Hepatorestorative Oral administration of Korean red ginseng (250 and 500 mg/kg) on liver regeneration has been investigated in 1 5 dogs with partial hepatectomy. All haematological values except leukocyte counts were within normal ranges for 3 days postoperatively. The levels of AST and ALT in the ginseng groups were significantly decreased compared with those in the control group (P < 0.05). The numbers of degenerative cells and area of connective tissue were significantly decreased in the livers of the dogs treated with ginseng (P < 0.01) (Kwon et al

Antiulcerative Ginseng has been shown in several studies to protect against ulceration. Among the hexane, chloroform, butanol and water fractions, the butanol fraction of a ginseng extract has been shown to be the most potent inhibitor of HCI-induced gastric lesions and ulcers induced by aspirin, acetic acid and Shay (ulcer induced by pylorus ligation). The butanol fraction showed significant increase in mucin secretion, and inhibited malondialdehyde and H+/K+ATPase activity in the stomach. These results indicate that the effectiveness of ginseng on gastric damage might be related to inhibition of acid secretion, increased mucin secretion and antioxidant properties (Jeong 2002).

Effects on peristalsis Ginseng root extract, and its components, ginsenoside Rb1 (4) and ginsenoside Rd(7), have been shown to significantly ameliorate chemically induced acceleration of small intestinal transit in vivo. The test results suggest that the protective mechanism involves both an inhibitory effect on the cholinergic nervous system and a direct suppressive effect on intestinal muscles (Hashimoto et al 2003).

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