Dosage Range

Tea tree oil is used in a variety of forms, such as gels, creams, ointments, oral rinses, soaps, shampoos and paints. Minimum bactericidal concentrations are generally 0.25 . Onychomycosis 100 essential oil applied twice daily. Tinea pedis 10 essential oil in cream base applied twice daily. Acne 5 essential oil in cream or gel base applied daily. Vaginitis (Candida albicans or Trichomonas vaginalis)', intravaginally applied tampons saturated in a 1 emulsified solution, vaginal pessaries...

Other Uses

As it has a high flavonoid content, hawthorn is also used to strengthen connective tissue, decrease capillary fragility, and prevent collagen destruction of joints and therefore may be beneficial in the treatment of certain connective tissue disorders (Mills & Bone 2000). Hawthorn has been traditionally used as a diuretic and to treat kidney and bladder stones. In practice, it is also used at the first signs of a herpes simplex infection, to prevent lesion formation and halt infection.

Allergy

Based on traditional use, in vitro and in vivo studies, and human trials, perilla leaf and defatted seed extracts are used for allergic respiratory disorders including hay fever, asthma and sinusitis. The refined oil may also help allergic and inflammatory respiratory conditions by regulating the arachidonic acid metabolism pathways. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial showed a significant reduction in symptoms such as watery eyes, itchy eyes and itchy nose in 29...

Adverse Reactions

Oral administration of calcium supplements may cause gastrointestinal irritation, constipation and flatulence. Hypercalcaemia Increased serum calcium may be associated with anorexia, nausea and vomiting, constipation, hypotonia, depression and occasionally lethargy and coma. Prolonged hypercalcaemic states, especially if associated with normal or elevated serum phosphate, can precipitate ectopic calcification of blood vessels, connective tissues around joints, gastric mucosa, cornea and renal...

Aromatherapy

Eucalyptus, as It Is traditionally used in aromatherapy, has not been systematically investigated under clinical trial conditions. Therefore, most evidence is derived from traditional sources. Aromatherapists use eucalyptus for its mentally uplifting and stimulating effects and to aid concentration. It is also used in massage and vapourisers to relieve respiratory symptoms, treat minor skin infections and acne, and relieve headache and muscular aches and pain. Usually eucalyptus oil is included...

Background And Relevant Pharmacokinetics

L-glutamine (L-GIn) is a conditionally essential amino acid found in all life forms and the most abundant amino acid in the human body. During conditions of metabolic stress characterised by catabolism and negative nitrogen balance such as trauma (including surgical trauma), prolonged stress, glucocorticoid use, excessive exercise, starvation, infection, sepsis, cancer and severe burns the body is unable to synthesis L-GIn in sufficient quantities to meet biological needs and it becomes...

Antiinflammatory And Antioedema Activity

Biochemical and histochemical data show that the anthocyanins decrease vascular Bilberry 115 permeability and alter capillary wall dynamics by increasing the endothelium barrier 2007 Elsevier Australia effect by stabilising membrane phospholipids, and by increasing synthesis of mucopolysaccharides of the connective ground substance and thus restoring the altered pericapillary sheath (Mian et al 1977). These effects have been demonstrated in animal models for both oral administration and topical...

Gingivitis

Calendula has been shown in an open, clinical study to be beneficial in the treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis (Krazhan & Garazha 2001). Interestingly, calendula extract failed to show any significant activity against common oral microorganisms in a second study that tested it against the saliva and dental plaque from 20 infants in vitro (Modesto et al 2000) however, a homeopathic preparation of calendula has been found to inhibit Streptococcus mutans (Giorgi et al 2004). Commission E...

Food Sources

Foods differ in their relative amounts of lutein and zeaxanthin, with lutein generally being more abundant. Lutein is found in dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach and kale, as well as in sweet corn and egg yolks, whereas zeaxanthin is found in sweet corn, egg yolk, orange peppers (capsicums), persimmons, tangerines, mandarins and oranges. Lutein and zeaxanthin are primarily extracted from marigold flowers (Tagetes erecta) for use in supplements and are available in either free or...

Improved Concentration

In a RCT, exposure to lavender aromatherapy during breaks resulted in significantly higher concentration levels during the afternoon period when concentration was found to be lowest in a control group (Sakamoto et al 2005). Lavender oil aromatherapy has also been found to reduce mental stress and increase arousal rate (Motomura et al 2001), elicit a subjective sense of 'happiness' (Vernet-Maury et al 1999) and to produce increased relaxation, less depressed mood and faster and more accurate...

Immunostimulant

It has been suggested that aloe may have immune-stimulating capabilities. Much of the available research has been performed on mice or in vitro and aloe shows antiviral, antitumour and non-specific immunostimulant activity. An experiment in 1980 demonstrated that mice given aloe extract 2 days before exposure to pathogens were protected against a variety of fungi and bacteria (Brossat et al 1981). Later, the isolated compound acemannan (beta-(1,4)-acetylated mannan) was shown to increase the...

Info

Avoid unless under medical supervision Tyrosine is a precursorforseveral neurotransmitters, which theoretically increases risk of serotinin syndrome Some tyrosine may be metabolised to tyramine Concurrent use with MAOIs may lead to hypertensive crisis Andrographis may exert hepatoprotective activity against liver damage induced by tricyclic antidepressants

Pregnancy Use

Although early studies were positive and showed a preventative effect for migraine headache, not all studies have been positive, which may be related to variations in preparations and dosing. Further research is required to determine its place in practice for this indication. Of the studies that have produced positive results for migraine therapy, feverfew reduced severity of symptoms such as vomiting and visual disturbances, but did not alter the duration of an episode. Feverfew 421 Tincture...

