be perceived negatively by peers (Underwood, 1997), and in our observational studies,...

Late Phase of Treatment Sessions 810

In the first stage, the therapist describes the purpose of this activity and obtains patient feedback and consent to begin the procedure. The patient is informed that because detailed imagery and discussion of previous suicidal behavior may activate strong physiological and emotional responses, full debriefing follows to ensure comfort and safety prior to each session's termination. In the second stage, the patient is asked to imagine the chain of events, thoughts, and feelings leading to his her most recent suicidal behavior. Basically, the patient is being asked again to share his her suicide story. The therapist guides the patient through this imagery exercise, scene by scene, using all senses to construct a detailed sequence of events and their meaning to the patient on the specific day of the suicidal behavior. The third stage of the RPT is similar to the second stage. The patient is again taken through the sequence of events leading to the...

Worksheet 518 continued

Some people deny any and all responsibility for problems they encounter. These folks usually find a convenient scapegoat such as a mother, father, significant other, society, or event to blame for all their woes. Failing to accept any responsibility for your troubles makes you see yourself as helpless and the world as unfair and unjust (check out Chapter 3 for more information about such self-sabotaging beliefs). Realize that you don't want to fall into that trap read the next section to see how to avoid it.

Treatment of Social Phobia in Individuals with Depression

In contrast to these studies, the negative impact of depression on social phobia treatment outcome was shown in studies by Chambless, Tran, and Glass (1997) and Scholing and Emmelkamp (1999). Chambless et al. (1997) examined the prognostic value ofpretreatment depression, as well as personality disorder traits, patients' expectations of treatment, clinician-rated breadth and severity of impairment, and frequency of negative thoughts for CBGT of 62 outpatients with social phobia. The findings indicated that pretreatment depression was the most consistent predictor of poorer treatment outcome for measures of anxious apprehension and anxiety. Scholing and Emmelkamp (1999), in a partial replication of the Chambless et al. (1997) study, examined the role of pretreatment depression, personality disorder traits, clinician-rated severity of impairment, and frequency of negative self-statements during social interactions among 50 patients with generalized social phobia and 26 patients with...

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

When you're depressed, CBT helps you identify the negative thinking that may be contributing to your mood and helps you work on changing your thoughts and behaviors to improve your Continuing with this example, in CBT, you would work with your therapist to recognize your tendency to think in negative ways and identify how your thoughts lead to feeling unproductive and helpless. Your therapist would help you identify and change these negative thoughts and set goals to get work done and increase the amount of time you spend with others. Together, these strategies could start to improve your mood and decrease your negative thoughts and feelings. For example, in FFT you and your family might work together to improve your communication styles by practicing and improving skills for listening, expressing feelings, and requesting behavior change. FFT is also designed to decrease harsh expressions of negative emotions such as criticism or hostility.

Modifying Standard CT for Depression and Comorbid Gad Ocd and PTSD

In the case of PTSD, clinicians may need to slow the pace of therapy, because patients may be at risk of dissociation when discussing traumatic events. It will likely be difficult to use cognitive restructuring techniques designed to challenge the content of cognitions (e.g., What is the evidence for a negative event ), because these patients' histories include exposure to a traumatic event thus, they may have real-life evidence to support their cognitive distortions (e.g., a rape victim may believe that all men are dangerous). When engaging in cognitive restructuring, it is important for the clinician not only to acknowledge the evidence from a traumatic event but also to assist the patient in acknowledging evidence that does not support the cognitive distortions (e.g., It is true that I am the survivor of rape, but there are men in this world who are not dangerous). Furthermore, it may be more helpful to engage in interventions designed to modify the process of thinking, for...

Deciding Which Treatment Is Best For

When choosing which route to take, it's important to think carefully about which treatment is the best fit for you. If your diagnosis is fairly new or you feel you don't know very much about bipolar disorder, you might want to start with a psychoeducation program. Then, depending on what your goals are, you may prefer one type of therapy to another. For instance, it may help to think about whether you're experiencing difficulty with negative thinking (in which case CBT might be best), family conflict (in which case FFT might be best), or interpersonal problems or disruptions in your daily routines (in which case IPSRT might be best). Also consider which symptoms are most problematic for you depression or mania. (If mania is more problematic for you, IPSRT would probably be your last choice.) Be sure to discuss your options and preferences with your treatment team so you can work together to come up with the best plan to help you take care Ways to identify and change negative thought...

Are Behaviors Sufficient To Produce Emotional Feelings

Note that these three kinds of sufficiency are ordered, so that any evidence in support of the most specific will count as evidence for the two less specific versions. On the other hand, any studies that are designed so that they bear only on the weakest version will be mute regarding the stronger versions. Inevitably, therefore, evidence for the strongest version is less common than for the weaker versions. For example, to demonstrate real specificity of effects, more than two kinds of behavior must be manipulated, and more than two kinds of feelings including those that match the behaviors must be measured. With one or two kinds of behavior, the results might be reflecting only an effect on global positive or negative feelings. Although more difficult to develop, evidence for the strongest version of sufficiency exists, and seems substantial at least to my admittedly biased eyes.

