Major Tranquilizers Thorazine and Relatives

Major tranquilizers revolutionized psychiatry when they were first introduced in the early 1950s. They provided a new and easy way to manage schizophrenia and other severe mental diseases, making patients calm and emotionally quiet. In some cases the major tranquilizers have enabled psychotic persons to lead reasonably normal lives and function outside hospitals. More often, they make them more manageable and docile rather than less crazy. We don't want to *put Mother in a home, When disturbed...

Doonesbury

NOTHim'S HAPPENS MHMl THIS S THE WORST STUFF I'VE EVER HAD IN MY LIFE I'LL KILL HIM I'LL KILL THAT SOU OF A tablets of all colors and tiny transparent gelatin chips (window-pane) to pieces of paper soaked in solutions of the drug or stamped wTith ink designs containing it. The windowpane and paper forms are likely to be the purest, since they are too small to contain contaminants. Despite loud arguments and much bad publicity about the medical dangers of LSD in the 1970s, there is no evidence...

Info

As cough suppressant, 149 first-person comments on, 207-8 laws governing, 87 nervous system and, 28-29 synthetic, 147, 150 withdrawal from, 88 Opium, 11, 19, 76 addiction to, 85, 88 discussed, 81-83, 84 medical applications of, 16 poppies, 28-29, 32, 82, 84 smoking vs. oral, 88 Organic solvents, 126-28, 131 Overdoses, 9, 163-64 alcohol, 60, 66 angel dust, 137 delirium caused by, 131-32 depressants, 59 'owners and sleeping pills, 70, 77 heroin, 85 marijuana, 118 psychedelics, 94, 108 Overeaters...

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Marijuana

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Antihistamines

Some allergic reactions are mediated by an endogenous substance called histamine that strongly affects nerves, blood vessels, and other tissues. In an effort to suppress allergic symptoms, pharmacologists have invented a number of synthetic drugs to block the actions of histamine. Many antihistamines are now available in large-dosage forms they are dispensed by prescription, but lower-dosage forms are sold over the counter. Some of the ones in widespread use are diphenhydramine (Benadryl),...

Amphetamines and Related Drugs

Amphetamines are synthetic stimulants that were invented in Germany in the 1930s. Their chemical struetures resemble those of adrenaline and noradrenaline, the body's own stimulants. Their effects resemble those of cocaine but are mueh longer lasting. A single oral dose of amphetamine usually stimulates the body for at least four hours. Amphetamines are more toxic than cocaine and, when abused, cause worse problems. The body has a great capacity to metabolize and eliminate cocaine the liver can...

Anabolic Steroids

Male sex hormones are also called anabolic steroids because they stimulate anabolism, the building-up phase of metabolism. Under their influence, protein synthesis increases in bone, muscle, and skin, leading to increased bone density, muscle mass, and skin tone. These hormones are also androgens that is, they stimulate the development of male sex characteristics facial and body hair, male distribution of fat and muscle, deep voice, and so forth. (Female hormones estrogens and progesterone are...

Refined Forms

Morphine, cocaine, and mescaline are all examples of drugs that occur in plants but are commonly available in refined form as white powders, sold both legally and illegally. Some of them, such as mescaline, can easily be synthesized in laboratories, but even when they are, we can still call them natural drugs because the molecules already exist in nature. Others, such as cocaine and morphine, have more complex molecular structures. Chemists can make them in laboratories, but it is not cost...

Organic Solvents

In chemistry the word organic refers to compounds of carbon. Some of the simplest organic chemicals are clear, volatile liquids made by distilling petroleum. These liquids have many uses in industry. Some, like gasoline, make good fuels because they burn readily. Others, like benzene and toluene, dissolve grease and oil, making them useful as cleaning fluids and solvents. The fumes of these organic solvents have strong chemical odors and make people feel lightheaded, hot, and dizzy. Cans and...

Coffee and Other Caffeine Containing Plants

Caffeine, the most popular natural stimulant, is found in a number of plants throughout the world. The drug was first isolated from coffee in 1821 and was named for that plant, but the effects of coffee and caffeine differ. In many ways coffee seems to be more powerful than refined caffeine or other caffeine-containing plants. A shrubby tree native to Ethiopia, coffee is now cultivated in many tropical countries throughout the world. Its bright red fruits, called cherries, each contain two...

Bronchodilators

Bronchodilators are drugs that open the airways in the respiratory tract. They are widely prescribed as pills and aerosol inhalers to patients with asthma to relieve the wheezing and difficulty in breathing characteristic of that disease. Most of these drugs work by stimulating the sympathetic nervous system, which regulates the muscular walls of the bronchial tubes. As a result, in addition to their desired effect, they commonly cause stimulation, anxiety, jittenness, and insomnia. Patients...

Coca and Cocaine

Coca, a shrub native to the hot, humid valleys of the eastern slopes of the Andes, has been cultivated by the Indians of South America for thousands of years. Today the plant is legal in Peru and Bolivia, where millions of Indians still chew coca leaves every day as a stimulant and medicine. (Coca, by the way, is not related to cocoa.) Coca contains fourteen drugs, cocaine being the most important. The other drugs are present in smaller amounts and seem to modify the stimulating effect of the...