Topical Treatment Of Oral Or Pharyngeal Inflammation

Often used as a component of gargles, mouthwashes or paints for these indications, there are few controlled clinical trials or in vitro studies on the effects of myrrh on cells derived from the human oral cavity. A 2003 in vitro study investigating the effects of myrrh oil on a number of key cells implicated in gingivitis found that low concentrations of myrrh oil reduced gingival fibroblast production of proinflammatory cytokines and, therefore, the participation of these cells in gingival...

According To Clinical Studies

Cardiovascular disorders 2 g day for at least 3 months may improve exercise tolerance and recovery in people with conditions such as chronic stable angina and cardiac insufficiency, and may also reduce lipoprotein-a levels and improve peripheral vascular disease. Hyperthyroidism 2-4 g day in divided doses. Chronic fatigue syndrome 1 g three times daily. Fertility 2-3 g day may be useful to increase sperm motility and concentration. ADVERSE REACTIONS Carnitine is well tolerated at recommended...

Acne And Other Skin Conditions

Over the past 2-3 decades, tetracyclines and macrolide antibiotics have been widely prescribed for the treatment of acne however, resistance has been reported, especially to erythromycin and clindamycin with cross-resistance being widespread among strains of Propionibacterium acnes. As a result, non-antibiotic treatments such as topical and oral zinc preparations have been investigated as both alternatives and adjuncts to these treatments. Overall, studies have yielded conflicting results,...

Adenosyk Methionine SAMe

Historical note SAMe was first discovered in Italy in 1952. About 20 years later, a stable salt was commercially manufactured and produced for injectable use. At first, it was investigated as a treatment for schizophrenia, for which it proved inappropriate however, successful trials in depressed patients began in the 1 970s and it was inadvertently found to improve symptoms of arthritis. Sincethen, numerous studies have been undertaken to examine the role of SAMe in both depression and...

Acne Vulgaris

An open study of 117 subjects with different forms of acne found that after 6 weeks' treatment with a 0.2 dried extract of Vitex agnus-castus and a topical disinfectant, 70 of cases experienced total resolution with the highest success rates reported for acne vulgaris, foilicularis and excoriated acne (Amann 1975). A group that was not treated with the herb took 30-50 longer to achieve similar results. Although encouraging, it is difficult to determine the contribution of vitex treatment to...

Adaptogenic And Tonic Effects

A randomised double-blind study involving 232 subjects between the ages of 25 and 60 years found that extract equivalent to about 400 mg ginseng root for 4 weeks significantly improved fatigue. Side-effects were uncommon, with only two subjects withdrawing from the study (Le Gal & Cathebras 1996). A randomised double-blind study of 83 subjects found that extract equivalent to 1 g ginseng root for 4 months decreased the risk of contracting a common cold or bronchitis, improved appetite,...

Allcause Mortality

In 2005, a meta-analysis of the dose-response relationship between vitamin E supplementation and total mortality was undertaken using data from 19 RCTs consisting of a large study population (n 135,967) (Miller III et al 2005). A dose-response analysis showed a statistically significant relationship between vitamin E dosage and all-cause mortality. The authors suggested caution with doses of 400 lU day or higher while acknowledging that the high-dose studies (> 400 lU day) analysed in the...

Allergies

Quercetin is used in the treatment of acute and chronic allergic symptoms, such as hayfever and chronic rhinitis. The anti-inflammatory activity of quercetin and its ability to stabilise mast cells, neutrophils and basophils and inhibit histamine release (Blackburn et al 1987, Busse et al 1984, Middleton & Drzewiecki 1982, Middleton et al 1981, Ogasawara et al 1996, Pearce et al 1984) provides a rationale for its use in these indications. In a study of 123 patients sensitised to house dust...

Aloe vera

Historical note Aloe vera has been used since ancient times as a medicinal plant. In fact, evidence of use has been found on a Mesopotamian clay tablet dating back to 21 00 bc (Atherton 1 998). It has been used as a topical treatment for wounds, burns and other skin conditions and internally as a general tonic, anti-inflammatory agent, carminative, laxative, aphrodisiac and anthelmintic by the ancient Romans, Greeks, Arabs, Indians and Spaniards. According to legend, Alexander the Great...

Andrographis

Historical note Andrographis has long been used in traditional medicine systems in numerous countries. It has been included in the pharmacopoeias of India, Korea and China, possibly because it grows abundantly in India, Pakistan and various parts of South-East Asia. In TCM, andrographis is considered a 'cold' herb and is used to rid the body of heat, as in fevers and acute infections, and to dispel toxins from the body. In Ayurvedic medicine it is used as a bitter tonic, to stimulate digestion...

Androgenetic Alopecia

The idea of using saw palmetto for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) arose from the observation that finasteride appears to have some effect on this condition. One double-blind study has investigated the effects of saw palmetto as a potential therapeutic option, finding a highly positive response in 60 of subjects (Prager et al 2002). A second double-blind study of 48 men and women with AGA noted that mean hair density increased by 17 after 10 weeks of treatment with a topical lotion containing saw...

Answers To Patients Frequently Asked Questions

Andrographis has been traditionally used to improve digestion, as a liver tonic and to fight off infection. Clinical studies confirm that it is an effective symptom-reliever for the common cold, uncomplicated URTIs and pharyngotonsillitis. It has also been used to reduce the risk of developing the common cold in winter. When will it start to work During an acute infection, effects may be seen within 3-4 days of starting the correct dose. Used in lower doses for prevention, effects are seen...

