Testosterone

Licorice may decrease testosterone levels, although clinical tests have produced conflicting results (Armanini et al 1999, 2003a, 2004, Sakamoto & Wakabayashi 1988, Takeuchi et al 1991). Observe and monitor patients for reduced testosterone effects.

DICLOFENAC SODIUM (NSAID)

In vitro studies have shown that the addition of GL enhanced the topical absorption of diclofenac sodium (Nokhodchi et al 2002), which may be a beneficial interaction.

x-v POTASSIUM

Licorice may reduce the effect of potassium supplementation. A case report exists of a 69-year-old female developing hypokalemia while taking potassium supplements and a mouth freshener containing licorice concurrently. The daily intake of GA was estimated at 6-10 mg/day (Kageyama et al 1997). In many cases potassium supplementation may be beneficial in reducing the hypokalemic side-effects of licorice.

©DRUGS METABOLISED BY LIVER ENZYMES CYP3A4, 2B6, 2C9, 2E1 OR 1A1

Licorice inhibits CYP3A4 in vitro (Budzinski et al 2000), the glabridin constituent inhibits CYP2B6, 2C9 and 3A4 in vitro (Kent et al 2002), GA inhibits expression of CYP2E1 in animal studies (Jeong et al 2002) and GL enhances the detoxifying activity of CYP1A1 (Chan et al 2003). Until testing in humans can establish whether the effects are clinically significant and relevant to licorice in therapeutic doses, caution is advised if licorice is administered with drugs chiefly metabolised by these enzymes. (See chapter on Interactions for more information.)

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