How To Develop Positive Attitude

Ho'oponopono Certification

The Ho'oponopono Certification will teach you some fundamental strategies that will help you do away with all the negative energies. By so doing, you will become a positive person, leading a positive life as well. The program is a creation of two individuals, Dr. Joe Vitale and Mathew Dixon. The former is an actor and has featured in many books, apart from being a professional in the implementation of the law of attraction in ensuring people lead better lives. Mathew is an influential healing musician. The two individuals teamed up to modernize the Ho'oponopono strategy in the program. The program was established following a thorough research and tests. It is a step by step guide that will ensure you successfully let go of your cognizant and intuitive memory, bringing to an end all your problems. The program consists of 8 eight videos, each taking 40 minutes. These videos will explain each and every detail of the program to ensure that you fully understand all the necessary techniques. There is no reason to hesitate. Purchase it today transform your life for good. Read more here...

Hooponopono Certification Summary


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Cognitive Behavioral Strategies

Cognitive behavioral strategies are a skill set used to minimize symptom severity and reduce unhelpful thinking. Many people, when first diagnosed with FM, experience an existential crisis that may last several years. This crisis has to do with loss of their previous selves and acceptance of their new selves. The cognitive behavioral strategies outlined on the following pages work to help the newly diagnosed move toward acceptance of their changed lifestyle and can ultimately improve their quality of life. The first strategy is pacing. Understandably, people with FM are concerned about what the future holds for them. Quite a few people with FM enjoyed healthy childhoods and young adulthoods. They are often well educated and involved with careers, their community, and raising families. When FM suddenly hits, they are generally helpless in their attempts to return to life before FM, and they often wonder, How could everything go so wrong so quickly In cases of sudden FM onset, a...

Discovering and Challenging Change Blocking Beliefs

The quizzes in this section are designed to help you discover whether any change-blocking beliefs create obstacles on your road to change. After the quizzes, you can find an exercise that assists you in ridding yourself of these beliefs through careful, honest analysis of whether each belief helps or hurts you.

Can Positive Emotions Repair Negative Feelings

Emotion was operationalized in terms of cardiovascular response. When negative emotions are experienced, heart rate and related measures are affected. For example, when people experience fear, their heart rate increases. Sophisticated equipment was used to monitor a number of cardiovascular variables while participants watched a short clip of film expected to arouse fear. The film showed a man struggling to avoid a fall from a high ledge. Participants were then shown one of four experimental film clips, assigned randomly. One of these films was designed to be emotionally neutral, one was sad, one was designed to arouse amusement, and one to arouse contentment. Are you convinced that this means that positive emotions can affect people by repairing negative feelings

Cognitive Modeling Symbolic

Symbolic cognitive models are theories of human cognition that take the form of working computer programs. A cognitive model is intended to be an explanation of how some aspect of cognition is accomplished by a set of primitive computational processes. A model performs a specific cognitive task or class of tasks and produces behavior that constitutes a set of predictions that can be compared to data from human performance. Task domains that have received considerable attention include problem solving, language comprehension, memory tasks, and human-device interaction. The scientific questions cognitive modeling seeks to answer belong to cognitive psychology, and the computational techniques are often drawn from artificial intelligence. Cognitive modeling differs from other forms of theorizing in psychology in its focus on functionality and computational completeness. Cognitive modeling produces both a theory of human behavior on a task and a computational artifact that performs the...

Historical roots of cognitive psychology

The year 1956 was critical in the development of cognitive psychology. At a meeting at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chomsky gave a paper on his theory of language, George Miller presented a paper on the magic number seven in short-term memory (Miller, 1956), and Newell and Simon discussed their very influential computational model called the General Problem Solver (discussed in Newell, Shaw, & Simon, 1958 see also Chapter 15). In addition, the first systematic attempt to consider concept formation from a cognitive perspective was reported (Bruner, Goodnow, & Austin, 1956). The field of Artificial Intelligence was also founded in 1956 at the Dartmouth Conference, which was attended by Chomsky, McCarthy, Minsky, Newell, Simon, and Miller (see Gardner, 1985). Thus, 1956 witnessed the birth of both cognitive psychology and cognitive science as major disciplines. Books devoted to aspects of cognitive psychology began to appear (e.g., Broadbent, 1958 Bruner et al., 1956)....

Personal beliefs and treatment selection

The decision on a treatment modality for LPCa could, therefore, be described as a challenging one requiring patients to weigh up a range of physical and psychological outcomes of treatments. Indeed, it has been shown that patients can experience decision-related distress at diagnosis, which can persist over time and lead to poorly informed treatment decisions 15 . The difficulties associated with making a treatment choice can be further magnified by patients making their decisions based on their personal beliefs. These personal beliefs can help patients construct a mental representation about their disease and its treatment, which can guide their adjustment to their disease. Such beliefs are of particular importance to treatment decisions when there is great uncertainty around the long-term effects of treatment. Extensive research has found that personal beliefs can predict a range of outcomes, including quality of life, help-seeking behaviour and treatment adherence 16-18 . These...

Cognitive Therapy For Depression

Cognitive therapy (CT) was first named and identified as a distinct type of treatment in an article in 1970 (Beck, 1970), in which Aaron Beck described CT, and distinguished it from behavior therapy, based on the increased attention paid to negative thinking in CT and the importance of core negative beliefs, also seen to be pivotal in the genesis of depression. In the mid-1970s, Beck and colleagues engaged in the first trial of this new form of treatment for depression (Rush, Beck, Kovacs, & Hollon, 1977 Rush, Hollon, Beck, & Kovacs, 1978). In a trial that compared the efficacy of CT relative to antidepressant medication, superior outcomes were reported for CT, particularly at the follow-up assessment. It is fair to say that these results caused a minor sensation in the fields of psychiatry and psychology first, because the results presented a credible research trial that challenged the gold standard of medications for depression, and second, because they provided a manualized...

Cognitive behavioural therapy

At our next regular meeting with Fiona, Steve and I had a long discussion with her about Joe's progress. Fiona explained that she couldn't force Joe to discuss his difficulties with her. She also said that it was not unusual for young children to take a long time to build up trust and to engage with their key worker. I wondered if there were any other options to try and get Joe to talk about his problems and we all agreed that it was worth trying cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Fiona arranged for Steve and I to meet with George, the CB therapist at the day centre. We immediately took to him. He was young and enthusiastic and explained things in a very clear manner. He told us that he would offer Joe a session later that week. The first few sessions would be very low key and the aim would be to build a relationship and get to know each other. If these were successful George would start challenging Joe's beliefs, anxieties and any negative thoughts. Joe would be asked to keep a...

Use of cognitive psychology and technology in facilitating data collection

Little attention is given to the cognitive aspects of questionnaire response in facilitating the collection of self-report data on CRF (Mullin et al. 2000 Tourangeau et al. 2000). This is an overlooked opportunity to ease the data collection burden for respondents and improve the quality of the data generated. When coupled with the use of benchmarks, cognitive psychology techniques may be useful in counteracting the phenomenon of'response shift' (Sprangers et al. 1999) in assessing change in fatigue over the course of treatment. Patients whose fatigue has increased over treatment are likely to view their early fatigue as 'mild' or 'absent' when assessed retrospectively in comparison with their current more severe fatigue. A contemporaneous assessment of their earlier fatigue might have found it 'moderate'.

Treatment Of Depression Among Adolescents Adaptations of Standard Cognitive Therapy

Three CBT protocols have been developed for use with depressed adolescents. The first of these is based on the standard model of cognitive therapy (CT) for depression developed by Aaron Beck and his colleagues (Beck, As in adult CT, emphasis is placed on maintaining a positive, supportive therapeutic rapport, characterized by collaborative empiricism. Adolescents are taught to adopt the role of a personal scientist as they work with the therapist to understand how negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs or schemas are maintaining their depressed state. Teens are encouraged to participate actively in constructing an agenda for each session. In contrast to CT with depressed adults, the Brent and Poling (1997) model places relatively less emphasis on between-session homework assignments. Like its adult counterpart, however, the model utilizes frequent summaries of main session points. As therapy proceeds, adolescents assume a greater responsibility for directing the treatment process....