Antiallergic

A 50 hydro-ethanolic extract of peppermint leaves inhibited chemically induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro. The peppermint extract was also shown to reduce nasal symptoms (sneezing and nasal rubbing) in rats with experimentally induced allergic rhinitis. Significant inhibition of sneezing and nasal rubbing was observed at oral doses of 300 and 1000 mg kg, respectively (Inoue et al 2001). The flavonoid luteolin-7-O-rutinoside isolated from the aerial parts of...

Antiallergic Activity

Ginsenosides have been demonstrated to have anti-allergic activity in vitro. One of the metabolites, was found to inhibit beta-hexosaminidase release from rat basophil leukaemia cells and potently reduce passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. The inhibitory activity of protopanaxadiol was more potent than that of disodium cromoglycate, an antiallergic drug. The compound stabilised membranes but had no effect on hyaluroni-dase and did not scavenge free radicals. These results suggest that the...

Antiangiogenic

Shark cartilage extract appears to block the two main pathways that contribute to the process of angiogenesis, matrix metalloproteases and the vascular endothelial growth factor signalling pathway (Anon 2004). The effect is due to several different constituents that have been isolated from shark cartilage and identified as exerting _ anti-angiogenic activity (Dupont et al 1998, Gonzalez et al 2001, Shen et al 2001, Shark cartllage ioy4 Sheu et al 1998) in various experimental models. > 2007...

Antibacterial Activity

Green tea extract has moderate and wide-spectrum inhibitory effects on the growth of many types of pathogenic bacteria, according to in vitro tests, including seven strains of Staphylococcus spp., seven strains of Streptococcus spp., one strain of Corynebacterlum suls, 19 strains of Escherichia coll and 26 strains of Salmonella spp. (Ishihara et al 2001). Green tea has also been found to inhibit Helicobacter pylori in an animal model (Matsubara et al 2003). According to one study, which...

Anticancer

Berberine has demonstrated cytotoxic activity in vitro against many strains of human cancer cells (Hwang et al 2006, Kettmann et al 2004, Kuo et al 2005). This is due in part to the reduction of COX-2 enzymes (Kuo et al 2005, Tai & Luo 2003), damage to the cytoplasmic membrane and DNA fragmentation (Letasiova et al 2005). The antitumour effects of berberine were investigated on malignant brain tumours in an in vitro and in vivo model (Zhang et al 1990). Berberine (1 50 mg mL) demonstrated an...

Anticancer Effects

Licorice has demonstrated potent anti-angiogenic and antitumour activity in animal studies (Sheela et al 2005). Animal and in vitro studies have shown licorice Licorice 790 components to be effective in reducing the occurrence and number of tumour cells in several cancer models (Shlbata 1994, Wang & Mukhtar 1994, Wang & Nixon 2001), inducing apoptosis and potentiating the effect of paclitaxel and vinblastine chemotherapy (Rafi et al 2000). In vitro research reveals that chalcone and...

Anticarcinogenic

Several in vitro studies have shown a dose-dependent decreased proliferation and or increased apoptosis in a variety of cancer cell lines (lung, prostate, colon, stomach, oral, leukaemia and breast) (Berger et al 2001, Gupta et al 2003, Kavanagh et al 2001, Kinjo et al 2002, Pianetti et al 2002, Valcic et al 1996, Wang & Bachrach 2002, Yoo et al 2002, Zhang et al 2002). Additionally, photochemopreventative effects for green tea and epigallocatechin gallate have been demonstrated in vitro, in...

Antidepressant Drugs

Ginkgo biloba may reduce the sexual dysfunction side-effects of these drugs and improve sleep continuity however, results from clinical studies are mixed possible beneficial interaction. There is a report of two patients using valproate who experienced seizures with ginkgo use (Chavez et al 2006). There is also a report of a patient taking Dilantin and Depakote and ginkgo, together with other herbal medicines, who suffered a fatal breakthrough seizure, with no evidence of non-compliance with...

Antidiabetic

The antidiabetic potential of bitter melon is well established in normal, streptozocin-or alloxan-induced diabetic animals and in genetic models of diabetes (Ahmed et al 2004, Bailey etal 1985, Day et al 1990, Jayasooriya etal 2000, Karetal 2003, Miura et al 2001, 2004, Reyes et al 2005, Sarkar et al 1996, Shibb et al 1993). All parts of the plant (fruit pulp, seeds, leaves and whole plant) have shown activity. A systematic study comparing the hypoglycaemic activity of three extracts in vivo...

Antihypertensive

Studies have identified the Mediterranean diet, as an entity, and the olive oil in particular, as significantly reducing arterial blood pressure in humans (Ferrara et al 2000, Fito et al 2005, Perona et al 2004, Psaltopoulou et al 2004). The hypotensive effect of olive leaves has been well documented in vivo (Cherif et al 1996, Fehri et al 1994, Khayyal et al 2002, Somova et al 2003). One of the more recent studies tested a specially prepared olive leaf extract (EFLA 943) and confirmed...

Antiinflammatory And Analgesic

The anti-inflammatory effects of ginger may be due to its effects on the arachidonic acid cascade, as COX-1 and -2 and lipoxygenase inhibition has been shown in vitro (Kobayashi et al 1987) and high oral doses of an aqueous extract of ginger (500 mg kg) significantly lowered serum PGE2 and thromboxane B2 levels in rats (Thomson etal 2002). Ginger also suppresses leukotriene biosynthesis by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase, thus distinguishing ginger from NSAIDs. Additionally, ginger extract has been...

Antiinflammatory And Antioxidant Activity

Dandelion extract was shown to exhibit a mild analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in mice (Tito et al 1993), and an aqueous dandelion extract was found to prevent diabetic complications due to lipid peroxidation and free radicals in diabetic rats (Cho et al 2002). Dandelion extract has also been found to have a protective effect against CCK octapeptide-induced acute pancreatitis in rats (Seo et al 2005) and dandelion flower extract demonstrated marked antioxidant activity that has been...