Treatment Interventions and Outcome

By the third session, it became clear that the treatment of Mary's depression was affected by her PTSD symptoms. She had attempted to go to public places, which led to initial feelings of being overwhelmed and subsequent feelings of despair. Mary also expressed her concerns about the helpfulness of therapy. The therapist made the decision that behavioral activation interventions were negatively impacted by intrusive thoughts and avoidance related to PTSD thus, treatment needed to shift to PTSD. The next stage of therapy was intended to address Mary's dysfunctional core beliefs, but treatment was terminated prematurely, because the robber's prison sentence ended and he was released. Mary and her common-law partner moved to another city due to her fear of encountering the perpetrator. At discharge, Mary's anxiety and depressive symptoms had improved with the treatment focused on her PTSD. At discharge, her BDI-II score was 23, suggesting that Mary was experiencing moderate depression....

External Validity Does Selfperception Occur Outside The Laboratory

The results were clear When they were not reminded, women who were both responsive to personal cues and in their premenstrual week reported more negative feelings than if they were not premenstrual. Stage of cycle made no difference to the situational women. When they were reminded that they were premenstrual, however, the moods of personal cue women were better than if they were not premenstrual. The situational women were unaffected by the reminder, as they had been by the fact of their menstrual cycle status. (There was even a nonsignificant suggestion that the situational women felt more premenstrual syndrome (PMS) when they were reminded.)

Methodological Limitations

Relationships over time.18 Several factors may lead the cancer survivor to overestimate or underestimate the positive or negative influence of cancer on their interpersonal relationships. Relationships with members of one's social environment may seem poorer following cancer because of the multiple stressors associated with managing the cancer diagnosis and associated burden.18 Alternatively, survivors or their significant others may be motivated to suppress negative feelings about their relationship to reduce feelings of guilt, which may lead to an overestimation of their post-cancer relationship quality. Couples dealing with cancer also may feel obligated to maintain their relationship even in the face of existing difficulties, a tendency that may be especially pronounced early on in the treatment and recovery course when patients are in need of additional support and assistance. Finally, social-cognitive processes such as cognitive dissonance may cause the survivor or partner to...

Selfesteem Social Comparison And Response To Personal Cues

The women who were less responsive to personal cues apparently identified with the women in the pictures. When the women who were less responsive to personal cues viewed the superslender models, they reported higher self-esteem, higher body satisfaction, and more positive emotional reactions than did those who viewed the normal-weight women. The exact opposite occurred among the women who were more responsive to personal cues. They reported significantly lower self-esteem, lower body satisfaction, and more negative emotions if they viewed the pictures of su-perslender models.

Qualitative Review of Self Administered Treatments

The correspondence-based self-help materials tested by Sitharthan and colleagues (1996, condition A) consisted of five letters sent to participants over a 4-month period, beginning with information about the effects of alcohol and personalized feedback and followed by guidance in a range of cognitive-behavioral strategies that could be used to control their drinking. These included goal-setting, self-monitoring, problem-solving, planning for high-risk situations, dealing with temptation, relapse prevention, and planning a future lifestyle.

Cognitive Behavioural Techniques

Cognitive-behavioural techniques, originally outlined by Beck (e.g., 52 ) have been elaborated by a number of clinicians and investigators as summarized below. Principally, the cognitive-behavioural conceptualization and treatment of depressive episodes in bipolar disorder is very similar to that for unipolar disorder 53-55 . There is less certainty, and few data, regarding how to conceptualize mania, although in some respects mania may share the same (rather than opposite) negative attributional style regarding negative events as is found in depression 56 . Further, since it appears that life stressors play a modulatory role in the course of bipolar disorder (see above), benefit may derive from helping the individual to deal with cognitive distortions that could worsen the impact of such stressors. Thus the basic cognitive-behavioural approach and techniques of addressing dysfunctional attitudes and cognitive schemata in depression have been applied to bipolar disorder. Further, as...

Mood Disorders Depression Anxiety Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Therapy for depression includes prescription medication combined with talk therapy. Cognitive behavioral strategies largely have replaced psychoanalysis in the treatment of mood disorders. The main key to success in treatment appears to be early and adequate intervention. Drug classes for depression include tri-cyclic antidepressants, SSRIs, SNRIs, and occasionally monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). However, MAOIs have multiple drug and food interactions. Occasionally, stimulants or anti-anxiety medications are used in conjunction with antidepressants. Exercise, electrical therapies, and light therapy are all helpful in some types of depression. Anxiety is a symptom that may include physical or psychological feelings of distress and worry, changes in heart rate, skin temperature, and myriad other features. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder that presents as excessive, uncontrollable, and often irrational worry about everyday problems for at least six...

