References

Retinol, A-tocopherol and carotenoids in diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 53(8) (1999) 630-5. Alaluf S et al. Dietary carotenoids contribute to normal human skin color and UV photosensitivity. J Nutr 132(3) (2002) 399-403. Albanes D. Beta-carotene and lung cancer a case study. Am J Clin Nutr 69(6) (1999) 1345-50S. Albanes D et al. Alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements and lung cancer incidence in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study effects of...

Minerals

Women 1000 mg > 50yo 1300 mg Men 1000 mg > 70 yo 1300 mg Treating deficiency Prevention of secondary deficiency (e.g. achlorhydrla and malabsorption syndromes) Prevention of osteoporosis, pre-eclampsla, maintenance of bone density, colorectal cancer Symptoms of PMS Hypertension and hyperllpldaemla Dyspepsia Gastrointestinal discomfort, nausea, loss of appetite, constipation, flatulence, metallic taste, muscle weakness Increased serum calcium level may be associated with hypotonia,...

Cholesterol Reduction

Flavonoids are known to reduce cholesterol. A 30-day study of induced hyperlipidaemia in rats found that baicalein, quercetin, rutin and naringin reduced cholesterol, with baicalein being the most potent. Baicalein was also the most effective flavonoid in reducing triglyceride levels (De Oliveira et al 2002). In another in vivo study, rats were fed a cholesterol-laden diet and half were also given 5. baicalensis radix extract (Regulska-llow et al 2004). The treatment rats displayed a...

Atopic Dermatitis And Eczema

Probiotics have the potential to moderate inflammatory and immune responses and strengthen the intestinal barrier function, three actions that are useful in addressing the underlying pathophysiological processes involved in atopic dermatitis (AD) and eczema (Rosenfeldt et al 2004). The use of probiotic therapy to prevent allergic disease has been demonstrated in studies using L. rhamnosus GG in neonates, whereas studies in infants and children with established AD have found that probiotics...

Reward Deficiency Syndrome

Tyrosine depletion appears to affect reward-based processing (McLean et al 2004) and tests involving reward punishment processing are affected by dopamine depletion (Roiser et al 2005). A lack of D2 receptors and or dopamine depletion states have been implicated in a number of conditions or destructive behaviours thought to be caused by poorly functioning biochemical reward systems. Individuals tend to be at risk of multiple addictive, impulsive and compulsive behavioural problems, such as...

Antiinflammatory

The anti-inflammatory action of GA is largely mediated by Cortisol, an endogenous hormone with anti-inflammatory action (Teelucksingh et al 1990). Several studies have found that GA inhibits the activity of 11 HSD and hepatic delta-4-5-beta-steroid reductase, preventing the conversion of Cortisol to its inactive metabolite, cortisone (Kageyama et al 1997, MacKenzie et al 1990, Soma et al 1994, Whorwood et al 1993). As such, Cortisol activity is prolonged and levels may rise, thereby increasing...

Antihypertensive

In the 1970s Yamagami et al observed a deficiency in CoQ10 in patients with hypertension (1975, 1976) and suggested that correction of the deficiency could result in hypertensive effects. Small studies were initially conducted with hypertensive patients identified as CoQ10 deficient. Since then, significant antihypertensive activity has been observed in several clinical studies (Burke et al 2001, Digiesi et al 1994, Langsjoen et al 1994), however, not all have identified the subjects' baseline...

Info

Enhancement of activities relative to fatty acid oxidation in the liver of rats depleted of L-carnitine by D-carnitine and gammabutyrobetaine hydroxylase inhibitor. Biochem Pharmacol 49(10) (1995) 1403-10. Van-Oudheusden LJ, Scholte HR. Efficacy of carnitine in the treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 67(1) (2002) 33-8. Vescovo G et al. L-Carnitine a potential treatment for blocking apoptosis and preventing...