Impact of Family Problems on Cognitive Therapy for Depression

Although one might speculate that the presence of serious family problems decreases the efficacy of cognitive therapy (CT) for depression, there is actually very little research on this topic. Individuals in CT who reported that relationship problems were a cause of their depression (relative to those who did not) were less likely to complete homework and showed a poorer response to treatment (Addis & Jacobson, 1996). Beach and O'Leary (1992) also found that depressed married women with negative marital environments had more residual depression symptoms after CT than after behavioral couple therapy. Finally, depressed women treated with an antidepressant and either CT or supportive therapy were less likely to remit if they had reported having low support from their husband before beginning treatment (Bromberger, Wisner, & Hanusa, 1994). In summary, the small amount of existing evidence suggests that relationship problems may interfere with response to individual CT.

Cognitive Psychology As A Science

In the years leading up to the millennium, people made increased efforts to understand each other and their own inner, mental space. This concern was marked with a tidal wave of research in the field of cognitive psychology, and by the emergence of cognitive science as a unified programme for studying the mind. In the popular media, there are numerous books, films, and television programmes on the more accessible aspects of cognitive research. In scientific circles, cognitive psychology is currently a thriving area, dealing with a bewildering diversity of phenomena, including topics like attention, perception, learning, memory, language, emotion, concept formation, and thinking. In spite of its diversity, cognitive psychology is unified by a common approach based on an analogy between the mind and the digital computer this is the information-processing approach. This approach is the dominant paradigm or theoretical orientation (Kuhn, 1970) within cognitive psychology, and has been for...

Cognitive behavioural therapy CBT

In CBT the patient and therapist will work together to identify problem areas such as the patient's belief that he is fat and stupid. His belief that he is fat and stupid is likely to make him feel low in mood and to withdraw socially. As he becomes more and more withdrawn there is no one to challenge his negative beliefs even if they are not at all true and in reality he is very thin and very clever. It is a vicious circle which, over time, lowers the patients self-esteem and leads the patient to seek more and more comfort from his anorexia. In addition negative thoughts tend to lead to negative feelings, which in turn lead to negative behaviour. Here are three examples 1. Negative thought Eating will make me fat. Negative feeling I am scared of getting fat. 2. Negative thought I must exercise constantly to keep thin. Negative feeling I am scared of putting on weight if I don't exercise. Negative behaviour I must exercise as much as possible. 3. Negative thought I am useless at...

Cognitive Therapy For Depression In Patients With Comorbid Pds

Once some of the symptoms of depression have been relieved, the therapeutic focus switches to core schemas about self and life, which tend to trigger problems and depressive symptoms (Young, Weinberger, & Beck, 2001). Educating the patient about schemas is pertinent in this phase, for instance, explaining that schemas are rules by which people live and how they make sense of the world. Next, it is important for the patient reflectively to explore and identify personal schemas. Through the identification process, CT cognitive therapy aims at counteracting the effects of schemas and replacing dysfunctional techniques and methods with new approaches, making the patient less vulnerable to future depressions (Young, Weinberger, & Beck, 2001, p. 278).

The Effect of Comorbidity on the Process and Outcome of Cognitive Therapy

Most of the literature regarding cognitive therapy (CT) of GAD, OCD, and PTSD describes treatments in which the disorders are considered in isolation. Most well-controlled, randomized clinical trials have focused on pure cases of anxiety or depression and have shown promising outcomes in the treatment of these conditions (Chambless & Ollendick, 2001). Yet the samples utilized in the empirically supported treatment literature include few (if any) participants who have comorbid depression and anxiety (e.g., Ladouceur et al., 2000).

The Cognitive Theory Of Depression

CT rests on a theoretical model of human functioning that has been elaborated over the years. This model is based on a Realist epistemology (Dobson & Dozois, 2001 Held, 1995), which asserts that reality exists independent of human experience. At the same time, the model holds that humans are natural scientists and seek to make sense of the world and their experiences, through the development of broad, organizational cognitive constructs. The constructs were typically defined as core beliefs or underlying assumptions in early descriptions of CT, but over the years the term schema (Kovacs & Beck, 1978) has come to predominate in the literature. Regardless of the specific term, the general concept imparted is that all individuals, through a combination of forces (personal experience, parenting, peer relations, media messages, popular culture), develop global, enduring representations of themselves, people in their world, and the way that the world functions. These cognitive...

Cognitive Theory

Cognitive theory recognizes the importance of the subjective experience of oneself, others, and the world. It posits that irrational beliefs and thoughts about oneself, the world, and one's future can lead to psychopathology. In cognitive theory, thoughts or cognitions regarding an experience determine the emotions that are evoked by the experience. For example, the perception of danger in a situation naturally leads to anxiety. When danger is truly present, anxiety can be adaptive, leading to hypervigilance and self-protection. When the situation is only perceived as dangerous (such as in fear of public speaking), the resulting anxiety can be psychologically paralyzing. A person may fear public speaking because of an irrational fear that something disastrous will occur in public. A principal type of irrational belief is a cognitive distortion (Table 17-3).

Cognitive Therapy

Layden, Newman, Freeman, and Morse (1993) presented the first extended guide to conducting CT for BPD. Treatment is multifaceted, but focuses on helping patients to identify early maladaptive schemas, core unconditional beliefs about the self and the world, and the behavior patterns seen as driven by those schemas, and to work on changing the schemas. Layden et al. suggest that of 15 early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) identified by Young (1990), those most commonly present in BPD are unlovability, incompetence, mistrust, abandonment, emotional deprivation, lack of individuation, and dependency, and that these schemas often conflict with one another, such as dependency and mistrust. In our own experience, many patients with BPD also score high on most of Young's other EMSs, such as fear of losing control, vulnerability to harm, unrelenting standards, guilt punishment, and social undesirability. They propose that it is important for the clinician to also know the Ericksonian stage of...

Abel 1992 References On Attention

Amalgamations of memories Intrusion of information from one event into reports of another. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 12, 277-285. Anderson, R.C., & Ortony, A. (1975). On putting apples in bottles A problem of polysemy. Cognitive Psychology, 7, 167-180. Atwood, M.E., & Polson, P.G. (1976). A process model for water jug problems. Cognitive Psychology, 8, 191-216. Beck, A.T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York International Universities Press. Bjork, R.A., & Whitten, W.B. (1974). Recency-sensitive retrieval processes in long-term free recall. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 173-189. Bower, G.H., Black, J.B., & Turner, T.S. (1979). Scripts in memory for text. Cognitive Psychology, 11, 177-220. Bransford, J.D., Barclay, J.R., & Franks, J.J. (1972). Sentence memory A constructive versus interpretive approach. Cognitive Psychology, 3, 193-209. Brown, N.R., Rips, L.J., & Shevell, S.K. (1985). The subjective dates of news events in...

Present And Future Directions

The four approaches of experimental cognitive psychology, cognitive neuropsychology, cognitive science, and cognitive neuroscience differ in their strengths and weaknesses. As a result, what is needed in order to maximise our understanding of human cognition is to use the method of converging operations. This method involves making use of a variety of approaches to consider any given issue from different perspectives. When this method is applied with two approaches, there are two possible outcomes Rugg (1997) has identified some of the key ways in which the present approach to human cognition differs from those used in the past. As he pointed out, the historical emphasis within cognitive psychology, is placed on models of cognitive function that make no reference to their possible biological substrates, and the idea that biological data might constrain or inform functional models is treated with scepticism (Rugg, 1997, p. 5). In contrast, the current (and probably future) approach is...

Evaluating Research On Puzzles

The research on solving puzzles in cognitive psychology has been one of the most successful areas in the discipline. Since it was first proposed in the later 1950s, problem-space theory has been quite successful and has continued to expand steadily to encompass more and more problem-solving phenomena. Later on in this and the next chapter we will look at some further extensions of the theory. But before we do this it is perhaps a good idea to review the progress afforded by puzzle problems. Newell and Simon's problem-space theory makes substantial and fundamental contributions to cognitive theory and to our understanding of people's problem-solving abilities. Theoretically, a fundamental contribution of problem-space theory that cannot be overstated, is that it contains a normative theory of problem solving. It allows us to specify the structure of problems in an idealised way and to define the best solution to a problem. For most of the puzzles described here we can elaborate the...

Information processing Diversity

Cognitive science is a trans-disciplinary grouping of cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, philosophy, neuroscience, and anthropology. The common aim of these disciplines is the understanding of the mind. To simplify matters, we will focus mainly on the relationship between cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence. At the risk of oversimplification, we can identify four major approaches within cognitive psychology Experimental cognitive psychology it follows the experimental tradition of cognitive psychology, and involves no computational modelling.

