Whereas focal fatty infiltration of the liver is present in roughly 10% of the adult population, it is uncommon in infants and young children. However, its prevalence increases with age. The most frequent underlying causes in children are malnutrition with or without diabetes mellitus, obesity (Fig. 25), metabolic diseases and chemotherapy (Fig. 26).
As in the adult population, there are both diffuse and focal forms of fatty liver infiltration. Approximately 30-40% of cases occur focally, either as solitary areas (10% of cases) or as multiple areas with a more widespread distribution (20-30% of cases). Most cases of fatty liver infiltration are of the diffuse type with a segmental, lobar, or irregular distribution. More details on imaging of fatty liver are given in Chapter 5, "Hepatic Pseudole-sions".
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