Index

This is an index to the herbal medicines, conditions and main actions (clinical uses) discussed in this book. Minor actions and drug interactions have not been indexed for each medicine (although drug interactions are indexed when discussed in the chapters). Related information might be found under clinical uses and effects for each condition of interest (eg under 'hyperlipidaemia' and 'lipid-lowering activity'). Page locators indicate the first page number only, but not a page range for a...

Interleukin2 Immunotherapy

Clinical trials using l-carnitine (1 g day orally) found that it may be used successfully to prevent cardiac complications during IL-2 immunotherapy in cancer patients with clinically relevant cardiac disorders (Lissoni et al 1993). Thus a beneficial interaction is possible under professional supervision. Research into the use of l-carnitine 4 g day for 7 days showed a reduction in fatigue resulting from treatment with cisplatin (Graziano et al 2002) beneficial interaction is possible under...

Dyspepsia

In a systematic review of herbal medicines for functional dyspepsia, Coon and Ernst (2002) found 17 randomised clinical trials, 9 of which involved peppermint and caraway combination preparations with 60-95 of patients reporting improvements in symptoms. An enteric-coated capsule (Enteroplant) containing 90 mg peppermint oil (WS-1340) and 50 mg caraway oil (WS-1520) has been shown in a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre trial with 45 patients to significantly improve symptoms of...

Tinea Pedis

Under double-blind, randomised test conditions 104 subjects with tinea pedis (athlete's foot) used 10 w w tea tree oil cream or 1 tolnaftate or placebo creams as treatment (Tong et al 1992). In this study, significantly more tolnaftate-treated patients (85 ) than tea tree oil (30 ) and placebo-treated (21 ) patients showed conversion to negative culture at the end of therapy. However, tea tree oil cream reduced symptoms as effectively as tolnaftate 1 . A more recent randomised, double-blinded,...

Contraindications And Precautions

There are no known contraindications for the flower head extracts. Concentrated isoflavone extracts should only be used by people with oestrogen-sensitive cancers under professional supervision because of the possible proliferative effects. Additionally, people with conditions that may be aggravated by increased oestrogen levels, such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids, should use this herb under professional supervision only. V Scientific evidence for the use of red clover during pregnancy...

Antidiabetic

Gymnema's antidiabetic activity appears to be due to a combination of mechanisms, including reduction of intestinal absorption of glucose (Shimizu et al 2001), inhibition of active glucose transport in the small intestine (Yoshioka 1986), suppression of glucose-mediated release of gastric inhibitory peptide (Fushiki et al 1992), increased activity of the enzymes responsible for glucose uptake and use (Shanmugasundaram et al 1983), stimulation of insulin secretion (Persaud et al 1999, Sugihara...

Important Cofactor In Many Biochemical Reactions

As a constituent of over 300 metalloenzymes, zinc is involved in myriad chemical reactions that are important for normal body functioning, such as carbohydrate metabolism, protein and DNA synthesis, protein digestion, bone metabolism and endogenous antioxidant systems (Beers et al 1999, Wahlqvist et al 1997, Wardlaw et al 1997). At the cellular level, the function of zinc can be divided into three categories catalytic, structural and regulatory (King 2003). Growth and development Zinc is...

Anticancer

Oral intake of standardised P. ginseng extract demonstrates a dose dependant (1, 3 or 10 mg kg) chemoprotective and antimutagenic effect in animal studies (Panwar et al 2005) and ginsenoside Rg3 has recently been produced as an antiangiogenic anticarcinogenic drug in China (Shibata 2001 ). Chemoprotection Oral administration of red ginseng extracts (1 in diet for 40 weeks) significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed spontaneous liver tumour formation in male mice. Oral white ginseng was also shown to...

Chemoprotective And Adjunct In Cancer Therapy

Rosemary was used topically to treat cancer in ancient Greece and South America. Although controlled trials are yet to be conducted, it has been suggested that rosemary may delay and inhibit tumour formation in women with breast cancer (Abascal & Yarnell 2001) and that it has potential as a preventive agent or as an adjunct in cancer therapy. An in vitro study in human breast cancer cells found that rosemary extract increased the intracellular accumulation of commonly used chemotherapeutic...