Cognitive Neuropsychology

Cognitive neuropsychology is concerned with the patterns of cognitive performance in brain-damaged patients. Those aspects of cognition that are intact or impaired are identified, with this information being of value for two main reasons. First, the cognitive performance of brain-damaged patients can often be explained by theories within cognitive psychology. Such theories specify the processes or mechanisms involved in normal cognitive functioning, and it should be possible in principle to account for many of the cognitive impairments of brain-damaged patients in terms of selective damage to some of those mechanisms. The intention is that there should be bi-directional influences of cognitive psychology on cognitive neuropsychology, and of cognitive neuropsychology on cognitive psychology. Historically, the former influence was the greater one, but the latter has become more important.

From Puzzles To Expertise

In the next few sections, we consider how experts solve ill defined problems in specific domains like chess, physics, and computer programming. The keynote of this work is the importance of knowledge to the solution of ill defined problems. Problem-solving expertise hinges on having considerable knowledge of the problem domain by definition, expertise means being good at specific problems in a specific domain. In the domain of physics, an undergraduate student has less knowledge than a lecturer. Even though both of them may have equivalent intellectual abilities, the differences in their knowledge makes one a novice and the other an expert problem solver. Many of the domains studied in expertise research have enormous practical significance and represent a major move in cognitive psychology away from laboratory-based puzzles and towards everyday, ecologically valid problems. We review chess, physics, and computer programming because they manifest several important theoretical and...

Evaluating Problemsolving Research

Problem-solving research is important to cognitive psychology because it is a testbed for the methodology of cognitive science. Since the advent of information-processing psychology, problem-solving research has been at the forefront in combining the use computational techniques and empirical testing (cf. Newell & Simon, 1972). During this time, the area has made steady progress and is quite unified in embracing a common theoretical stance, based on problem-space theory. To conclude these chapters on problem solving, we consider a number of core issues that are posed by this research. First, we consider what problem-space

Concepts And Similarity

One of the oldest and most successful models in cognitive psychology is Tversky's contrast model (Tversky, 1977). This model accounts for the similarity judgements made by people involving concepts described verbally or diagrammatically. Until recently, it was also the model implicitly or explicitly assumed by many concept theorists (see Smith, 1988). Since 1977, the contrast model has been developed and tested extensively by Tversky and his colleagues (Tversky, 1977 Tversky & Gati, 1978).

Figure 1812

The effects of depression on interpretation of ambiguity have been assessed in several studies. The evidence consistently indicates that there is an interpretive bias in depressed individuals. Various studies (discussed by Rusting, 1998) have made use of the Cognitive Bias Questionnaire. Events are described briefly, with participants having to select one out of four possible interpretations of each event. Depressed patients consistently select more negative interpretations than controls. Experimentally, there has been too much emphasis on the processing of threat-related environmental stimuli (e.g., words). Anxious individuals often exhibit cognitive biases for internal stimuli. For example, patients with panic disorder catastrophically misinterpret their own physiological activity (Clark, 1986), and patients with social phobia have an interpretive bias for the adequacy of their own social behaviour (Stopa & Clark, 1993), assuming it to be much less adequate than is actually the...

Cognitive Science

The computational modelling of psychological theories provides a strong test of their adequacy, because of the need to be explicit about every theoretical assumption in a computational model. Many theories from traditional cognitive psychology have been found to be inadequate, because crucial aspects of the human information-processing system were not spelled out computationally. For example, Marr (1982) found that previous theoretical assumptions about feature detectors in visual perception were oversimplified when he began to construct programs to specify precisely how feature extraction might occur (see Chapter 2). Alternatively, it can be shown that a particular theory is unfeasible in principle, because it proposes processes that would take forever to compute. For example, early analogy models suggested A second advantage of computational modelling is that it supports the development of more complex theories in cognitive psychology In many cognitive theories, theorists can...

Outline Of This Book

One problem with writing a textbook of cognitive psychology is that virtually all the processes and structures of the cognitive system are interdependent. Consider, for example, the case of a student reading a book to prepare for an examination. The student is learning, but there are several other processes going on as well. Visual perception is involved in the intake of information from the printed page, and there is attention to the content of the book (although attention may be captured by irrelevant stimuli). In order for the student to profit from the book, he or she must possess considerable language skills, and must also have rich knowledge representations that are relevant to the material in the book. There may be an element of problem solving in the student's attempts to relate what is in the book to the possibly conflicting information he or she has learned elsewhere. Furthermore, what the student learns will depend on his or her emotional state. Finally, the acid test of...

Figure 164

The percentage of subjects who solved Wason's selection task correctly in each condition as a function of provision of a rationale. Figure from Cheng and Holyoak Pragmatic reasoning schemas in Cognitive Psychology, Volume 17, 391 416. Copyright 1985 by Academic Press, reproduced by permission of the publisher.

Figure 189

The focus in this section will be on two main cognitive biases. First, there is attentional bias, which is selective attention to threat-related rather than neutral stimuli. Second, there is interpretive bias, which is the tendency to interpret ambiguous stimuli in a threatening rather than an innocuous fashion.

Figure 184

The greatest strength of the Williams et al. approach is that it is based on an analysis of the functional differences between anxiety and depression. This leads Williams et al. to predict that the pattern of cognitive biases will differ between anxious and depressed individuals. This contrasts with the approaches of Beck and of Bower, both of whom predict the existence of global cognitive biases applying to all emotional states. As we will see, the evidence is more supportive of the Williams et al. view. However, the differences in cognitive biases between anxious and depressed individuals are less clear-cut than predicted theoretically. Thus, even the revised theory of Williams et al. is oversimplified.

Figure 1416

Common-sense suggests that one way to become an expert is to practice something. Chase and Simon (1973a) estimated that most grand masters had studied for at least 9 to 10 years to reach their level of expertise. The relationship between practice and performance in perceptual-motor skills has been captured by one of the few laws in cognitive psychology the Power Law of Practice (see Figure 14.16). This law states that if the time per trial and number of trials are graphed on log-log co-ordinate axes, then a straight line results (Fitts & Posner, 1967). It is now generally accepted that the power law also holds for purely cognitive skills, so much so that Logan (1988, p. 495) has said that the power-function speed-up has been accepted as. a law, a benchmark prediction that theories of skill acquisition must make to be serious contenders . Not surprisingly several researchers have suggested a number of mechanisms to explain these effects of practice and the acquisition of expertise...

Empirical methods

In most of the research discussed in this book, cognitive processes and structures were inferred from participants' behaviour (e.g., speed and or accuracy of performance) obtained under well controlled conditions. This approach has proved to be very useful, and the data thus obtained have been used in the development and subsequent testing of most theories in cognitive psychology. However, there are two major potential problems with the use of such data

Behavioral Strategies

The BA therapist generates hypotheses about the function of the patient's activity and notes particularly behaviors that function as avoidance these behaviors are hypothesized to maintain or exacerbate depression and, as such, are the initial targets of treatment. Depressed patients often engage in behaviors that may provide some temporary relief and yet have negative long-term consequences for mood and quality of life. Staying in bed, for example, may be reinforced by the relief of not having to address problems at work or in one's family. Therapy focuses on monitoring the short- and long-term consequences of such behaviors, and using graded task assignment and activity scheduling to interrupt avoidance patterns and increase activation. Essentially, patients learn to approach and engage rather than to avoid and withdraw. The acronym TRAP (Trigger, Response, Avoidance Pattern) can be used to teach patients to recognize situations that lead to negative feelings (or thoughts) to which...

Mood Disorders Depression Anxiety Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Therapy for depression includes prescription medication combined with talk therapy. Cognitive behavioral strategies largely have replaced psychoanalysis in the treatment of mood disorders. The main key to success in treatment appears to be early and adequate intervention. Drug classes for depression include tri-cyclic antidepressants, SSRIs, SNRIs, and occasionally monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). However, MAOIs have multiple drug and food interactions. Occasionally, stimulants or anti-anxiety medications are used in conjunction with antidepressants. Exercise, electrical therapies, and light therapy are all helpful in some types of depression. Anxiety is a symptom that may include physical or psychological feelings of distress and worry, changes in heart rate, skin temperature, and myriad other features. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder that presents as excessive, uncontrollable, and often irrational worry about everyday problems for at least six...

Clientpatient Responses

In addition, they recognize their core beliefs and sch mas in relation to all people across their life span, that negative situations activate schemas core beliefs and this now has a calming effect. This knowledge serves to normalize the group cognitive behavioral therapy process allowing group members to feel at ease. Patients clients have found this model useful in combination with individual therapy, either at the same time, or in sequence.

