Ginger extract and several of its main constituents exhibit antimicrobial activity in vitro Ginger 508
and in vivo. Ginger extract has been shown to have an antibacterial effect against
Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus collected from throat swaps of Infected Individuals. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ginger ranged from 0.0003-0.7 fjg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 0.135-2.04^g/mL (Akoachere et al 2002). Ginger has also shown antischistosomal activity. Gingerol (5.0 ppm) completely abolished the infectivity of Schistosoma spp. (blood flukes) in animal studies (Adewunmi et al 1990). Gingerol and shogaol exhibited potent molluscicidal activity in vivo.
Gingerols demonstrated antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli in vitro (Yamada et al 1992), and the essential oils of ginger have been shown to have antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi in vitro (Martins et al 2001). Shogaol and gingerol have demonstrated anti-nematode activities; 6.25 fjg/mL 6-shogaol destroyed Anisakis larvae within 16 hours in vitro, whereas the antinematodal medication pyrantel pamoate had no lethal effect at 1 mg/mL (Goto et al 1990). Ginger constituents have also been shown to be antifungal and antiviral. Shogaol and zingerone strongly inhibited Salmonella typhi, Vibrio choleraeand Tricophyton violaceum. Aqueous extracts have also been shown to be effective against Trichomonas vaginalis (Henry & Piggott 1987). Several sesquiterpenes, but especially beta-sesquiphellandrene, isolated from ginger have also been shown to have antirhinoviral activity in vitro (Denyer et al 1994).
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