Vaginitis And Cervicitis

Clinical data support the use of tea tree oil for vaginitis and cervicitis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis or Candida albicans (WHO 2003). An open study found that intravaginal application of tampons saturated in a diluted emulsified solution successfully healed vaginitis and cervicitis (n 130) caused by T. vaginalis. Vaginal pessaries containing 0.2 g essential oil inserted nightly eradicated symptoms of leucorrhoea and burning in 86 of women with C. a b 'cans vaginitis after 30 days in with...

Viral Myocarditis

Findings from a recent Cochrane systematic review of Chinese herbs used in viral myocarditis provide limited supportive evidence for its use however, further research is required before a definitive conclusion can be made (Liu JP et al 2004). Several in vivo and in vitro studies have found some antagonistic effects on the enterovirus coxsackie B and a reduction in myocardial injury (Lu et al 1999, Peng et al 1995, Rui et al 1993, Yang et al 1990) thought to be due to the astragalosides in the...

Pregnancy Use

Considered safe when ingested at usual dietary doses. Deficiency is extremely rare as pantothenic acid is widely distributed and present in nearly all plant and animal foods. Those at risk of reduced vitamin status are alcoholics, diabetics and people with malabsorption syndromes. Pantethine reduces total cholesterol levels significantly, according to controlled studies in both healthy and diabetic people. Dexpanthenol cream acts like a moisturiser, activates fibroblast proliferation,...

Antiretroviral And Antibacterial

Although in vitro and studies in animal models have identified antiretroviral activity for hypericin and pseudohypericin (Meruelo et al 1988), two clinical trials could not confirm these effects, even when larger doses of hypericin were administered (Gulick et al 1999, Jacobson et al 2001). The mechanism involved is not known however, it is suspected to involve direct inactivation of the virus or prevention of virus shedding, budding or assembly at the cell membrane (Meruelo et al 1988). The...

Antiinflammatory And Antithrombotic

Several constituents within olive oil and or leaf have demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties, chiefly oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, oleic acid, luteolin and apigenin (de la Puerta et al 2000, Makin et al 2003). Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol are found in both the oil and leaf and inhibit leukotriene B4 generation, which is involved in a wide range of pro-inflammatory pathways (Petroni et al 1997). These polyphenols are able to inhibit platelet aggregation and lipoxygenases and eicosanoid...

Ophthalmic Conditions

Bilberry preparations have been used to improve poor night vision, light adaptation and photophobia, myopia and to prevent or retard diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and cataracts. Primarily the collagen-enhancing and antioxidant activities of bilberry provide a theoretical basis for these indications. Visual acuity and light adaptation A systemic review of 12 placebo-controlled trials (5 RCTs and 7 placebo-controlled non-randomised trials) concluded that the 2007 Elsevier Australia...

Clinical Use

Psyllium is used mainly for its mucilage content, which comes from the seed coat. BULKING AGENT Psyllium is commonly used as a bulking agent to treat constipation or diarrhoea and to regulate stool consistency in people with a colostomy or ileostomy. As a bowel regulator, psyllium husk absorbs water in the colon to increase faecal bulk, which stimulates peristaltic activity. Alternatively, the antidiarrhoeal effect is promoted when taken with minimal fluids but can give rise to abdominal...

Bone Marrow Stimulation During Chemotherapy

Haemopoiesis was studied in 88 patients with lung cancer during combination treatment with chemotherapy and a 5. balcalensls extract. Administration of the plant preparation was associated with haemopoiesis stimulation, intensification of bone marrow erythrocytopoiesis and granulocytopoiesis, and increased numbers of circulating precursors of erythroid and granulomonocytic colony-forming units (Goldberg et al 1997). EPILEPSY (IN COMBINATION WITH OTHER HERBS) Saiko-keishi-to, a spray-dried...

Cardiovascular Diseases

In 1972 Folkers and Littaru from Italy documented a deficiency of coenzyme Q10 in human heart disease (Ernster & Dallner 1995). Since those early reports, a steady stream of research articles have been published and clinical experience in its use as an adjunct to conventional treatment in various forms of heart disease has accumulated. Data from laboratory studies have also accumulated and generally provide a supportive basis for its use. A review by Langsjoen and Langsjoen of over 34...

