Info

Studies Involving large populations found minimal or no toxicity with 100-1 50 mg/day over 5-10 years, whereas women self-medlcatlng for PMS taking 117 ± 92 mg for 2.9 ± 1.9years have reported Increased Incidence of peripheral neuropathy

Vitamin/ mineral

Australian and New Zealand RDI for adults

(>18yo)

Dose range used in practice

Major uses

(oral or topical forms)

Cautions

Side-effects

Toxicity

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)

2'4/jg

2-2000 mg/day

Treating deficiency Prevention of secondary deficiency (e.g. atrophic gastritis, achlorhydrla) Pernicious anaemia Hyperhomocystelnaemla (with B6 and folate) Depression HIV Infection Cognitive Impairment Diabetic retinopathy Sleep disorders Tinnitus

Hypersensitivity Avoid In cases of altered cobalamin metabolism or deficiency associated with chronic cyanide Intoxication

None known

Well tolerated

Folate

400 /ig

1-15 mg/day

Treating deficiency Prevention of secondary deficiency (e.g. malabsorption syndromes such as coellac and Crohn's disease, HIV Infection) Preconception care and pregnancy (prevention of neural tube defects) Hyperhomocystelnaemla Cognitive Impairment Reducing Incidence of cancer Vitiligo

Topical: periodontal disease

Hypersensitivity Use may mask B12 deficiency by correcting the apparent microcytic anaemia without altering the potential for or progression of neurological damage

Doses >5 mg/day: generalised urticaria, nausea, flatulence and bitter taste In the mouth and some CNS activation In the form of Irritability and excitability, altered sleep pattern

Non-toxic

Vitamin/ mineral

Australian and New Zealand RDI for adults

(>18yo)

Dose range used in practice

Major uses

(oral or topical forms)

Cautions

Side-effects

Toxicity

Vitamin C

45 mg

250-12,000 mg/day orally in divided doses More is used when administered IV

Treating deficiency Prevention of secondary deficiency (e.g. heavy smokers, achlorhydria, chronic diarrhoea, major surgery)

Treat iron deficiency anaemia (with iron) Preventing and treating common URTI such as colds and influenza and mild allergic responses Prevention and adjunctive treatment of cardiovascular disease and cancer

Hypersensitivity Increases iron, and decreases copper, abso rption Renal impairment Interacts with numerous laboratory tests (e.g. serum cholesterol and triglycerides and urinary oxalate)

None expected if <3000^000 mg/day but this varies between individuals

Gastrointestinal upset: nausea, diarrhoea, flatulence, distension Hyperoxaluria and renal stones now considered doubtful

Considered non-toxic

Vitamin C

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