Lisa A Uebelacker Marjorie E Weishaar Ivan W Miller

Depression and family problems frequently co-occur. In this chapter, we describe an integrated approach that a cognitive therapist may use to conceptualize and manage depression and family problems in adults and older adolescents. Although we do not describe how to conduct full-scale family therapy per se, we do focus on (1) how to conceptualize depression from an integrated cognitive and interpersonal viewpoint and (2) a menu of interventions that are consistent with cognitive therapy and include the family. These interventions, which range from a one-session family meeting to concurrent family and individual therapy, allow the clinician to develop an integrative case conceptualization and then act on it.

Requesting Changes in Behavior

Remember that your goal with requests is to achieve a change in behavior. Your job is not to punish or shame. Punishment and shame often intensify the negative emotions in the household, further sapping joy from everyone's interactions. If you are going to request a change, you want to do it in a way that gives your listener a chance to succeed. Finally, when negative feelings are expressed, it is important to express these feelings in a specific rather than a general way. Avoid terms

The Importance Of Resistance

The study of resistance in group psychotherapy and what it reveals about the member's core conflicts and interpersonal difficulties is central to psychodynamic and analytic group psychotherapy (Fehr, 2003 Ormont, 1992 Rutan & Stone, 1993). Because resistances in group can also be thought of as transference resistances, we must be prepared to work through these transferences from the members to the therapist, and to each other (Ormont, 1993). This requires the willingness of the group members to work in the here and now, communicating their immediate reactions (thoughts and feelings) to one another and to the therapist, and the ability of the therapist to foster, through whatever interventions at his or her disposal, this kind of group work. Often, transferences in groups generate intensely negative feelings, which members resist communicating verbally. In this instance, it is essential for the group therapist to help members communicate these feelings verbally, before they become...

Theme 5 Emotion Pervades Mathematical Thinking Mathematics is

One emotion said to be widely experienced at school is boredom. It is mentioned in several case studies for example, Sam, number 17, provides an illustration of feelings of boredom, dislike and anger about maths. When I show him Question 2 (abstract 10 per cent), he says 'I used to hate these'. He is reminded that a tutor engaged by his parents 'gave me thousands of 'em to do'. He expresses a great deal of anger ('hatred') towards the tutor, his parents and maths. It may be that some of the negative feelings are displaced onto mathematics from the hateful 'telltale' tutor. Boredom is also mentioned by Peter and Keith.

Independent Decision Making

The second most-endorsed item on the questionnaire was decide on personal beliefs and values independently of parents or other influences (endorsed by 78 ), and independent decision making was also among the top three criteria for adulthood in response to both interview questions. The questionnaire item was based on psychological studies of the transition to adulthood, particularly a well-known study by Perry (1970). Perry studied Harvard undergraduates through the course of their college careers, and concluded that the typical path of cognitive development during the transition to adulthood begins with adherence to absolute truths at the beginning of the college experience, followed by a swing to relativism midway through college, and finally landing on a set of individualized The validity of Perry's (1970) and Erikson's (1963) views for today's emerging adults seems to be supported by the widespread endorsement of the item decide on personal beliefs and values . . . on the...

Family Therapy Combined with Individual Therapy

Finally, Miller et al. (2005) examined the impact of combined treatments on patients with severe major depression. Each patient was randomly assigned to one of four treatment arms pharmacotherapy alone, pharmaco-therapy + CT, pharmacotherapy + family therapy, or pharmacotherapy + CT + family therapy. Depending on their level of cognitive distortions and family dysfunction at baseline, patients were classified as either matched or mismatched to their particular treatment. For example, assigning a patient with a high level of cognitive distortion but a low level of family dysfunction to pharmacotherapy + family therapy would be considered a mismatch. These authors reported two findings relevant to the current topic. First, patients who were matched to treatment did somewhat better than those who were mismatched. Second, patients in one of the two conditions that included family therapy showed more improvement than those who did not receive family therapy. Although its complicated design...

Treatment Of African Americans And Latinos

A key element in the effective treatment of African American and Latino patients in psychotherapy is to maintain a firm grasp of the basic principles that elevate cultural competence. Increasing ethnic awareness is the key to competence cultivation among practicing clinicians it is requisite that they become increasingly knowledgeable about commonly shared ethnic minority experiences and perspectives that are often quite different from their own. Working with ethnic minority patients highlights the great need for clinicians to remain cognizant of their patients' personal beliefs and assumptions. More importantly, clinicians must resist the harmful tendency to make evaluative judgments, which may have major implications for the overall effectiveness of psychotherapy and treatment with a diverse clientele.

Level of Openness about Sexual Orientation

It cannot be repeated enough that not all patients who engage in same-sex behaviors identify themselves as LGB. Often this is based on multicultural differences within this population (Trujillo, 1997). Therefore, a therapist should not assume that a patient's lack of identification with an LGB community or self-reference as such means that he she is in the closet or harboring negative beliefs about the self. On the other hand, literature suggests that those individuals who self-identify as LGB fare better when they are connected to an LGB community (DiPlacido, 1998). Coming out, the public acknowledgment of one's sexual orientation, can be an ongoing process for LGB many people. Furthermore, people may be out in certain settings and not others. It is common to encounter individuals who are very open about their sexual orientation among close friends and family. They include partners in family holidays and are comfortable attending some community events for LGB people. Yet these same...

Level of Acceptance of or Resistance to Negative Societal Views about Homosexuality

Even been blamed for incurring cataclysmic events such as punishment from a deity (Carden, 2004). Many LGB people reject such negative society views and develop a healthy sense of self. Others, however, develop schemas that incorporate these negative views, resulting in self-denigration and other negative emotions.

Treatment Of Depression With Lgb Women And

Affirmative approach to CT with several clinical populations within the LGB community. LGB-affirmative CT does not radically differ from CT in general. To practice affirmative CT, it is most important that the therapist not pathologize a person because of his her sexual orientation. LGB-affir-mative means precisely that Homosexuality or bisexuality are considered normal variants of human sexual adaptation and are not considered to be problematic. LGB individuals also need to be recognized as an oppressed group. Patients who identify with the larger LGB community may find that legislative action to prevent same-sex marriages or civil unions depictions in the media of LGB people as narcissistically focused on their looks or their sexual behavior (e.g., the character Jack on the popular TV show Will and Grace) or open hostility and harassment from family, neighbors, or cowork-ers, may have a negative impact on their psychological adjustment. Patients who do not identify with the LGB...

Facial asymmetry during spontaneous expression

The phenomenon of facial asymmetry under spontaneous conditions (see Table 1) has not been studied as much as has posed expression. Borod and her associates (Borod & Koff, 1983, 1984 Borod et al., 1983 Borod et al., 1997) examined facial asymmetry in participants at the time they were watching affect-laden slides. The left hemiface was found to be significantly more involved than the right hemiface during expression of negative emotions (Brockmeier & Ulrich, 1993 Schiff & MacDonald, 1990 Wemple at al., 1986). Asymmetries were found equally often on both sides of the faces of viewers for positive emotions (Hager & Ekman, 1985 Lynn & Lynn, 1938 Sackeim & Gur, 1978). Dopson, Beckwith, Tucker, and Bullards-Bates ( 1984) examined facial asymmetry while participants were asked to remember a happy or sad experience of their lives. The left-sided asymmetry was found for both happy and sad emotions. Others documented similar asymmetry although the effect was stronger for negative emotions...

Sessions 69 Cognitive Restructuring

Jason's mood continued to improve, and he reported that he had (quite unexpectedly) joined a community theater. We used the fact that he would have a monologue in the play as an opportunity to practice labeling and expressing emotions. Inasmuch as Jason continued to deny experiencing negative moods, we focused upon how he would express them in a play. The negative automatic thoughts he experienced while thinking about this offered an opportunity to explore the relations between thoughts and emotions. Jason acknowledged, for the first time, that he used cognitive avoidance as a coping strategy. As he remarked, When I see something bad happening, I just don't think about it.

Booster Session Preparing for the Future

Three months later Jason reported that he continued to do well. He noted that he was not depressed, that he been working part time, and that he regularly went to the movies with a group of friends. He reported that, with the exception of one class, he was doing well academically. He now readily acknowledged that the class was a problem and that he needed to fix it now. Jason had learned over the course of therapy to approach life in a new manner. He was able to reflect on problems, to generate solutions, and to tolerate negative emotions.

Patricia A Aren Leilani Feliciano

Older adults has become far more advanced. Not only are there more data to show that older adults can benefit from psychotherapies, but also we are more familiar with how these therapies should be adapted to fit the needs of current cohorts of older people (Arean, Hegel, & Reynolds, 2002). Cognitive therapy (CT) in particular has made significant advances in gerontology. In this chapter, we discuss assessment and formulation of late-life depression, data in support of CT in late-life depression, and how CT in older cohorts differs from that in younger cohorts. These issues are illustrated with the case of Mr. Z.

