Minerals

Calcium

Women: 1000 mg >50yo 1300 mg Men: 1000 mg >70 yo 1300 mg

250-2000 mg/d ay

Treating deficiency Prevention of secondary deficiency (e.g. achlorhydrla and malabsorption syndromes)

Prevention of osteoporosis, pre-eclampsla, maintenance of bone density, colorectal cancer

Symptoms of PMS Hypertension and hyperllpldaemla Dyspepsia

Hypersensitivity

Hyperparathyroldls m

Chronic kidney disease

Hypercalcemia

Gastrointestinal discomfort, nausea, loss of appetite, constipation, flatulence, metallic taste, muscle weakness

Increased serum calcium level may be associated with hypotonia, depression, lethargy and coma Prolonged hypercalcaemlc state, especially If normal or elevated serum phosphate; can precipitate ectopic calcification of blood vessels, joints, gastric mucosa, cornea and renal tissue

Chromium

Women: 25/ig Men: 3 5/ig

Diabetes

Hypoglycemia

Hyperllpldaemla

Obesity

Atypical depression Polycystic ovary syndrome Syndrome X

Hypersensitivity

Irritability and Insomnia have been reported with chromium yeast supplementation Chromium plcollnate Is well tolerated

Chromium IV Is used In Industry and Is highly toxic, whereas Cr III, which Is used In supplements, Is well tolerated

Vitamin/ mineral

Australian and New Zealand RDI for adults

(>18yo)

Dose range used in practice

Major uses

(oral or topical forms)

Cautions

Side-effects

Toxicity

Iodine

150 /jg

0.5-6 mg

Treating deficiency Preventing deficiency In high-risk g rou ps Fibrocystic breast disease Mastalgla

Hypersensitivity Hyperthyroidism

Symptoms of Iodine hypersensitivity are fever, painful joints, lymph node enlargement, eosinophils, urticaria, anglo-oedema, cutaneous and mucosal haemorrhage and fatal peri-a rteritis

Chronic Iodine toxicity when Intake Is >2 mg/day

Symptoms: brassy taste In mouth, burning sensation In mouth and throat, Increased salivation, gastric Irritation, acnelform skin lesions, pulmonary oedema, depression

>50 yo: 8 mg Men: 8 mg

10-100 mg/day

Treating deficiency Prevention of secondary deficiency (e.g. menorrhagla, cystic fibrosis) Unexplained fatigue without anaemia Improving athletic performance

Hypersensitivity

Haemochromatosls

Haemoslderosls

Iron-loading anaemias

(thalassaemla, sideroblastic anaemia)

Liquid Iron preparations can discolour teeth

(brush teeth after use)

Gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea, diarrhoea, constipation, heartburn, uppergastrlc discomfort

Haemochromatosls can develop from long-term excessive Intake Iron toxicity causes severe organ damage and death

The most pronounced effects a re haemorrhaglc necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract and liver damage

Vitamin/ mineral

Australian and New Zealand RDI for adults

(>18yo)

Dose range used in practice

Major uses

(oral or topical forms)

Cautions

Side-effects

Toxicity

Magnesium

Women: 310 mg >30 yo: 32 mg Men: 400 mg >30 yo 420 mg

200-750 mg/da y

Treating deficiency Prevention of secondary deficiency (e.g. inflammatory bowel diseases, diabetes, hyperthyroidism) Alleviating symptoms of coronary heart disease, reducing hypertension, reducing plasma lipid levels, reducing Incidence of arrhythmias In congestive heart failure Prevention of migraine headache, premenstrual headache, osteoporosis

Hypersensitivity Renal failure and heart block (unless pacemaker present)

Most common

Diarrhoea and gastric Irritation; usually not seen at doses <350 mg/day (elemental)

Overuse of magnesium hydroxide or magnesium sulfate may cause deficiencies of other minerals or lead to toxicity

Other side-effects

Decreased heart rate, hypotension, muscle weakness

Most commonly seen In patients with renal Insufficiency Symptoms: muscle weakness, sedation, ECG changes, confusion, hypotension

Magnesium

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.

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