Adhatoda has not been significantly investigated in clinical studies, so information is generally derived from in vitro and animal studies and is largely speculative. COUGH

The antitussive activity of adhatoda extract has been compared to that of codeine in two different models of coughing and in two different animal species (Dhuley 1999). When administered orally, Adhatoda vasica extract produced antitussive effects comparable to those of codeine against coughing induced by peripheral irritant stimuli. When coughing was induced by electrical stimulation of the tracheal mucosa, adhatoda extract was only one-quarter as active as codeine. Intravenous administration was far less effective in both cough models. A double-blind, randomised, controlled trial of Adhatoda vasica in combination with Echinacea purpurea and Eieutherococcus senticosuswas compared with an Echinacea and Eieutherococcus mixture and bromhexine (Narimanian et al 2005). Bromhexine is a semi-synthetic derivative of the alkaloid vasicine found in Adhatoda vasica (Grange & Snell 1996) © 2007 Elsevier Australia

and is found in some pharmaceutical cough mixtures. The Adhatoda vasica combination reduced the severity of cough, increased mucus discharge and reduced nasal congestion compared to the other two formulas. Both the herbal mixtures reduced the frequency of cough compared to bromhexine.

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