Common Forms Available

The terms l-glutamine and glutamine are often used interchangeably. l-glutamine is the amide form of l-glutamic acid and contains 1 5.7% nitrogen (Kohlmeier 2003). It is also known as 2-aminoglutaramie acid, levoglutamide, (S)-2,5-diamino-5-oxopentaenoic acid and glutamic acid 5-amide.

Two synthetic glutamine dipeptides that may be used in TPN are l-alanyk-glutamine (Ala-Gin) and glycyl-l-glutamine (Gly-GIn). d-glutamine, the stereoisomer of l-glutamine, has no known biological activity (Kohlmeier 2003, PDRHealth 2006b).

Since the late 1960s L-GIn has been manufactured for pharmaceutical use using a fermentation broth. The manufacture of high-quality, low-cost L-GIn requires a strain of microorganism with good production efficiency and minimum by-products. Impurities can then be removed from the broth using a nanofiltration membrane to obtain a fine crystalline powder (Kusumoto 2001, Li et al 2003).

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