Breast Cancer

There is suggestive evidence of a preventive role for iodine in breast cancer. As far back as 1896 research has suggested a link between iodine deficiency, thyroid disease and breast cancer (Smyth 2003). More recently, epidemiological data have demonstrated a correlation between increased incidence of breast cancer and a range of thyroid conditions, most notably hypothyroidism (Smyth 2003). In addition, the observed low rates of breast cancer in Japan are speculated to be partly due to a high...

Anxiolytic And Sedative

Over the years, a number of studies involving rodents have suggested specific anxiolytic or sedative effects (Kennedy et al 2002, Soulimani et al 1991). More recently, a double-blind placebo-controlled study has confirmed anxiolytic activity is clinically significant for lemon balm essential oil (Ballard et al 2002). In 2005 a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, crossover trial of a whole extract of lemon balm (300 and 600 mg) in 18 healthy adults found a significant reduction in 2007...

Statin Drug

The mechanism of action of the statin group of drugs is inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA)-reductase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol from acetyl-CoA. Inhibition of this enzyme also adversely effects the intrinsic biosynthesis of CoQ10, as demonstrated in laboratory animals and humans and reduces plasma and myocardial levels of CoQ10 (Bargossi et al 1994b, Folkers et al 1990, Rosenfeldt et al 2005). Studies have indicated that reductions of 20-30...

Manufacturers Of Herbal Medicines And Natural Supplements In Australia And New Zealand

DFC Thompson Australia Pty Ltd 23-25 Sefton Rd, Thornleigh, NSW 2120 Healtheries of Australia Pty Ltd PO Box 22045, Otahuhu, New Zealand Lipa Pharmaceuticals Pty Ltd 21 Reaghs Farm Rd, Minto, NSW 2566 MediHerb Pty Ltd PO Box 713, Warwick, Qld 4370 Nutrition Care Pharmaceuticals Pty Ltd PO Box 153, Dingley, Vic 3172 26 Roseberry St, Balgowlah, NSW 2093 RESOURCES USED TO COMPILE THIS BOOK A book of this type requires careful research and access to quality resources in order to provide balanced...

Antispasmodic

Peppermint oil, ethanol extracts and flavonoids isolated from the leaf have all been shown to have antispasmodic (spasmolytic) effects in vitro (ESCOP 1997) with the effect mediated via smooth muscle calcium channels (Hills & Aaronson 1991). In healthy volunteers, intragastric administration of a dose equivalent to 180 mg peppermint oil reduced intraoesophageal pressure within 1-7 minutes of infusion (Kingham 1995), while in nine human studies involving 269 subjects peppermint oil produced...

Osteoporosis Prevention

The clinical data suggest that approximately 80 mg day isoflavones are needed to derive skeletal benefits, whereas limited epidemiologic data among Asian populations generally suggests that lower amounts are efficacious (Messina et al 2004). The relationship between usual soy food consumption and fracture incidence was studied in 24,403 postmenopausal women aged 40-70 years who had no history of fracture or cancer in the Shanghai Women's Health Study. During a mean follow-up of 4.5 years a...

Toxic Liver Damage

Mushroom poisoning (Amanita phalloides) One of the best documented uses of milk thistle is in the treatment of poisoning by the mushroom Amanita phalloides (death cap). Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and severe diarrhoea usually occur 8-12 hours after ingestion with extensive hepatic necrosis occurring 1-2 days later. A mortality rate of 20-30 has been observed but can be as high as 50 in children under 10 years of age (Floersheim et al 1982). Several clinical studies have shown silybin...

Rheuma Toid Arthritis

Evening primrose oil supplementation leads to an elevation of DGLA, which is a competitive inhibitor of pro-inflammatory PGs and leukotrienes, and therefore results in a reduced inflammatory response (Belch & Hill 2000). As such, EPO supplements have been investigated in the management of RA, with both negative and positive results (Belch et al 1988, Brzeski et al 1991, Hansen et al 1983, Jantti et al 1989, Veale et al 1994, Zurier et al 1996). In one study, 16 patients with RA were given...

