Chemical Components

The flower contains water-soluble mucilage, polysaccharides, flavonoids (including apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol and rutin), caffeicacid derivatives, iridoid monoterpenes, triterpene saponins (verbascosaponin), sterols and invert sugar.

One of the most investigated constituents isolated from plants in the Verbascum species is verbascoside, an iridoid glucoside. Whether the pharmacological effects demonstrated for this single constituent can be extrapolated to explain those for mullein is uncertain, as the effects of any herb are due to a number of phyto-constituents and their interaction with each other and the body. As such, information about verbascoside is included here in order to provide a further insight into the herb, but it should be interpreted accordingly.

Verbascoside has also been isolated from other herbs such as Verbena officinalis, Echinacea purpurea roots, Euphrasia pectlnata, Phlomls longlfolla, Pedicularis pllcata, Duranta erecta, Marrubium alysson, Leonurus glaucescens and Balotta nigra (Calis et al 1992a, b, Deepak & Handa 2000, Ersoz et al 2000, 2001, Liao et al 1999, Seidel et al 2000, Sloleyetal 2001, Takeda etal 1995). Mullein 860

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