Signs And Symptoms Of Deficiency

The previously determined serum concentrations of 25-OHD believed to be indicative of deficiency (<20-25 nmol/L) are considered outdated (Gomez et al 2003). It is now apparent that much higher concentrations, deemed 'suboptimal' status, have deleterious effects (Nowson & Margerison 2002).

• Rickets and osteomalacia.

• Osteopenia and osteoporosis.

• Excess PTH secretion and parathyroid hyperplasia.

• Increased risk of fracture in the elderly (this is not just based on the influence of vitamin D on bone mass).

• Generalised muscle weakness. Vitamin D 1309

• Stunted growth. © 2007 Elsevier Australia

• Generalised muscle and bone pain.

• Chronic lower back pain (Al Faraj & Al Mutairi 2003).

• Cardiomegaly.

• Increased susceptibility to infections.

• Anaemia, decreased bone cellularity and extramedullary erythopoiesis.

• Impaired glucose-mediated insulin secretion (Brown et al 1999). An association has been suggested between fibromyalgia presenting with generalised muscle weakness and pain and hypovitaminosis (Holick 2004).

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