Antiretroviral And Antibacterial

Although in vitro and studies in animal models have identified antiretroviral activity for hypericin and pseudohypericin (Meruelo et al 1988), two clinical trials could not confirm these effects, even when larger doses of hypericin were administered (Gulick et al 1999, Jacobson et al 2001).

The mechanism involved is not known; however, it is suspected to involve direct inactivation of the virus or prevention of virus shedding, budding or assembly at the cell membrane (Meruelo et al 1988). The presence of light is an important requirement for antiretroviral activity to be demonstrated as the effect appears to be photoactivated (Hudson et al 1993, Miskovsky 2002).

Hyperforin has also demonstrated antiviral and antibacterial activity (Medina et al 2006). Hyperforin exhibits effective antibacterial activity against MRSAand other Gram-positive bacteria, but no growth-inhibitory effect on Gram-negative bacteria or Candida albicans (Schempp et al 1999).

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