Nutmeg and Mace

Nutmeg, the ground spice that goes into cookies, eggnog, and pumpkin pie, contains a drug called myristicin that may be converted in the body to one of the amphetaminelike psychedelics. Someone told me you could get high by eating nutmeg. So one night I choked down a whole can, which was over an ounce. After three hours, I felt light and dreamy. It was a little like a light dose of pot. However, the next morning, I had a splitting headache, my heart was racing, and my mouth was really dry. I...

Why People Use Drugs

Drugs are fascinating because they can change our awareness. The basic reason people take drugs is to vary their conscious experience. Of course there are many other ways to alter consciousness, such as listening to music, making music, dancing, fasting, chanting, exercising, surfing, meditating, falling in love, hiking in the wilderness (if you live in a city), visiting a city (if you live in the wilderness), having sex, daydreaming, watching fireworks, going to a movie or play, jumping into...

Iviwi

Putting users into pleasant, dreamy states while numbing their bodies. Drinks made from the dried root are more relaxing than intoxicating. Kava ceremonies take place at night and often bring large groups of people together for the main social event of island life. Only dried kava is available outside the South Pacific. Herb stores sell it as a coarse powder or larger chips of root. When chewed, dried kava makes the mouth numb and may be relaxing. Some people brew it into a tea, which they like...

Ketamine Ketalar Ketaject SuperK

Ketamine is a close relative of PCP, producing very similar effects. It is a legal prescription drug intended for use as an anesthetic. Ketamine comes in small bottles as a solution to be injected into patients, either intravenously or intramuscularly. Like PCP, ketamine produces an unusual kind of anesthesia, called a dissociative state, in which the patient's awareness becomes detached from the body and from external reality. Like PCP, ketamine has produced a number of bad reactions, since...

Lose Weight Fast

NO CAi IL NlO STIMULANTS S , STRONGEST 12-HOUR APPETITE CONTROL FORMULA I available without prescription . _ (cntam This package of diet capsules emphasizes that the product contains no stimulants. The sole active ingredient is market as Dexamyl to gullible buyers. Older and more straightfor-phenylpropanolamine, a ward products are Vivarin and No-Doz, in the form of simple stimulant. white tablets. If these products are more effective than coffee or tea, it is only because people believe in...

Amanita Mushrooms Fly Agaric Amanita muscaria Panther Mushroom Amanita pantherina

Amanitas are a family of large, beautiful mushrooms that grow in many parts of the world. Some of them are deadly, the most poisonous of all wild mushrooms. Some are edible and delicious. Two are neither deadly nor edible as food but are used as psychoactive drugs. Amanita muscaria, the fly agaric, is a big mushroom with white dots on a red or orange cap. (Agaric is an old word for mushroom the name fly comes from an old practice of chopping this mushroom into a saucer of milk to attract and...

Corticosteroids Cortisone and Relatives

Besides producing adrenaline, the adrenal glands secrete other hormones that control metabolism and body chemistry. This group of hormones comes from the gland's outer layer, or cortex, and so the principal one is called cortisone. Cortisone and its relatives all have a distinctive molecular structure known as the steroid nucleus (which they share with the male and female sex hormones described below). Pharmacologists have learned to make many semisynthetic drugs with this same structure,...

Nasal Decongestants

One of the physical effects of stimulants is to constrict blood vessels in the nose and sinuses. This constriction shrinks those tissues, allowing freer passage of air. The effect is temporary and, when the stimulant wears off, is usually followed by an opposite reaction, or rebound ' in which the nasal passages become more blocked than before. This pattern is similar to the one that occurs with the bronchodilator drugs described above. Early nasal inhalers contained strips of paper impregnated...

Tobacco and Nicotine

Tobacco is one of the most powerful stimulant plants known, and nicotine its active principle is one of the most toxic of all drugs. An average cigar contains enough nicotine to kill several people. When tobacco is smoked, most of the nicotine is destroyed by the heat of burning. (To kill people with a cigar, you'd have to soak the cigar in water till it turned dark, then make people drink the liquid.) Nicotine is so strong and dangerous that the body very quickly develops tolerance to it to...

Amyl Nitrite Amysr Poppers Snappers Pearls Aspirol Vaporal

Amyl nitrite is a simple chemical that has been used for more than a hundred years to relieve heart pain in people who suffer from coronary artery disease. Such people often feel severe chest pain when they exert themselves. If they breathe the fumes of amyl nitrite, the pain quickly disappears because the drug dilates arteries throughout the body, reducing the workload of the heart. Other effects are a sudden fall in blood pressure, a throbbing feeling in the head (or even a brief, pounding...

Nightshades Jimsonweed Datura Belladonna Henbane

Belladone Scopolaline

The nightshade family of plants includes some very popular foods tomatoes, sweet and hot peppers, eggplants, and potatoes. It also includes tobacco and some poisonous plants that are infamous because of their associations with crime, witchcraft, and black magic. Even their names are sinister henbane, mandrake, and deadly nightshade, for example. Nightshades look scary, too. They are rank, hairy plants with strange smells and peculiar flowers some have dangerous fruit. In North America the main...

PCP Angel Dust Peace Pill Hog Animal Tranquilizer THC Cannabinol

PCP phencyclidine was invented in a pharmaceutical laboratory in the late 1950s and was introduced into clinical medicine in the United States in 1963 under the trade name Sernyl. It was marketed as a surgical anesthetic but did not make people unconscious in the same way as ether. Rather, it dissociated consciousness from the body so that patients were not bothered by surgical procedures even though they retained some kind of awareness. Enthusiasm about the medical value of PCP diminished when...