Antiinflammatory And Antipyretic Activity

Potent anti-inflammatory activity was demonstrated in an animal model for both single-dose and ch ronic-dose applications of a dried leaf decoction of fenugreek Fenugreek 408 (Ahmad iani et a I 2001). The effectiveness of the 1000 mg kg dose of the extract was relatively equal to 300 mg kg sodium salicylate for single dosing however, chronic administration was more effective than sodium salicylate. Additionally, the fenugreek decoction demonstrated stronger antipyretic activity than that of...

Antiinflammatory

Both a crude and a standardised extract (G11 5) of ginseng varying in saponin concentrations have been found to protect against muscle fibre injury and inflammation after eccentric muscle contractions in rats on a treadmill. The oral ginseng extracts significantly reduced plasma creatine kinase levels by about 25 and lipid peroxidation by 1 5 . Certain markers of inflammation were also significantly reduced (Cabral de Oliveira et al 2001). In a later study, pretreatment with ginseng extract (3,...

Antimicrobial And Antiparasitic

Ginger extract and several of its main constituents exhibit antimicrobial activity in vitro Ginger 508 and in vivo. Ginger extract has been shown to have an antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus collected from throat swaps of Infected Individuals. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ginger ranged from 0.0003-0.7 fjg mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 0.135-2.04 g mL (Akoachere et al 2002). Ginger has...

Antimicrobial And Immuneenhancing Activity

Garlic appears to exert both direct and indirect effects against various pathogens, as it enhances macrophage and T-lymphocyte function (Lau et a I 1991) and has direct antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antiparasitic activity. Allicin is believed to be chiefly responsible for garlic's antimicrobial activity. More specifically, it has been found to exert antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including multidrug-resistant enterotoxicogenic...

Antineoplastic And Chemopreventative Effects

Many studies have reported antineoplastic effects of both oil and water soluble allyl sulfur compounds from garlic, but the effect is generally greater for the Iipid-soluble compounds (Knowles & Milner 2001). Diallyl disulfide, one of the most studied oil-soluble organosulfur compounds in garlic, has demonstrated antineoplastic activity against both hormone-dependent and hormone-independent breast cancer cell lines (Nakagawa et al 2001). It also inhibits the proliferation of human tumour...

Antioxidant

Rosemary has strong antioxidant activity and is widely used to preserve food and cosmetics (Etter 2004). Rosemary leaf extract has been shown to enhance superoxide dismutase activity (Kim et al 1995) and to have an effect stronger than vitamin E in scavenging oxygen radicals (Zhao et al 1989). It is suggested that carnosol and carnosic acid account for over 90 of its antioxidant properties (Aruoma et al 1992, 1996). Carnosic acid has been shown to have a photoprotective action on human dermal...

Antipyretic And Antiinflammatory

Testing in different animal models has identified antipyretic activity (Mandal et al 2001). Clinical testing in randomised double-blind trials involving volunteers with the common cold suggests that this activity is clinically relevant. The mechanism of action is unlike that of NSAIDs, as andrographis does not influence the biosynthesis of any lipoxygenase pathways, but may involve promoting ACTH production and enhancing adrenocortical function (Amroyan et al 1999). Interestingly, a combination...

Antispasmodic And Antiinflammatory

High doses of a commercial preparation of 5. gigantea extract (Urol mono) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity in an animal model, comparable to those of the pharmaceutical anti-inflammatory medicine diclofenac (Leuschner 1995). Other tests with an extract of 5. virgaurea have also produced similar results (el Ghazaly et al 1992). The herbal combination consisting of Populus tremula, Solidago virgaurea and Fraxinus excelsior has demonstrated dose-dependent anti-inflammatory, analgesic...

Antithrombotic And Antiplatelet Activity

The question of whether supplementation with ALA affects platelet aggregation remains unclear. A major determinant appears to be the degree of conversion to EPA (Garg et al 1989). When there is an increase in total EPA and reduced AA, due to ALA inhibition of LA conversion, the result is EPA replacing AA in the cell membrane and a decrease in thromboxane synthesis. In addition, SDG, another component of FSO, is metabolised to enterolactone and enterodiol and these substances may have...

Antitumour

Some plants, such as mullein, were used in folk medicine as sources of antitumour remedies. An in vitro study has identified inhibitors of protein biosynthesis in Verbascum thapsiforme flowers. Researchers found that a saponin glycoside and its aglycon, isolated from the flowers, directly inactivates ribosomes (Galasinski et al 1996). The constituent, verbascoside, has been shown to inhibit telomerase activity in human gastric carcinoma cells in test tube studies, resulting in inhibition of...

Antiulcer Effects

Although no clinical studies are available, one study using an animal model of aspirin-induced gastric ulceration has identified significant antiulcer activity for the fresh juice from the whole plant of Bacopa monniera (Rao et al 2000). The study found that brahmi had a beneficial influence on the natural mucosal defensive factors, such as enhanced mucin secretion, mucosal glycoprotein production and decreased cell shedding, thereby reducing ulceration (Rao et al 2000). A follow-up in vivo...

Antiviral

Both oral and injectable dose forms of licorice have been tested and found to have activity against a range of viruses. This effect is mediated by the constituents GL and GA (Jeong & Kim 2002). It should be noted that current studies focus largely on GL, which is converted in the gut to GA and may not produce the same results as those demonstrated for GL in vitro. SARS-associated coronavirus In vitro studies have shown GL to inhibit SARS-CV (clinical isolates FFM-1 and FFM-2) replication by...

