Respiratory System

The respiratory system consists of the windpipe (trachea) bronchi (respiratory tree), which connects to the lungs diaphragm (the main muscle of breathing) and the intercostal muscles (the muscles between the ribs that are used for coughing and deep breathing) (see Figure 14.1). Protected by the breastbone, ribs, and spine, the lungs function primarily in breathing and filtering air. Air, which consists of nitrogen, oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, and other particles, enters through the nose and...

Exercise Options and Wellness Programs

Hicks, PhD Exercise is often the focal point of a comprehensive wellness program. Recent research projects have examined the effects of exercise and broader based wellness programs on people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Prior to this research, it was thought that exercise and wellness programs were either inappropriate or futile. It was thought that exercise may actually increase the disease process of MS. Wellness programs were thought to be either...

Chemical Name Imipramine imzprameen

Brand Name Tofranil (U.S. and Canada) Generic Available Yes (U.S. and Canada) Description Imipramine is a tricyclic anti-depressant used to treat mental depression. Its primary use in multiple sclerosis is to treat bladder symptoms, including urinary frequency and incontinence. Imipramine is also prescribed occasionally for the management of neurologic pain in MS. To lessen stomach upset, take this medication with food, even for a daily bedtime dose, unless your physician has told you to take...

Chemical Name Amantadine amantadeen

BrandName Symmetrel (U.S. and Canada) Description Amantadine is an antiviral medication used to prevent or treat certain influenza infections it is also given as an adjunct for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It has been demonstrated that this medication, through some unknown mechanism, is sometimes effective in relieving fatigue in multiple sclerosis. The usual dosage for the management of fatigue in MS is 100 to 200 mg daily, taken in the earlier part of the day in order to avoid sleep...

Steroids

Corticosteroids are naturally occurring hormones in the human body. There are a variety of steroids including glucocorticoids, mineralcorticosteroids, androgens, and progestins. Of these, only the glucocorticoids are prescribed regularly to treat relapses in MS. Glucocorticoids occur naturally in the body as cortisone and hydrocortisone. These hormones are produced by a pair of organs called the adrenal glands, which are situated next to the kidneys. The adrenal glands are organized into two...

C07

Feel your breast in overlapping areas. Some research suggests that many women do breast self-examinations more thoroughhly when they use a pattern of up-and-down lines or strips. Other women feel more comfortable with another pattern. The important thing is to cover the entire breast and to pay special attention to the area between the breast and the underarm, including the underarm itself. Check the area above the breast, up to the collarbone and all the way over to your shoulder. Feel the...

Stress Demon Of The Modern

Many people believe that stress plays an important role either in precipitating the onset of multiple sclerosis (MS) or in triggering exacerbations. Anecdotes abound of people who had their first attack right after a major emotional trauma. Many studies have investigated this possible link, with mixed results. It is therefore unclear whether stress plays a major role in MS disease activity. Immune dysregulation seems to be the major culprit in MS. There is plenty of evidence, mainly from...

Chemical Name Bisacodyl bisaoedill

Brand Name Dulcolax tablet or suppository (U.S.) Bisacolax tablet or suppository (Canada) Generic Available Yes (U.S. and Canada) Description Bisacodyl is an over-the-counter stimulant laxative that can be used in either oral or suppository form. Stimulant laxatives encourage bowel movements by increasing the muscle contractions in the intestinal wall that propel the stool mass. Although stimulant laxatives are popular for self-treatment, they are more likely to cause side effects than other...

Chemical Name Interferon interfeeron beta1b

Brand Name Betaseron (U.S. and Canada) Generic Available No Description Betaseron is a medication manufactured by a biotechnological process from one of the naturally occurring interferons (a type of protein). In a clinical trial of 372 ambulatory patients with relapsing-remitting MS, those taking the currently recommended dose of the medication experienced fewer exacerbations, a longer time between exacerbations, and exacerbations that were generally less severe than those of patients taking a...

Chemical Name Meclizine meklizeen

Brand Name Antivert (U.S.) Bonamine Description Meclizine is used to prevent and treat nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. This drug adds to the effects of alcohol and other central nervous system depressants (e.g., antihistamines, sedatives, tranquilizers, prescriptions pain medications, seizure medications, muscle relaxants, and sleeping medications), possibly causing drowsiness. Be sure that your physician knows if you are taking these or any other medications. Meclizine may cause dryness of...

Chemical Name Sertraline sertraleen

Brand Name Zoloft (U.S. and Canada) Description Sertraline is used to treat mental depression and certain types of anxiety. This medication should always be taken at the same time in relation to meals and snacks to make sure that it is absorbed in the same way. Because sertraline may be given to different individuals at different times of the day, you and your physician should discuss what to do about any missed doses. It may take 4 to 6 weeks for you to feel the beneficial effects of this...

Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite

(MSFC) A three-part, standardized, quantitative assessment instrument for use in clinical trials in MS, that was developed by the Task Force on Clinical Outcomes Assessment appointed by the National MS Society's Advisory Committee on Clinical Trials of New Agents in Multiple Sclerosis. The three components of the MSFC measure leg function ambulation (Timed 25-Foot Walk), arm hand function (9-Hole Peg Test), and cognitive function (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test PASAT ). Muscle tone A...

Chemical Name Pemoline pemohleen

Brand Name Cylert (U.S. and Canada) Description Pemoline is a mild central nervous system stimulant that has been used primarily to treat children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and adults with narcolepsy. It is used in multiple sclerosis to relieve certain types of fatigue. As directed by the Food and Drug Administration, Abbott Laboratories, the manufacturer of Cylert, has recommended evaluation of liver function prior to starting this medication, followed by biweekly liver...

Chemical Name Gabapentin gabapentin

Description Gabapentin is an antiepileptic used to control some types of seizures in epilepsy. it is used in multiple sclerosis to control dysesthesias pain caused by MS lesions and the pain caused by spasticity. Gabapentin may be taken with or without food. You must wait 2 hours after taking an antacid to take gabapentin. If gabapentin is taken 3 times a day, do not allow more than 12 hours to elapse between any 2 doses. If you miss a dose of this medication, take it as soon as possible....

Stretching And Flexibility

A regular stretching program is important to maintain optimal length of muscles and other soft tissue structures e.g., tendons, fascia, and connective tissue . If you have tightness in any areas, you increase your risk of injury or possible contractures secondary to abnormal shortening of the muscles or other soft tissue structures. Ultimately, such tightness reduces mobility, because of the decrease in range of motion, and makes you more prone to sprains and strains. Finally, a stretching...

Immunomodulators The Abcr Drugs

Perhaps the most effective treatments currently available today deal with the autoimmune component of MS and work by regulating aspects of the immune system. Avonex , Betaseron , Copaxone , and Rebif have been approved to modify the disease in relapsing forms of MS Betaseron has been FDA-approved for use in people who have SPMS. Avonex is being used for worsening MS in people presenting with a clinically isolated syndrome CIS one neurologic attack with MRI evidence of demyeli-nation. A fifth...

Chemical Name Mineral oil

Mineral oil is available in a variety of brands in the U.S. and Canada. Description Mineral oil is a lubricant laxative that is taken by mouth. It encourages bowel movements by coating the bowel and the stool with a waterproof film that helps to retain moisture in the stool. Laxatives are to be used to provide short-term relief only, unless otherwise directed by the nurse or physician who is helping you to manage your bowel symptoms. A regimen that includes a healthy diet containing roughage...