Dermatological Uses

Vitamin C is used as an oral supplement or topical application in a number of dermatological conditions. Wound healing Vitamin C is important for effective wound healing, as deficiency contributes to fragile granulation tissue and therefore impairs the wound-healing process (Russell 2001). In vitro studies with skin graft samples have demonstrated that vitamin C extends cellular viability, promotes formation of epidermal barrier and promotes engraftment (Boyce et a I 2002). In this way, vitamin...

Atherosclerosis

Oxidative modification of LDL in the vascular wall seems to be a key factor in atherosclerosis development and thus lipid-soluble antioxidants that can protect LDLs may have a role in atherosclerosis prevention (Cherubim et al 2005) however, the relationship between lutein and zeaxanthin status and atherosclerosis is unclear. Plasma levels of lutein, beta-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin were correlated to carotid intima-media thickness in a 3-year case-controlled study of 231 subjects (Iribarren...

Diffuse Oesophageal Spasm

Diffuse oesophageal spasm (DES) is a relatively rare motor disorder. Associated manometric abnormalities may include hypertensive and repetitive contractions. The lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) may also be hypertensive. Although LES relaxation with deglutition is generally normal, disturbances in LES function are often seen. These abnormalities are, however, not required for the diagnosis (Massey 2001). In a study of eight DES patients with chest pain or dysphagia, peppermint oil had no...

Hyperhomocysteinaemia

Together with vitamins B12 and B6, folic acid has been shown to reduce high plasma levels of homocysteine. Of the three, folate appears to have the strongest activity (Voutilainen et al 2001). Although elevated homocysteine has been implicated as a risk factor in cardiovascular disease (including atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease), cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease and venous thromboembolism (Clarke et al 1991, den Heijer 1996, Malinow et al 1989, Selhub 1995),...

Main Actions

ADAPTOGENIC (MODULATES STRESS RESPONSE) Siberian ginseng appears to alter the levels of different neurotransmitters and hormones involved in the stress response, chiefly at the HPA axis. It degrades the enzyme (catechol-O-methyl transferase), and increases levels of noradrenaline and serotonin in the brain and adrenaline in the adrenal glands, according to animal studies (Abramova et al 1972). Eleutherosides have also been reported to bind to Ginseng_Siberian 577 receptor sites for progestin,...

Anxiolytic

Wogonin, baicalein, scutellarein and baicalin (in reducing order of potency), which all contain a certain flavonoid phenylbenzopyrone nucleus, have been shown in vitro to bind with the benzodiazepine site of the GABA-A receptor (Hui et al 2000). Oral administration of wogonin (7.5-30 mg kg) has been shown to interact with GABA-A receptors and produce an anxiolytic response that was similar to diazepam in the elevated plus-maze. Unlike benzodiazepines, wogonin was able to reduce anxiety without...

Enhance Wound Healing

Pantothenic acid has been both used as an oral supplement and applied topically in a cream base to enhance wound healing and it has been shown to accelerate closure of wounds and increase strength of scar tissue in experimental animals (Plesofsky 2002, Vaxman et al 1990). Although these results are encouraging, there has been little investigation in humans. One double-blind study testing the effects of vitamin C (1000 mg) and pantothenic acid (200 mg) supplements over a 21 -day period showed no...

Clinical

Although Aloe vera products are used for many indications, the chief use is treating skin conditions. SKIN CONDITIONS Aloe is used in the treatment of wounds, burns, radiation burns, ulcers, frostbite, psoriasis and genital herpes. The healing properties may be attributed to antimicrobial, immune-stimulating, anti-inflammatory and antithromboxane activities. Allantoin has also been shown to stimulate epithelialisation, and acemannan has been shown to stimulate macrophage production of IL-1 and...