Anxiety And Mood Disturbances

According to a randomised, double-blind trial, fortification of lysine in a wheat-based (L-lysine deficient) diet significantly reduced anxiety score in males, but not females with high baseline anxiety. It is suspected that L-lysine's action as a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist and benzodiazepine receptor agonist are responsible for the observed effect (Smriga et al 2004). In contrast, a prospective study of 29 133 men (aged 50-69 years) found no association between L-lysine intake and depressed...

Arthritis

Overall, current evidence from clinical trials suggest that devil's claw may be a useful treatment for arthritis however, it is suggested, as with many herbal medicines, that evidence of effectiveness is not transferrable from product to product and that the evidence is more robust for products that contain at least 50 mg of harpagoside in the daily dosage (Chrubasik et al 2003a, Gagnier et al 2004). An observational study of 6 months' use of 3-9 g day of an aqueous extract of devil's claw root...

Asthma And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Studies have shown increased oxidative stress in patients with chronic airflow limitation (Ochs-Balcom et al 2005) and accumulating evidence suggests that dietary antioxidant vitamins are positively associated with lung function (Schunemann et al 2001), with serum beta-carotene levels being associated with improved FEV- (Grievink et al 2000). Thus it has been suggested that antioxidant protection is important for protecting the lungs against high oxygen levels and that oxidative stress may...

Baical skullcap

Historical note Baical skullcap is a TCM herb used to clear 'heat and dry dampness'. Diseases with heat are associated with symptoms such as fever, irritability, thirst, cough and expectoration of thick, yellow sputum. Damp diseases may be associated with diarrhoea, a feeling of heaviness of the chest and painful urination (Bensky & Gamble 1 986). From a modern perspective this suggests that baical may be useful for infection and inflammation of the respiratory, digestive and urinary...

Betamethasone

A RCT has shown that a combination of low-dose betamethasone (2 mg day) and l-carnitine (4 g 5 days) was more effective in the prevention of respiratory distress syndrome (7.3 vs 14.5 ) and death (1.8 vs 7.3 ) in preterm infants than highdose betamethasone given alone (8 mg 2 days) (Kurz et al 1993) beneficial interaction possible under professional supervision. 2007 Elsevier Australia

Blood Sugar Regulation

The ability of oats to delay glucose absorption, and therefore reduce the postprandial glycaemic response, provides a theoretical basis for their use as part of an overall treatment protocol in diabetes and hypoglycaemic conditions. A RCT of 12 patients with type 2 diabetes demonstrated that 30 g oat bran flour, high in beta-glucan, had a low glycaemic response and decreased the postprandial glycaemic response of an oral glucose load in a series of 2-hour meal glucose tolerance tests (Tapola et...

Bladder Effects

Pygeum protects the bladder from contractile dysfunction induced by ischaemia and reperfusion according to in vivo studies. Studies with rabbit models have shown that pretreatment can prevent the bladder from developing contractile and biochemical dysfunctions induced by partial outlet obstruction, possibly by protecting the bladder from ischaemic injury (Levin et al 2005). It has also been shown that treatment can reverse these dysfunctions when started 2 weeks post obstruction. Past studies...

Bone Mineral Density

Although the relationship between calcium, vitamin D and bone mineral density (BMD) is well known, other nutrients such as vitamin C are also critical for bone development, repair and maintenance (llich et al 2003). Data collected from 13,080 adults enrolled in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) during 1988-94 have identified an association between dietary and serum ascorbic acid, BMD and bone fracture (Simon & Hudes 2001 ). Dietary ascorbic acid intake...

Bone Density Protection

It has been suggested that modulation of Insulin by chromium may have positive effects on bone density, reducing bone resorption and promoting collagen production by osteoblasts (McCarty 1995). One placebo-controlled study using chromium picolinate (equivalent to 200 fjg chromium day for 60 days) has shown a 47 reduction in the urinary hydroxyproline creatinine ratio, indicating a decrease in calcium excretion and a potential role in the prevention of osteoporosis (Evans et al 1995).

Botanical Namefamily

Aloe vera (L.) 4 oe barbadensls (Mill.) (family Aloeaceae) PLANT PARTS USED The leaf, from which several different products are made namely the exudate, gel, extract and juice. The exudate ('aloes' in older pharmacy texts) is a thick residue, yellow in colour and bitter in taste, that comes from the latex that oozes out when the leaf is cut. The 'gel' refers to the clear gel or mucilage produced by the inner parenchymal cells in the central part of the leaf. Diluted aloe gel is commonly known...

Calcium Deficiency

Traditionally, calcium supplementation has been used to treat deficiency or prevent deficiency in high-risk conditions or people with increased calcium requirements such as pregnant women. Acute severe hypocalcaemic states are treated initially with IV infusion of calcium salts. In chronic cases, oral calcium supplements and occasionally vitamin D supplements are used. Rickets and osteomalacia A deficiency of either calcium or vitamin D can produce these bone disorders. (See Vitamin D monograph...

Cancer

Early concerns that quercetln may be carcinogenic have not been supported by recent research. Quercetin is primarily found in fruit and vegetables, which have been shown to decrease the risk of certain human cancers when consumed regularly (Morrow et al 2001), thereby casting doubt on this proposition. In fact, the anticarcinogenic effects of quercetin seen in laboratory animals suggest a possible preventative role (Erlund 2004), and in vitro and epidemiological studies have suggested potential...

Cancer Prevention

Epidemiological studies have generally shown a decreased occurrence of cancer in those individuals who drink green tea regularly, although this has not been observed in all studies. A 2003 prospective cohort study using 13-year follow-up data found increased green tea consumption was associated with an apparent delay of cancer onset and death, and all cause deaths (Nakachi et al 2003). A phase 2 RCT evaluated the effects of green tea on oxidative DNA damage in 143 heavy smokers over 4 months...