Spending Time with Self Help Books

I Choosing to Live How to Defeat Suicide Through Cognitive Therapy, by Thomas E. Ellis and Cory F. Newman (New Harbinger Publications, 1996) i Love Is Never Enough How Couples Can Overcome Misunderstandings, Resolve Conflicts, and Solve Relationship Problems Through Cognitive Therapy, by Aaron T. Beck (HarperCollins, 1989)

Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Combined With Other Psychotherapies

As described above, the techniques of CBT and psychodynamic psychotherapy overlap. Some theoreticians and clinicians have described psychoanalysis as a cognitive and learning treatment in which patients present with certain false and problematic beliefs about themselves, others, and the world. These views have been learned during development in early childhood, and the transference presents an important opportunity for testing these beliefs. Therefore, in addition to pointing out the catastrophic nature of these negative self-perceptions, psychodynamic psychotherapists often address patients' cognitive distortions about the therapist, such as a belief that the therapist is critical of or rejecting them. In cBT, testing and reevaluating cognitions is the central focus of the therapy, but such testing rarely includes beliefs about the therapist. In psychodynamic therapy, the central focus is on exploring the unconscious dynamisms and intrapsychic conflicts that contribute to these...


These interventions are contraindicated for highly narcissistic and borderline patients who will not be able to tolerate and metabolize the intense feelings evoked. Also, leaders who have difficulties in addressing money matters freely and containing negative feelings may not be successful in using the fee as a clinical tool.

Review Of Efficacy Research

In a more recent review, Mackin and Arean (2005) reviewed evidenced-based psychotherapies in older adults with late-life depression, covering the time period of 1840 to 2005. The authors found only 17 studies that met the criteria for an empirically supported treatment using the Chambless and Hollon (1998) criteria, which requires that there be at least 30 participants per treatment arm in the study, and that the intervention be compared to a gold standard, care as usual, or a waiting-list control. Of these, 10 studies evaluated CT in older adults with major depressive disorder, minor depression, or dysthymia. The authors concluded that for all reviewed studies, cognitive therapy resulted in better depression outcomes than did usual care, wait list control, no treatment, and placebo. In addition, several reviews found supporting evidence that treatment gains are maintained over time, for as long as 1-year posttreatment termination (e.g., Koder et al., 1996 Thompson, Coon,...

Drug Tapering and Discontinuation

There is now extensive research evidence, based on five randomized controlled trials reviewed in detail elsewhere (Fava et al., 2005), on the long-term benefits, including a lowered relapse rate, of increasing the level of remission with cognitive-behavioral strategies. In one trial, Fava et al. (1998) used the combination of CT and WBT described in this chapter and yielded dramatic differences in relapse rate compared to clinical management. In two trials, follow-up was up to 6 years (Fava et al., 2004 Paykel et al., 2005). Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York Guilford Press. Cole, A. J., Brittlebank, A. D., & Scott, J. (1994). The role of cognitive therapy in refractory depression. In W A., Nolen,J. Zohar, S. P. Roose, & J. D. Amsterdam (Eds.), Refractory depression (pp. 117-120). Chichester, UK Wiley. De Jong, R., Treiber, R., & Henrich, G. (1988). Effectiveness of two psychological treatments for inpatients with...

Bridging As a Tool to Avoid Scapegoating

The concept of scapegoating, a unified dislike or hatred of one member by the majority of the group, is often misunderstood as a phenomenon that is done to a member of a group rather than a collusion between a group and a member's defensive patterns (Gans, 1989). The role of the scapegoat is often placed upon a group member by the remainder of the group as a way to disavow negative thoughts, feelings, or behaviors that they may be experiencing. For the scapegoat, unconsciously eliciting this hostility may be in the service of avoiding positive connection and often is a replication of his or her family-of-origin negative relationship patterns. If the scapegoat is allowed to take all of this projected hostility, the group members will run the risk of becoming stuck in the split and not working with their own negative thoughts and feelings. The member who is scapegoated will often simply flee the group.

Case Conceptualization Of Comorbidity Of Gad Ocd And Ptsd

For the patient with comorbidity, the problem list likely includes difficulties related to both depression and the anxiety disorder. Some of these problems may result from the depression, the anxiety, or both disorders. The patient's mood, cognitive, behavioral, situational, and interpersonal difficulties need to be described in concrete terms. For GAD, OCD, and PTSD, avoidance may be a particularly prominent problem. Patients with GAD may use worry as a way to avoid more salient emotional topics (Borkovec, 1994), whereas patients with OCD may avoid stimuli that trigger their obsessions and compulsions, and patients with PTSD may avoid situations that trigger their intrusive thoughts related to the traumatic event. Unique problems for patients with GAD might include uncontrollable worry, muscle tension, interpersonal problems as a result of reassurance-seeking behavior, time-management problems or poor problem-solving skills. In the case of comorbidity, a working hypothesis needs to...

Loss of control and binge eating in children and adolescents

IPT is a brief, time-limited therapy that focuses on improving interpersonal functioning by relating symptoms to interpersonal problem areas and targeting strategies to improve these problems (Freeman and Gil 2004 Klerman et al. 1984). According to interpersonal theory as it relates to LOC eating, difficult interpersonal interactions, feelings of loneliness, or other negative emotions (e.g., feeling angry, bored or sad) trigger episodes of LOC eating, as people use food to cope with negative affect. Therefore, IPT is designed to improve interpersonal functioning and self-esteem, reduce negative affect and, in turn, decrease eating disorder symptoms. IPT targets negative affect by addressing social interactions that are related to mood rather than directly targeting eating behaviors. It is based on the assumption that binge eating occurs in response to poor social functioning, such as isolation and rejection, and consequent negative moods (Wilfley et al. 1997). Interpersonal...

Kay E Segal Sarah E Altman Jessica A Weissman Debra L Safer and Eunice Y Chen

Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) represents an example of one of the new-wave behavior therapies that integrate mindfulness practice into the treatment of Binge Eating Disorder (BED), e.g. acceptance commitment therapy (Lillis et al. 2011) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (Kristeller and Wolever 2010). DBT is an outpatient cognitive-behavioral therapy originally developed by Linehan (1993a, 1993b) for women with extreme emotion dysregulation and recurrent suicidal behavior i.e., borderline personality disorder (BPD). A comprehensive skills-based treatment, DBT integrates change-based behavioral strategies (e.g. problem-solving and contingency management) and crisis intervention with strategies derived from acceptance-based practices such as Zen and contemplation practice (e.g. mindfulness and validation). These strategies are integrated within a dialectical framework, emphasizing wholeness, interrelatedness, and process, and utilizing persuasive dialogue and the therapeutic...

Categorical versus Dimensional Approach to Emotion

Pleasant Unpleasant Emotions

Some researchers prefer the categorical perspective, finding it useful to thin about emotions as distinct categories rather than dimensions. For example, the emotions of anger and anxiety, although similar in terms of being high-arousal negative emotions, are nevertheless associated with different facial expressions, feelings, and action tendencies. Personality psychologists with a categorical perspective would be interested in how people dif fer from each other with respect to primary emotions, such as anger and anxiety . For example, are there individual or group dif ferences in anxiety, sadness, or aggression There are also personality psychologists who prefer to think about how people dif fer with respect to the primary dimensions of emotion. For example, who are the people who have a good deal of pleasantness in their lives Who are the people who have frequent bouts of high-arousal unpleasant emotions In this chapter , we will cover the research and findings from both of thes...

Management of Emotions

Fmri Scan Examples Psychology

Sometimes we have emotions, and sometimes emotions have us. Emotions, especially negative ones, can be particularly difficult to control. Nevertheless, we can try to inhibi the expression of negative emotions, especially under certain circumstances. Imagine that your school team just lost an important championship, and you are really unhappy , distressed, and in an irritable mood, angry at the referees and disappointed by your team. However, you have an important exam tomorrow , so you must inhibit your distracting unpleasant emotions and concentrate on studying. You can think of similar examples of emotional inhibition, such as controlling your anxiety or hiding the fact that you are disappointed. For example, have you ever received a gift you really didn' t like Perhaps you suppressed your disappointment and replaced it with some positive false emotions, smiled, and said, Thanks a lot I really wanted one of those. We all have to cover up such disappointments once in a while. But...