Warts

Oral zinc sulfate (10 mg kg) supplements administered in three divided doses per day (up to 600 mg day) for 2 months completely cleared recalcitrant viral warts in 87 of patients, according to a single-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 80 volunteers with at least 1 5 viral warts that were resistant to other treatments (Al Gurairi et al 2002). Warts were completed cleared in 61 of patients after 1 month of treatment, whereas none of the patients receiving placebo reported a successful response...

Background And Relevant Pharmacokinetics

Calcium found in the diet or in commercially made supplements exists as a salt form, from which calcium must be released for absorption to occur. Adequate hydrochloric acid levels are required to make soluble the majority of these calcium ions, whereas any unabsorbed calcium entering the higher pH environment of the small intestine is more likely to be precipitated and rendered insoluble (Wahlqvist et al 2002). Low or moderate calcium intakes are absorbed via active transport mechanisms that...

Enhanced Cognitive Function

The results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study suggests that both milk and dark chocolate, but not white chocolate, improve cognitive function. A second double-blind study suggests that this improvement is due to the methylxanthin content of chocolate, with 11.6 g of cocoa powder producing identical improvements in cognitive function and the mood construct 'energetic arousal' as a mixture of caffeine (19 mg) and theobromine (250 mg) (Smit et al 2004). Consumption of a 65 g chocolate...

Cardiovascular Disease

Epidemiologic studies have shown inverse associations between dietary polyphenols and mortality from coronary heart disease. Small, short-term, intervention studies have indicated that cocoa-containing foods may provide many cardiovascular benefits including reducing blood pressure, inhibiting platelet function, preventing lipid oxidation, reducing LDL, increasing HDL, improving endothelial function, increasing insulin sensitivity, reducing insulin resistance and reducing inflammation. Dark...

Chemical Components

Cocoa is among the most concentrated sources of the flavanols, catechin and epicatechin, with four times the catechin content of tea (Arts et al 1999). Chocolate also contains additional flavonoids not found in tea, with high concentrations of oligomeric procyanidins (Lazarus et al 1999). Post-harvesting and processing pro 2007 Elsevier Australia cedures can have a striking influence on the flavanol content of chocolate and cocoa (Hollenberg et al 2004). Dark chocolate has the highest total...

Hyperlipidaemia

The ability of chitosan to form complexes with various fats, including cholesterol, provides a theoretical basis for its use in hyperlipidaemia. Dietary chitosan has been tested and found to be effective in reducing serum cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis in normal and diabetic mice, and therefore has been investigated in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in humans (Muzzarelli 1999). A 2002 review states that in humans, dietary chitosan reduces serum total cholesterol levels by...

Chemoprotective

In the 1970s quercetin was considered to be carcinogenic after demonstrating mutagenicity in the Ames test however subsequent long-term studies have refuted this and demonstrated an anticarcinogenic effect in laboratory animals (Erlund 2004). In vitro and preliminary animal and human data indicate that quercetin inhibits tumour growth and induces apoptosis. The anticarcinogenic effects may be due to its antioxidant properties, protection against DNA damage, inhibition of angiogenesis, effects...

Analgesic And Local Anaesthetic

Both the aqueous and lipid-soluble extracts of kava exhibit antinociceptive properties in experimental animal models Jamieson amp Duffield 1990 . The effect is not mediated by an opiate pathway, as naloxone does not reduce the effects when administered in doses that reverse the effects of morphine. More recently, in vitro research has identified several compounds found in kava that have the ability to inhibit COX-1 and to a lesser extent COX-2 enzyme activities Wu et al 2002 . The local...

Images Of Zingiber Officinale Used As Antiulcer

Molluscicidal and antischistosomal activities of Zingiber officinale. Planta Med 56.4 1990 374-6. Akoachere JF et al. Antibacterial effect of Zingiber officinale and Garcinia kola on respiratory tract pathogens. East Afr Med J 79.11 2002 588-92. Altman RD, Marcussen KC. Effects of a ginger extract on knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 44.11 2001 2531-8. Arfeen Z et al. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of ginger for the...