Cancer Treatment

Overall, the current evidence does not support the use of green tea as a cancer treatment however, there are some exceptions, which suggest an adjunctive role. Green tea increased the survival rate of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer in a cohort of 309 Chinese women (Zhang et al 2004). Most (77.9 ) of the women in the treatment group were alive at the 3-year follow-up as compared with 47.9 of the control group. In a RCT, 90 patients with cervical lesions infected with human papilloma...

Cardiovascular Disease

Secondary prevention trials after Ml indicate that consumption of 0.5-1.8 g day of EPA and DHA from fish or fish oil supplements may be beneficial. Intake of marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids can be increased through diet or with fish oil supplements. An expert US panel of nutrition scientists has recommended an intake of 0.65 g day whereas the British Nutrition Foundation's recommendation is 1.2 g day (Din etal 2004). National Heart Foundation Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand >...

Carotenoids

The carotenoids are a family of bright yellow-, orange- and red-coloured compounds found in fruit, vegetables and some animal products such as salmon, lobster and egg yolk. Carotenoids can be divided into the provitamin A group, such as beta-carotene, and xanthophylls such as lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene, which are important fat-soluble antioxidants. Of the 600 or so carotenoids known to exist in nature, approximately 20 are found in humans. In plants, carotenoids play a vital role in...

Cataracts

In addition to the potential reduction in diabetic cataract formation afforded by the inhibition of aldose reductase (Chaudhry et al 1983), quercetin may also reduce oxidative stress associated with the initiation of maturity onset cataracts. Cataracts may result from oxidative damage to the lens, which causes a disruption Quercetin 979 of the redox system, membrane damage, proteolysis, protein aggregation and a loss of lens transparency. Quercetln has been shown to Inhibit oxidative damage to...

Cellular Energy Production

Carnitine assists the transport of fat across cell membranes in muscle tissue for use as an energy source (Wahlqvist 2002). It is essential for mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, which is the primary fuel source for the heart and skeletal muscles and therefore required for proper functioning (Evangeliou & Vlassopoulos 2003, Kelly 1998). This process is also required in order to maintain CoA levels. IMPROVES BLOOD SUGAR CONTROL (IMPROVES INSULIN SENSITIVITY) Administration of l-carnitine...

Chaste tree

Historical note Chaste tree has been used since ancient times for a variety of gynaecological conditions, such as aiding expulsion of the placenta after birth and promoting menstruation. Leaves of the chaste tree were worn byvestal virgins in ancient Rome as a symbol of chastity and it was used during that time to promote celibacy. The berries have been used to reduce fever and headaches, stimulate perspiration and to 'check violent sexual desires' in monasteries. A commercially preparation of...

Chemical Components

Aloe vera extract, or diluted aloe gel, is made of mostly water (99 ) and mono- and polysaccharides, most important of which is the monosaccharide mannose-6-phosphate and the polysaccharide gluco-mannans, which are long-chain sugars containing glucose and mannose. Gluco-mannan has been named acemannan and is marketed as Carrisyn. A glycoprotein with anti-allergic properties has also been isolated, and has been named alprogen. Recently, C-glucosyl chromone, an antiinflammatory compound, has also...

Clinical Use

Baical skullcap is an ingredient in the very popular traditional Chinese Japanese formulation, Minor Bupleurum Combination, known as Xiao Chai Hu Tang (Chinese) > 2007 Elsevier Australia and Sho-saiko-to (Japanese). Minor Bupleurum Combination has been used in China for about 3000 years for the treatment of pyretic diseases. Minor Bupleurum Combination (Sho-saiko-to) is now a prescription drug approved by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan and widely used in the treatment of chronic...

Chemopreventative Role

Epidemiological, animal and human studies all suggest that folate status affects the risk of developing cancers in selected tissues. The exact nature of this relationship continues to elude researchers (Bollheimer et al 2005, Powers 2005). Previously, high folate intake was purported to have a protective effect, although there were some anomalies. An extensive review of the role of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism in cancer risk concluded that, in spite of the poor folate status and activity...

Chemoprotection And Antimutagenic Effects

In vivo studies suggest that rosemary extract may reduce the effects of carcinogenic or toxic agents on many cell lines, including rat mammary gland (Amagase et al 1996, Singletary et al 1996), mouse liver and stomach (Singletary & Rokusek 1997), bone marrow (Fahim et al 1999) and skin (Huang et al 1994). An in vitro study on human bronchial cells found that rosemary extract and its constituents, carnosol and carnosic acid, may have chemoprotective activity through decreasing carcinogen...

Chronic Congestive Heart Failure

The efficacy and safety of berberine in chronic congestive heart failure was studied in a randomised, double-blind, controlled study in 1 56 patients with chronic heart failure (Zeng et al 2003). All patients received conventional treatment and 79 patients in the treatment group also received 1.2-2.0 g day of berberine for 8 weeks. Quality of life was greatly improved in the berberine group in comparison to controls, as measured by a significant increase in left ventricular ejection fraction,...

Coeliac Disease

Although oats are generally considered to be contraindicated in patients with coeliac disease, a moderate amount as part of an otherwise gluten-free diet may improve the nutritional value of the diet (Storsrud et al 2003a) and is generally well tolerated by the majority of adults (Lundin et al 2003) and children (Hogberg et al 2004) with coeliac disease. Both short- and longer-term studies have found no adverse Oats 889 immunological effects associated with the regular consumption of moderate...

