Vitamin A maintains the health of epithelial cells in the body, which form an important barrier to infection, and immune system function. More specifically, studies in animal models and cell lines show that vitamin A and related retinoids play a major role in immunity, including expression of mucins and keratins, lymphopoiesis, production of antibodies, and the function of neutrophils, NK cells, macrophages, T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes (Semba 1999). It has also been shown to potentiate antibody responses and lymphocyte proliferation in response to antigens and restore the integrity and function of mucosal surfaces (Semba 1994).
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