Other Actions

• Regulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

• Inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation by inhibiting protein kinase C activity.

• Inhibits phopholipase A2 activity, suppressing arachidonic acid metabolism.

• Antiplatelet activity: demonstrated in vitro, but in vivo tests have been inconsistent for D-alpha-tocopherol.

• Modulates vascular function by regulating the enzymatic activities of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and NAD(P)H oxidase (Ulker et al 2003).

• Analgesic activity: most likely mediated via effects on COX-2 and 5-lipooxygenase.

• Promotes wound healing.

• Influences signal transduction pathways and participates in the synthesis pathways of neurotransmitters.

• Exerts neuroprotective effects.

• Modulates the expression of genes that are involved in atherosclerosis (e.g. scavenger receptors, integrins, selectins, cytokines, cyclins) (Munteanu et al 2004).

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