Coenzyme

The primary role of folate and its active derivatives in the body is related to its capacity to act as a methyl donor in multiple biochemical pathways. In this way, it is involved in a variety of reactions important for the metabolism of amino acids and nucleic acids. DNA and RNA synthesis Folate plays an essential part in the production of purines and pyrimidines that make up DNA, making it a critical nutrient in relation to cell division and repair of genetic material, and is generally...

Common Cold

Oral zinc supplements, lozenges and nasal sprays and gels have been investigated in the treatment of the common cold. It has been demonstrated that a transient increase in zinc concentrations in and around the nasal cavity prevents rhinovirus binding to cells and disrupts infection (Novick et al 1996) and or modulates inflammatory cytokines that may exacerbate cold symptoms. Nasal preparations A randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial with 160 people tested the effects of a nasal...

Contraindications And Precautions

Do not apply essential oils to eyes or undiluted to mucous membranes. Orange essential oil is flammable and should not be vapourised near sources of heat or open flames. Therefore, candle vapourisers are not recommended. Skin sensitisation and phototoxicity are possible with the essential oils, so exposure to UV light sources should be avoided for at least 12 hours after dermal application. The risk is increased in fair-skinned individuals and when a blend that also contains other phototoxic...

Creatine

Historical note Creatine was first discovered in 1832 when it was identified in meat. The word creatine is derived from the Greek kreasior flesh, similar to the word 'creature'. About 1 5 years later, the meat from foxes killed in the wild were found to have 1 0-fold more creatine than meat from domesticated foxes, suggesting that physical exercise must influence the amount of creatine that accumulates in muscles. Early last century orally consumed creatine was shown to be partly retained in...

Cytochrome P450 Induction

Colupulone, a beta-bitter acid, was reported to induce the cytochrome P450 system and increase mRNA levels of cytochrome 2B and 3A in rats (Shipp et al 1994). Another study found that the flavonoids from hops inhibit the cytochrome P450 system in humans, in particular cytochromes 1A1, 1 b1, 1A2, but not 2E1 or 3A4 (Henderson et al 2000). A recent review concluded that hops inhibits phase 1 detoxification and enhances phase two by inducing quinone reductase (Gerhauser et al 2002, Stevens &...

Damiana

Historical note Damiana is a wild deciduous shrub found in the arid and semiarid regions of South America, Mexico, United States and West Indies. It is believed that Mayan Indians used damiana to prevent giddiness, falling and loss of balance, and as an aphrodisiac. It has also been used during childbirth, and to treat colic, stop bed wetting and bring on suppressed menses. Today its leaves are used for flavouring in food and beverages, and infusions and other preparations are used for a...

Defatted Perilla Seed Extract

Defatted peril la seed extract is a concentrated ethanolic extract rich in polyphenols compounds including rosmarinic acid, rosmarinic acid methyl ester and the flavones apigenin, luteolin and chrysoeriol. Normally flavonoids exist as glycosides in plants however, in perilla seed extract they occur as aglycones (free flavonoids), which have more potent activity. The defatted extract is free of peril lyl ketone, peri I ly I aldehyde and peril lyl alcohol (Oryza Co. 2003). The leaf contains...

Deficiency Signs And Symptoms

Although the traditional understanding of hypovitaminosis D revolves around its critical role in calcium metabolism, the extensive presence of 1,25-(OH)2D receptors throughout the body is providing the impetus for further research into actions, deficiency states and therapeutic applications (Groff & Gropper 2005). PRIMARY DEFICIENCY Unlike many other vitamins, vitamin D is not only ingested through the diet but is also produced and stored in the body. As such, endogenous production, which is...

Depression

Elevation of homocysteine and low levels of vitamin B12 and folate are commonly seen in depression (Coppen & Bolander-Gouaille 2005). Observational studies have found as many as 30 of patients hospitalised for depression to be deficient in vitamin B12 (Hutto 1997). A recent cross-sectional study of 700 community-living, physically disabled women over the age of 65 years found that vitamin B12 deficient women were twice as likely to be severely depressed as non-deficient women (Penninx et al...

Dermatological Conditions

Vitamin E is used both as an oral supplement and as a topical preparation in a variety of dermatological conditions. It is a popular ingredient in many moisturising preparations used to alleviate dry and cracked skin, assist in the repair of abrasions, burns, grazes and skin lesions, prevent stretch marks and diminish scar tissue. Vitamin E oil is used as a stand-alone preparation or incorporated into a cream or ointment base for these purposes. Sunburn protection Topical application of 1...

Diabetes Type 1 And Type

Orally, gymnema leaf is used to treat both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and hyperglycaemia. There are two clinical trials that suggest that gymnema may be useful in reducing blood glucose levels in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In one study the ability of the GS4 extract (400 mg day) to supplement the use of conventional oral hypoglycaemic agents (glibenclamide or tolbutamide) was studied in 22 patients with type 2 diabetes over 18-20 months. Treatment resulted in a significant reduction in...

Diabetes

There is anecdotal evidence that people with type 2 diabetes are using olive leaf extract as an adjunct to dietary modification. One report from Morocco found that 80 of people surveyed used herbal medicines for diabetes, hypertension and cardiac disease, and olive leaf was one of the most popular treatments (Eddouks et al 2002). Once again, hypoglycaemic activity reported in animal models provides a theoretical basis for its use however, clinical testing is not yet available to determine...

Dong quai

Historical note Dong quai is an aromatic herb commonly used in TCM. Its reputation is second to that of ginseng and is regarded as a 'female' remedy, or women's ginseng. Used in combination with other herbs, dong quai is used to treat numerous menstrual disorders and menopausal symptoms, as well as abdominal pain, migraine headache, rheumatism and anaemia (Murray 1995). Dong quai (Angelica sinensis) is closely related to the European Angelica archangelica, a common garden herb and the...