Emotion in the arts and in sport

The links between emotion and the arts are obvious and yet quite difficult to understand. For example, think of your emotional reactions when you read a novel, go to a play or watch some modern dance. You might react emotionally to the work itself, and to the performance in the case of the play or the dance, or to the particular characters in the novel or the performers on the stage, or to the emotions that they are apparently experiencing. Art can be abstract and yet we still react emotionally to it. Art can represent very negative emotions (as in the case of a tragedy, for example) and yet overall we might react positively to it, as a work of art.

Capsule History of Psychology

The anatomist Ernst Heinrich Weber and the physicist and philosopher Gustav Fechner measured the relations between objective changes in physical stimuli, such as brightness or weight, and subjective changes in the internal sensations the stimuli generate. The crucial finding of Weber and Fechner was that subjective differences were not simply equivalent to objective differences. Rather, it turned out that for many dimensions, the magnitude of change required to make a subjective difference ( just noticeable difference, or jnd ) increased as overall intensity increased, often following an approximately logarithmic function, known as the Weber-Fechner Law. Weber and Fechner's contribution to cognitive psychology was much more general than identifying the law that links their names. They convincingly demonstrated that, contrary to the claim that thought is inherently impossible to measure, it is in fact possible to measure mental concepts, such as the degree of sensation produced by a...

The Biological Domain

Another area in which biology and personality intersect is in the physiological systems, such as the brain or peripheral nervous system, where subtle differences between people might contribute to personality dif ferences. For example, some people might have more activity in the right half than in the left half of their brains. Based on recent evidence, we know that such an imbalance of activation between the brain hemispheres is associated with a tendency to experience distress and other negative emotions more strongly. Here, physical dif ferences between persons are associated with differences in emotional style. Because such differences represent enduring and stable ways that people dif fer from one another, and otherwise conform to our definition of personality laid out i Chapter 1, these physiological features represent aspects of personality . We'll

Sensitivity to Reward and Punishment

Some debate has focused on exactly where to locate BAS (impulsivity) and BIS (anxiety) in the conceptual space defined by Eysenck s dimensions of extraversion and introversion (Gomez, Cooper, & Gomez, 2000 Zuckerman et al., 1999). In fact, one of the authors of this book has had a series of exchanges with Gray and his colleagues about this issue (Pickering, Corr, & Gray, 1999 Rusting & Larsen, 1997, 1999). It appears that the relation between Gray' s constructs and Eysenck' s constructs is direct, with BAS being equivalent to extraversion and BIS being equivalent to neuroticism. In fact, the Canli et al. (2001) study cited earlier showed that the brains of extraverts (compared to introverts) were more reactive to pleasant, rewarding images and the brains of persons high on neuroticism are more reactive (than those low on neuroticism) to images associated with negative emotions. Many researchers

Guidelines And Intervention For A Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Gcbt Psychodrama

In addition to the Beck inventories, group members complete Young's (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003 Young & Klasko, 1994 Young, 1999) schema questionnaire(s), which allows therapists to obtain additional data on early maladaptive and dysfunctional schemas core beliefs. A list of dysfunctional schemas and core beliefs with definitions are given to participants during the initial session. The Social Network Inventory, similar to a genogram, (Treadwell, Stein, & Leach 1993) is utilized to map and quantify participants' relationships with family members, significant others, groups, and organizations. Each group member signs an informed consent form and an audiovisual recording consent form. The audiovisual recordings establish an ongoing record of group activities and serve as a source for feedback when needed.

Integrating Cognitive Behavioral with Psychodramatic Theory and Techniques

This brief chapter combines psychodrama and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) techniques in applied group settings. We illustrate the application of some CBT techniques that were found helpful in the three phases of psychodrama with college students and patients diagnosed with mood, substance abuse, anxiety, and personality disorders. Although both CBT and psychodrama models stress the discovery process through Socratic questioning, the use of certain structured CBT techniques (e.g., the Dysfunctional Thought Record) provides additional ways of stimulating the development of self-reflection and problem-solving skills. The group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) model focuses on identifying upsetting situations, automatic negative thoughts, triggered moods, writing balanced thoughts to counter negative automatic thoughts, and recognizing distortions in thinking and imprecise interpretations of difficult situations. The GCBT environment provides a supportive and safe climate to...

The Emotionally Disconnected Group

Expressing and working with emotions in the present moment of the group often represent a major challenge to people who are disconnected from their feelings and or acculturated to presenting a nice, accommodating stance in the presence of conflict. This reluctance to express so-called negative feelings is often closely associated with a suppression of body awareness and, therefore, little access to emotional awareness that can be stated in words. These disconnections can be bridged by the use of sensory and kinesthetic modes of expression, such as art, movement, and drama (Lark, 2001 Lusebrink, 1990, 2004).

Objective 1 Engaging the Patient in Treatment

The first step in accomplishing this challenging task is to gain an accurate understanding of the patient's experience, negative thinking, and cognitive distortions. Instead of dismissing the hopelessness felt by the patient and its underlying reasons, one needs to understand how the patient has come to see his her life situation as utterly hopeless. Once the therapist is able to demonstrate true empathy, the patient may be willing to consider that change is possible. Through cognitive restructuring, a patient can be helped to understand that hopelessness equals inertia and powerlessness, whereas realistic hope (i.e., hoping smart ) can result in activity, gained power, and subsequent life change. Hopeless patients commonly demonstrate all-or-none thinking (e.g., There is absolutely no hope for me ). The therapist's response needs to convey the importance of visualizing a hope continuum for various life domains (e.g., relationship with children, work situation, improved mood).

The Status of the Oscar Project

Let us look more closely at the task of enabling OSCAR to do the kinds of reasoning required of a rational agent. We have three degrees of freedom in the control of OSCAR's reasoning. First, we control the order in which reasoning is performed by stipulating how tasks are prioritized in the inference-queue. In the current LISP implementation, this is done in rather simple ways, but in principle, this can be a matter of great complexity and sophistication. This also provides one of the main handles the reflexive reasoner can use to control its own reasoning. The second degree of freedom concerns the contents of permanent-ultimate-epistemic-interests. These are, in effect, the set of instructions that drive the whole system. The third degree of freedom concerns the reason-schemas provided for the reasoner. Part of the problem of providing reason-schemas concerns constructing a system of mental representation that allows for efficient encoding of the reasoning. This has not been a topic...

Contraindica Tions

Cognitive therapy Basics and beyond. New York Guilford Press. Beck, A. T Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York Guilford Pfess. Blatner, A. (1996). Acting-In. (Third edition). New York Springer. Greenberger, H. & Padaskey, C. (1995). Mind over mood A cognitive therapy Young, J. E. (1999). Cognitive therapy for personality disorders A schema-focused approach (revised edition). Sarasota, FL Professional Resource.

Cognitive Social Learning Theory

In summary, self-efficacy beliefs can have fa -reaching effects on people's behavior. People's beliefs about what they can accomplish will influence the goals they selec for themselves. Self-ef ficacy beliefs will also lead to greater e fort and persistence on relevant tasks, often resulting in better performance. People with high self-ef ficac beliefs approach their goals with the more positive feelings associated with challenge, rather than the negative feelings associated with threat. And even in the event of failure, people with high self-ef ficacy beliefs are better able to adjust to disappointments

Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Retention, sometimes called flunking, is the practice of having a child repeat a grade in school to help the child acquire the academic and social skills needed for success in later grades. Most research, however, has found that simply repeating the same grade is not very effective. Although children who are retained often perform better during their second year in the same grade, their gains usually shrink or disappear in subsequent years. Moreover, children who are retained are more likely to develop a bad attitude toward school and are more likely to drop out of school than nonretained children with similar levels of poor achievement.

Adaptation of Standard CT for Depression

Given the invalidating climate in which LGB individuals typically are raised, it is imperative when working with this population that therapists not assume that all negative thinking is indicative of a cognitive distortion. Perhaps this is the greatest adaptation one needs to make when working with LGB patients. While attesting to the fact that lesbian and bisexual women generally have the same types of problems as nongay women, Wolfe (1992) suggested that irrational beliefs about need for the approval of others and fair treatment may lead to anger and discomfort for many lesbian and bisexual women given the continuing disapproval that they face from society at large. Therapists must recognize that the beliefthat others react negatively to an LGB person may in fact be true, and should be careful to follow the patient's lead regarding self-disclosure in various settings, while helping to evaluate the evidence for such beliefs. Patients who believe that people are hostile toward them at...

