Replacing animal protein with soy protein has been found to improve various disease markers in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and people with obesity. In a RCT of 104 patients with type 2 diabetes, 12 months of a soy-based meal replacement was found to significantly improve weight loss, HbAlc and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels and significantly reduce the use of sulfonylureas and metformin compared to the use of individual diet plans (Li et al 2005). Another randomised trial involving 90 obese (non-diabetic) subjects suggests that 6 months on a low-fat, high-soy-protein diet can help to reduce fat while preserving muscle mass and improving glycaemic control and the lipid profile (Deibert et al 2004).
Soy protein supplementation is also reported to be of benefit in a number of pilot Soy 1115
studies of diabetic nephropathy. In a controlled crossover trial, 8 weeks of
substituting soy protein for animal protein significantly reduced glomerular filtration rates in 12 young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (Stephenson et al 2005). In another crossover trial, isolated soy protein significantly reduced urinary albumin and improved lipid profiles in 14 men with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy (Teixeira et al 2004). Similarly, improvement in lipid profile and renal function was observed in another randomised crossover clinical trial of 14 patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy consuming a 35% soy protein and 30% vegetable protein diet for 7 weeks (Azadbakht et al 2003).
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