Managing your disappointment

Over time, some of these negative feelings fade. In one study of women's IVF experience several years after treatment, only 12 per cent of the women who didn't have a baby agreed that their life had been negatively affected by IVF, while 91 per cent said that they were glad they'd tried IVF. But it can be difficult to totally give up hope of having a baby 74 per cent of the women who didn't have a baby were still hoping to become pregnant and 68 per cent said that they would always be sad that they didn't have children.

Disruptive or Externalizing Behavior Disorders

The development of ODD or CD is likely to have origins in multiple factors associated with diverse pathways. Researchers have found evidence that several factors are related to the development of ODD, CD, or both genetically based, early temperament difficulties (e.g., having lower frustration tolerance), neurobiological factors (e.g., low psychophysiological arousal), social-cognitive factors (e.g., cognitive distortions), family patterns of interaction (e.g., inadequate monitoring of the child's behavior), and family environmental stress and adversity (e.g., marital discord).

Schedule a Time for Solving Problems

To help keep worry out of your life, establish one or two specific times in your weekly schedule for dealing with life issues. Focusing on life issues as a regular part of the week helps ensure that life's problems do not become overwhelming. Having a regular time to focus on issues may also help prevent worrying on a daily basis. Worry, unlike problem solving, is not useful. It taxes your energy, time, and emotions. Worry is characterized by negative thoughts such as It

Maintaining a Healthy Family Attitude Siblings

Typical siblings can also become emotionally vulnerable because of their own thought processes. A certain degree of tension between siblings is natural, even adaptive, in that it provides a forum for learning to resolve conflicts with others. However, a well-intentioned sibling of a child with special needs may experience guilt regarding negative feelings toward a sibling who just can't help it. Try to help your child understand that these feelings are natural and that what is most important is how he or she acts on them. It is okay, even normal, to resent a

Social Competence and Problem Behavior

As for the study of sympathy and personal distress, we have been interested in the additive and multiplicative contributions of emotionality and regulation. In general, we predicted that high emotionality, particularly frequency and intensity of negative emotion, combined with low regulation, would be associated with externalizing types of behavior problems and low social competence. In contrast, low regulation of emotion (e.g., through low attentional control) combined with high behavioral inhibition low impulsivity and high emotionality (especially negative emotionality) was expected to predict internalizing types of problems such as high levels of shyness and withdrawn behavior. For both externalizing and internalizing behavior, prediction is expected to be greater when measures of both emotionality and regulation are obtained. Further, we hypothesized that moderational effects would be found for emotionally driven internalizing or externalizing problem behaviors (e.g., that...

Mechanisms For The Impact Of Bpd On Depression Outcomes

A third factor may be the adverse influence on psychotherapy of BPD behavior patterns, such as being underassertive or aggressive, or fluctuating between the two. Shea et al. (1992) speculated that because cognitive therapy (CT) is technique-oriented, it might be less adversely affected by the interpersonal deficits patients with BPD than psychotherapies that give a more central role to the therapeutic relationship. In our opinion, this is a mischaracterization of CT, which always requires a well-functioning relationship. The cognitive-behavioral treatments for BPD discussed in this chapter all emphasize the importance of maintaining a strong working alliance.

Dysfunctional Attitudes and Beliefs

Beck et al. (1990) note that core beliefs of individuals with BPD often are based on a history of trauma or invalidation. Arntz (1994) particularly emphasizes the role of early trauma in giving rise to core beliefs, asserting that every borderline has experienced chronic traumas in childhood (p. 422), but he uses the term trauma in a broad sense that includes, for example, emotional unavailability of parents and conflict between parents. Such trauma is proposed to lead to developmental stagnation and, consequently, continuation of cognitive processing more typical of children, such as dichotomous thinking. Arntz suggests that unprocessed trauma is the primary cause of the emotional reactivity seen in BPD, and a history of being punished for emotional experience and expression leads to other common BPD characteristics, such as emotional reactivity, self-invalidation, and appearing more competent than one feels. However, empirical data suggest that far from all patients with BPD have...

Psychosocial Interventions For Cancer Patients

Because a comprehensive review of the treatment outcome literature for cancer patients is beyond the scope of this chapter, the reader is directed to the listed review articles (see also Baum and Andersen31). However, we should briefly note that such interventions can be grouped into the following general categories educational interventions, cognitive-behavioral strategies, and group therapy approaches.

Kenneth E Freedland Robert M Carney Judith A Skala

Controlled treatment trials have shown that cognitive therapy (CT) is efficacious for a wide range of problems, but medically ill patients have been excluded from many of these studies. Consequently, less is known about CT for problems such as depression, stress, or anxiety in medically ill patients than in healthy individuals. This is starting to change as a number of research groups are testing cognitive-behavioral interventions for these problems in a variety of medical patient populations. Researchers have also been working on cognitive-behavioral interventions for problems that are specific to medically ill patients, such as difficulties in coping with frightening or painful symptoms. This chapter focuses primarily on CT for depression in various medical conditions, but it extends to the treatment of related problems as well.

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