Establishing the Therapeutic Alliance

Sometimes these sources of motivation backfire and lead to eventual resistances to the interpretive work, a topic that is explored in Chapters 5 ( The Middle Phase of Treatment ) and 12 ( Managing Impasses and Negative Reactions to Treatment) of this volume. The term resistance is used to mean an obstacle to the progression of treatment, caused either by the fear and avoidance of experiencing or expressing certain feelings or ideas (some in relation to the therapist) or by the patient's substituting another desire in place of the wish to understand symptoms in treatment. The wish for a caring connection, for example, may result in the patient's excessive dependence on the therapist, with the relationship used predominantly to fulfill a wish to be cared for, rather than to further understanding. This was the case with Mr. B in Chapter 1 ( Introduction ). Also, the hunger to idealize can rapidly switch to a devaluation of the therapist when the patient's fantasies are disappointed....

Dysfunctional Thought Record DTR or Automatic Thought Record

Automatic thoughts usually contain one or more cognitive distortions (Greenberger & Padaskey, 1995). The auxiliary ego and the therapist may help the protagonist discover the possible cognitive distortion in the protagonist's stated AT. For example, for an identified all-or-nothing cognitive distortion, the therapist develops a scenario to explore the distortion in an action format to get an in- depth, concrete explanation of the protagonist's thought processes. Additional auxiliary egos or the self-presentation technique are used to represent the many conflicting selves to facilitate working through the cognitive distortion. The downward arrow technique consists of challenging the protagonist by repeatedly asking the questions If that were true, why would it be so upsetting and Being upset means what to you The technique can be used during any stage of psychodrama to explore a deeper understanding of the core beliefs schemas underlying an AT.

Psychosocial Influences On Painrelated Limitations In Cancer Survivors

Research will also be required to identify the determinants of behavioral health outcomes and functional limitations in cancer survivors with pain. In the absence of this information, the development of intervention programs is likely to proceed with little empirical direction. In the interim, based on the literature addressing the psychological determinants of pain and pain-related disability in other domains of pain research, intervention strategies that aim to reduce helplessness and catastrophic thinking, increase perceived control and self-efficacy, and maximize resumption of important life role activities may contribute to more positive health and behavioral health outcomes for cancer survivors.28,165,166 Table 2 provides a summary of priority research areas relevant to psychosocial factors associated with pain outcomes in cancer survivors. 49. Beck, A.T., Rush, A.J., Shaw, B.F., and Emery, G. Cognitive Therapy for Depression. Guilford New York, 1978. 61. Smith, T.W., O'Keefe,...

Style of Emotional Life

Affect intensity can be defined by a description of persons who are either hig or low on this dimension. Larsen and Diener (1987) describe high affect intensity individuals as people who typically experience their emotions strongly and are emotionally reactive and variable. High af fect intensity subjects typically go way up when they are feeling up and go way down when they are feeling down. They also alternate between these extremes more frequently and rapidly than do low af fect intensity individuals. Low af fect intensity individuals, on the other hand, typically experience their emotions only mildly and with only gradual fluctuations and minor reactions Such persons are stable and calm and usually do not suf fer the troughs of negative emotions. But they also tend not to experience the peaks of enthusiasm, joy , and other strong positive emotions. Note that these descriptions of high and low af fect intensity persons make use of the qualifying terms typically and usually . This...

Peer Social Status and Emotion Regulation

Our empirical research on peer relations and emotion regulation in middle childhood has been guided by several goals. We focus on interactions with peers because we think that children's capacity to regulate emotions might be most apparent in these contexts about which they care deeply, when authority figures are less in control. Although we acknowledge that positive emotions may also be regulated, we more carefully examine regulation of negative emotions such as anger because we believe that managing these is most challenging. We use combinations of questionnaire and observational methods what children think and say about their emotional behaviors is interesting and important, but does not necessarily correspond to their actual behavior when provoked. We recognize that emotion regulation may well be specific to social context, and we try to study emotional behavior in contexts that make sense for both genders. Finally, we seek to understand how gender might influence children's...

Social Phobia Social Anxiety

Target interpersonal anxiety were superior to a no treatment group on self-reported anxiety symptoms, mood, fear of evaluation, social avoidance and distress, and general irrational beliefs. Ayres et al. (1993) evaluated the effectiveness of a videotape of an SH treatment for public speaking by comparing it to both a nontherapeutic videotape and wait-list conditions. In both studies, individuals watching the therapeutic video had reduced state anxiety and negative thoughts associated with public speaking when compared to individuals in either control condition.

Personality and Problem Behaviors Gambling

Disorder (PGD) is characterized by gambling behavior that is persistent over time and that causes significant problems in the person's life, such as with family members, or at school or work. The diagnosis of PGD is made when at least 5 out of 10 criteria are present (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). These criteria include a preoccupation with or inability to control or stop gambling, the need to gamble more often or to make larger bets to obtain a level of excitement, continuing to gamble despite problems, lying to conceal gambling involvement, committing illegal acts to obtain gambling money, withdrawal symptoms of restlessness irritability when unable to gamble, and gambling to escape negative moods. These criteria look very similar to criteria for drug and alcohol addictions.

Boredom Claustrophobia And Depletion

Furthermore, the lover's impulse to surrender can alienate the beloved who is its object if she becomes horrified at the lover's abjectness and is therefore no longer able to admire or even respect him. In fact, the lover may sometimes become the object of the beloved's disparagement and negative feelings precisely because he too completely fulfills her fantasies. Insofar as the lover attempts to gratify all the material and emotional needs of the beloved, the beloved either overidentifies the lover with a maternal figure and feels stifled, or regards him as little more than an adoring puppy. The beloved cannot idealize a lover who has abandoned any pretense of autonomy. She feels the lack of stimulation, of tension. She feels she knows the lover too well, that the lover can say nothing which will expand her intellectually, do nothing which will stretch her emotionally. The relationship becomes threatened not by any tension between two autonomous people, but by the very lack of it.

Becoming a Thought Detective

Anyone is likely to feel upset for a little while after banging up a car. However, if your thoughts are intense or persistent, they provide clues about your negative thinking habits. These habits dictate how you interpret the accident and thus the way you feel about it. If you feel terribly worried, it's probably because you tend to have lots of anxious thoughts. If the accident leaves you overly down on yourself, you may be prone to depressive thoughts.

Facial asymmetry and emotional valence

Although much of the current literature suggests left facedness, that is, superiority of the right hemisphere in the expression of facial emotion, some evidence (e.g., Ehrlichman, 1987 Sackeim, Greenberg, Weiman, Gur, Hungerbuhler, & Geschwind, 1982) suggested a differential facial involvement for emotion as a function of emotional valence. The valence hypothesis proposes that negative emotions are predominantly associated with the right hemisphere and positive emotions with the left hemisphere (see reviews by Leventhal & Tomarken, 1986 Tucker, 1981). Studies on the valence hypothesis carried out by Borod and associates (Borod & Caron, 1980 Borod & Koff, 1990 Borod et al., 1983 Borod et al., 1988) indicated left facedness for negative emotions (a finding that was supported by Mandal Skinner and Mullen (1991) did a meta-analysis of 14 studies on facial asymmetry and concluded that the left hemiface expresses emotion more intensely than the right hemiface. This asymmetry was more...

Marion K Underwood Lara Mayeux Mikal Galperin

Other research and theory suggests that not only are these children using explicit rules in their play to manage affect, they are starting to appreciate and obey the largely unspoken rules for expressing and controlling emotions. Children become masters of emotional dissemblance, as they try to cope with conflicting cultural messages about emotions in social interactions be honest, but be careful about expressing negative feelings if you want to keep friends (Saarni & von Salisch, 1993). Although existing research largely supports this theoretical picture of elementary school-aged children becoming increasingly cool, calm, and collected as they deploy cultural rules for expressing emotions, much remains to be discovered about why some children become so competent in emotion regulation and whether and how girls and boys differ in their strategies for managing anger with peers.

Implications for practice

Fatigue needs an integrative approach. Exercise and physical activity should be integrated with other fatigue management strategies, including modifying dietary needs, relieving other symptoms, practicing progressive muscle relaxation, and assessing meeting emotional and spiritual needs. Cognitive therapy focusing on increasing individuals' self-efficacy can be an effective motivational intervention to encourage individuals with cancer to participate in exercise and physical activity (Haas 2000). It can be assumed that an integrative approach to fatigue management will improve the ability of cancer patients and survivors to manage their fatigue.