Dysmenorrhoea

A Cochrane review of herbal and dietary therapies for primary and secondary dysmenorrhoea concluded that thiamine is an effective treatment when taken at 100 mg day, although this conclusion is tempered slightly by its basis on only one large RCT (Wilson & Murphy 2001). That trial was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design conducted over 5 months in 556 women and procured a positive improvement in > 90 of the treatment cycle versus < 1 in the placebo phase. The...

Elevated Cholesterol And Triglyceride Levels

Pantethine, a metabolite of pantothenic acid, has been investigated in several clinical studies and found to exert significant lipid-lowering activity (Coronel et al 1991, Donati et al 1986, Gaddi et al 1984). One double-blind study of 29 patients found that 300 mg of pantethine taken three times daily resulted in significant reductions to plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and an increase in HDL-C levels (Gaddi et al 1984). A 2005 review analysed results from 28 clinical...

Elsevier

Churchill Livingstone is an imprint of Elsevier Elsevier Australia (a division of Reed International Books Australia Pty Ltd) 30-52 Smidmore Street. Marrickville. NSW 2204 ACN 001 002 357 2007 Elsevier Australia This publication is copyright. Except as expressly provided in the Copyright Act 1968 and the Copyright Amendment (Digital Agenda) Act 2000, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system or transmitted by any means (including electronic, mechanical,...

Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity

Water soluble compounds extracted from C. cassia potentiate insulin activity, as measured by glucose oxidation in the rat epididymal fat cell assay. The most active compound, methylhydroxy chalcone polymer (MHCP), increased glucose metabolism approximately 20-fold and was an effective mimetic of insulin according to an in vitro study. When combined with insulin, the responses were greater than additive, indicating synergism between the two compounds (Jarvill-Taylor et al 2001). According to...

Erectile Dysfunction

Korean red ginseng has been shown to alleviate erectile dysfunction and improve the ability to achieve and maintain erections even in patients with severe erectile dysfunction (Price & Gazewood 2003). Ginsenosides can facilitate penile erection by directly inducing the vasodilatation and relaxation of the penile corpus cavernosum. Moreover, the effects of ginseng on the corpus cavernosum appear to be mediated by the release and or modification of release of NO from endothelial cells and...

Erythropoietic Protoporphyria And Photosensitivity

Studies in bacteria, animals and humans have demonstrated that carotenoid pigments can prevent or lessen photosensitivity by endogenous photosensitisers, such as chlorophyll or porphyrins, as well as by exogenous photosensitisers (Mathews-Roth 1993) and high doses of beta-carotene (between 180 and 300 mg day) have been used to effectively prevent or lessen photosensitivity in most patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria and in some patients with other photosensitivity diseases such as solar...

Eye Infection

A controlled clinical trial of 51 patients with ocular trachoma infections investigated the effectiveness of berberine over 3 weeks with a 1 -year follow-up (Babbar et al 1982). Subjects who used the 0.2 berberine either by itself or combined with sulfacetamide demonstrated significant symptom improvement and tested negative for Chlamydia trachomatis, with no relapse after 1 year. A later comparison controlled clinical study also evaluated the effectiveness of the topical treatment of berberine...

Fenugreek

Historical note Fenugreek's seeds and leaves are used not only as food but also as an ingredient in traditional medicine. It is indigenous to Western Asia and Southern Europe, but is now mainly cultivated in India, Pakistan, France, Argentina and North African countries. In ancient times it was used as an aphrodisiac by the Egyptians and, together with honey, for the treatment of rickets, diabetes, dyspepsia, rheumatism, anaemia and constipation. It has also been described in early Greek and...

Fibromyalgia

One randomised study, which was investigator blinded, tested the effects of whirl baths with plain water or with water containing pine oil or valerian on pain, disturbed sleep and tender point count in 30 outpatients with generalised fibromyalgia. Valerian significantly improved wellbeing and sleep together with decreasing tender point count, whereas baths with pine oil worsened pain and plain water baths 2007 Elsevier Australia reduced pain but had no effect on wellbeing and sleeplessness...

Garlic

Historical note Garlic has been used as both a food and a medicine since antiquity. Legend has it that garlic was used in ancient Egypt to increase workers' resistance to infection and later used externallyto prevent wound infection. Other ancient civilizations have also used it medicinally. Sanskrit records document the use of garlic approximately 5000 years ago and the Chinese have been using it for over 3000 years. One of the uses of garlic was as a treatment fortumours, a use which extends...

Gastrointestinal Effects

Hepatoprotective Curcumin prevents carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury both in vivo and in vitro (Deshpande et al 1998, Kang et al 2002), reverses aflatoxin-induced liver damage in experimental animals (Soni et al 1992) and effectively suppresses the hepatic microvascular inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharides in vivo (Lukita-Atmadja et al 2002). An ethanol soluble fraction of turmeric was shown to contain three antioxidant compounds, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and...

Gastroprotective Effect

St Mary's thistle extract produces a dose-dependent anti-ulcerogenic activity against indomethacin-induced ulcers, which can be histologically confirmed, according to research with test animals (Khayyal et al 2001). This is associated with reduced acid output, increased mucin secretion, increased PGE2 release and decreased leukotriene release. Experiments with the silymarin constituent group have found it to be effective in the prevention of gastric ulceration induced by cold-restraint stress...

General Guide

Dried bark (crushed cinnamon) 1.5-4 g taken up to four times daily. Fluid extract 1 1 0.5-1.0 ml_ taken up to three times daily. Tea V to 3A teaspoon of powdered cinnamon in a cup of boiling water taken 2-3 times daily with meals. Cinnamon 265 Essential oil 0.05-0.2 ml_ diluted in carrier oil.