In order to achieve adequate signal in the vessels of interest, time-of-flight MR angiography (TOF MRA) generally requires the orthogonal acquisition of images. TOF MRA is therefore not suitable for depiction of the abdominal vasculature because of the typically tortuous course of the vessels. Although the proximal parts of the main abdominal branches in which most vascular pathologies are located may theoretically be assessed on TOF MRA, the long acquisition times for these sequences preclude the possibility of acquiring images in one breath-hold. Moreover, since flow in the aorta is perpendicular to that in the branching arteries, major artifacts which may mimic stenoses are common.
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