DBTs Biosocial Theory of BPD

In an invalidating environment, the individual's communications about his her private experiences are frequently met with responses that suggest they are invalid, faulty, or inappropriate, or that they oversimplify the ease of solving the problem. Consequently, the individual may come to self-invalidate and not learn how to label accurately, communicate about, or regulate emotions. Communications of negative emotions may be ignored or punished, but extreme communications may be taken more seriously, so the individual learns to inhibit emotional expression or to respond to distress with extreme behaviors.

Is Disgust Responsible For Some Phobias

Second, the design is quasi-experimental. Participants were not randomly assigned to be spider phobic or BII phobic. This makes it difficult to exclude other possible differences between the groups. Obviously, however, it would be difficult to carry out the study in any other way. It would be clearly unethical to attempt to deliberately induce phobias in experimental groups. However, studies are occasionally carried out where negative emotions are induced temporarily. Another possibility is to carry out a prospective study, a suggestion made by Sawchuck et al. In a prospective study a sample would be gathered before any phobia develops, and followed longitudinally.

Middle Phase of Treatment Sessions

Objective 1 Modifying Negative Suicide-Relevant Automatic Thoughts and Core Beliefs Once the patient's automatic thoughts and core beliefs in relation to his her suicidal behavior are identified, the therapist first assists the patient in evaluating these cognitions and, second, in modifying them. Patients are initially taught to evaluate their automatic thoughts by gaining an understanding of their most commonly utilized cognitive distortions. A Dysfunctional Thought Record can be used to teach the patient about more effective responses to daily distortions in the form of automatic thoughts. Emphasis is placed on the impact of these cognitive distortions on the accompanying emotional, physiological, and behavioral reactions. The next step is to educate the patient about his her core beliefs. What is important for the patient to understand at this stage is that such beliefs are generally rooted in childhood events, not in absolute truth, and can be tested, as well as changed. The...

Biphasic Mood Disorder

Psychological theories of depression generally view interpersonal losses (actual or perceived) as risk factors for developing depression. In fact, available evidence suggests that childhood loss of a parent or loss of a spouse are associated with depression. Classic psychoanalytic theories center on ambivalence toward the lost object (person), although more recent theories focus on the critical importance of the object relationship in maintaining psychic equilibrium and self-regard. The cognitive-behavioral model views cognitive distortions as the primary events that foster a negative misperception oi the world, which in turn generate negative emotions. The learned helplessness model (based on animal studies) suggests that depression arises when individuals come to believe they have no control over the stresses and pains that beset them.

Worksheet 39Jasmines Reflections

I realize that when I don't try, I still end up failing, so not trying isn't really an advantage. And yes, change may be a lot of work and seem overwhelming, but I'm utterly miserable. When I think about it, I get satisfaction from helping others. So logically, they wouldn't mind helping me from time to time. I could use some help, and it might feel really nice to get close to people. On balance, these change-blocking beliefs are keeping me stuck. 1. In Worksheet 3-10, write down each of your change-blocking beliefs (see Worksheet 3-6).

Brief Ongoing Assessment of Suicide

Beck's cognitive model of depression and emotional disorders serves as the foundation for the intervention presented in this section (Beck, 1976 Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979). The model posits that activated maladaptive cognitions in the form of automatic thoughts, assumptions, and core beliefs may result in suicide behavior. More specifically, Beck (1996) proposes a theory of modes, which refers to structural and operational units of personality that consist of a composite of unified and functionally synchronous cognitive, affective, motivational, and behavioral systems. A suicide mode can be activated should the patient, for instance, experience loss-related cognitions (e.g., I have lost all that is important to me ), suicide-related cognitions (e.g., Life is no longer worth living ), sad or angry affect, passivity in seeking help, and or increased impulsivity and motivation to plan and subsequently act upon injuring him herself.

Examining Effects of Earliest Pubertal Changes on Mood in Preadolescent Girls

Girls completed Daily Mood Diaries (Buchanan, 1991) on two consecutive evenings at Time 1 and at Time 2. Girls rated on a 5-point Likert scale the degree to which they experienced a range of feelings (excited, sad, impatient, happy, tired, friendly, ashamed, nervous, proud) on the particular day that they completed the diary. Principal components factor analyses were conducted to determine how many underlying constructs or dimensions accounted for the majority of variance in the Daily Mood Diary. A positive mood dimension emerged, which consisted of happy, excited, and proud moods. Girls' scores on these three moods were averaged across the two days at each time point to yield positive mood scores. The negative moods on the Daily Mood Diary failed to significantly load together on one or more factors, and thus, failed to result in a reliable mood composite. It appeared that anger and sadness were the more distinct emotions or feelings and they were therefore used as separate dependent...

Robin B Jarrett Jeffrey R Vittengl Lee Anna Clark

Relapse and recurrence prevention are essential to improving treatments for depressed individuals. In this chapter, we describe how to reduce the likelihood of relapse by using continuation-phase cognitive therapy (C-CT) for adults with recurrent major depressive disorder (Jarrett, 1989 Jarrett & Kraft, 1997), and we present an overview of the conceptual and empirical foundations of C-CT. We show why many patients may benefit from C-CT how to begin implementing this treatment to reduce relapse, and to promote remission and recovery and why diagnostic evaluation is central in caring for patients with recurrent major depressive disorder across their lifespan.

Stages of Learning Acquisition Generalization and Maintenance of New Skills

Sample Compensatory Skills Learned during Cognitive Therapy Cognitive model Identifies automatic negative thoughts and completes thought records. Identifies automatic negative thoughts and completes thought records. Identifies thinking or logical errors. Notices a change in mood after analyzing automatic thoughts. Examines automatic negative thoughts logically and or rationally. Looks for alternative explanations when he she has negative thoughts. Weighs the evidence for and against negative thoughts. Is able to separate facts from beliefs. Sees the difference between thinking styles when feeling depressed versus not. Identifies automatic negative thoughts and completes thought records. Looks at how negative thinking affects his her predictions about the future. Examines underlying assumptions (or schemas) and how they contribute to his her depression. Identifies automatic negative thoughts and completed thought records.

Common Approaches To Neuropsychological Evaluation

The fixed battery approach falls at the extremes of fixed test selection, standardized administration, and actuarial interpretation. It is best exemplified by the Halstead-Reitan Battery (4). The process, or hypothesis-testing, approach emphasizes qualitative aspects of neuropsychological functions, which are found in developmental and cognitive psychology. Champions of the process approach promote testing the limits with patients and assessing the component processes of cognition, rather than relying exclusively upon summary scores. In other words, the process approach views critically how a task is solved and how the solution unfolds over time, rather than the achievement score quantifying the quality of the end product.

Cultural Consensus Theory

Consensus theory uses much of the accumulated knowledge of traditional psychometric test theory without assuming knowledge of the correct answers in advance. Traditional test theory begins with respondent-item performance data (i.e., items' scores as correct or incorrect ), whereas consensus theory begins with response data (items coded as responses given by the respondent, for example, true or false, without scoring the responses). The different models of the theory depend on the format of the questions, for example, true-false, multiple choice, or ranking. Anthropology is the prototypical social science that can use such a methodology however, research in other areas of social and behavioral science, such as cognitive psychology, social networks, and sociology, can also benefit from its use.

Individual Psychotherapy

Stine Levy, an autism consultant in Indiana, is a pioneer in developing individual therapy approaches for people with AS-HFA. She suggests that visual structure, such as making lists on a wipe-board or piece of paper, is helpful even for higher functioning and older individuals with autism or Asperger syndrome. Since there is often a tendency to think in a black-and-white fashion, such lists can be divided into two columns problems-solutions, pros-cons, realistic-unrealistic, strengths-weaknesses, helpful-unhelpful, and so on. Cognitive-behavioral therapy approaches, in which the person is helped to make explicit links between thoughts, feelings, and behavior, are often useful. Concretely associating specific situations with negative thoughts and feelings can help the person with AS-HFA gradually develop more insight into his or her behavior patterns and greater awareness of how his or her beliefs influence his or her feelings. This, in turn, can increase his or her sense of control...

Verbatim Patient Disclosure

Multiple questions and statements are then asked and given by other patients in the group. My focus is toward guiding the patient to understand that he, (in this case), has an overriding negative belief system and that changing negative thinking into more positive thoughts will facilitate the recovery process. Following are examples of the types of questions posed Various group members become involved and share their own faulty cognitions and how they have worked at changing them. Some members recommend, through their past experiences, that changing a negative mind-set to a positive one can be accomplished through the use of exercises. The patient makes a list of negative thoughts on one side of the paper and then on the direct opposite side of the paper, the patient counters his or her arguments with positive responses. For example Negative Thought Positive Thought It is suggested that the patients begin this list in the group and then take it home as homework and work toward finding...

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