Five Steps to Mindfulness

Seven Minute Mindfulness

Seven Minute Mindfulness is an audio targeted at using the most natural way to maintain a good focus and the mindfulness people need for their daily activities. It combines the various religious methods to reach a balance in ensuring the users reach the highest point of mindfulness they can ever attain. To help them reach this height, the program had been prepared to take only seven minutes of your time. Pending the time of its usage, the users will not have to spend a lot of time dealing with it. The Seven Minute Mindfulness was designed to be used on any device. Getting started is simple and will take just a few minutes after ordering. It comes with various bonuses like The Seven Minute Mindfulness Guidebook (A digital manual that comes along with the audio version); Your Little Book Of Mindfulness Exercises (A digital guide to some exercises that can be practised in the house)The product is in a digital format of Audio messages and has been created at a very affordable price. In case it does not meet their demands or desires, the users have the right to ask for a refund of their money within three months. The implication is that they are given the chance to try it at home and if they suddenly become sceptical or grow cold feet, they will get a 100% refund. More here...

Seven Minute Mindfulness Summary


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Author: Greg Thurston
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Managing Mindfulness and Achieving Acceptance

This breathing exercise is designed to introduce you to mindfulness. Mindfulness is a state of awareness of the present in the absence of judgment, analysis, and reasoning. In other words, it's awareness without dwelling on your thinking. (That's why we think the term mindfulness really ought to be mindlessness, but alas, the world has adopted the term mindfulness, so we'll go along with that.) You can't achieve mindfulness without acceptance, which involves patience and tolerance as well as willingness to feel and experience what is without resistance. In this chapter, we guide you through the acceptance of your thoughts and feelings so that you can achieve mindfulness.

Mindfulnessbased Stress Reduction

Another approach that has been used to help cancer survivors cope with many of the common posttreatment problems detailed above is MBSR. Mindfulness itself stems from Eastern meditation practices, and has been described as nonelabora-tive, present-centered awareness in which each thought, feeling and or sensation that arises in the attentional field is acknowledged and accepted nonjudgmentally as it is. Recent attempts at definition have resulted in a two-component model of mindfulness.87 The first component involves self-regulation of attention on immediate experience, resulting in recognition of events arising in present moment awareness. The second component represents an orientation of openness and acceptance of moment-to-moment experience. This is similar to another suggested conceptualization of mindfulness as composed of intention, attention, and attitude.88 Intention in this model describes the purposive nature of directing the faculties of attention toward observing...

The origins of consciousness studies

For several reasons, phenomenology did not become the dominant mainstream approach in Western societies, where the Cartesian legacy is still influential. According to Yasuo Yuasa, this is because (1) phenomenology has limited its investigation to a universal or normal state of consciousness, with no significant attention paid to the study of altered states of consciousness (ASC), such as meditation or mystical states of consciousnesses (2) it did not emphasize a dynamic perspective of consciousness, assuming instead that the connection between body-mind was constant and not developed or cultivated during the life of an individual and (3) finally, it largely stressed a 'temporal' dimension of human existence, rather than a spatial dimension, or an integration between the two (Yuasa 1993).

Mindful Individual

Most times, when people enter psychotherapy, they are not mindful of themselves or of others. They often enter therapy unaware of what they feel, why they feel as they do, and in what context these feelings are likely to be elicited. There also tends to be an unaware-ness of the feelings and motivations of others. Many use projection rather than mindful awareness when trying to understand what another person is feeling. This of course leads to difficulties in relationships. In addition, people tend to use what they have been told about themselves by others instead of being mindful of who they are and instead of being aware of how they feel. People also tend to use the standards of society in trying to figure out how they should be and feel. Instead of looking inward and being aware of what they feel, they replace this introspection with a focus on how society says they should be and feel. There are negative consequences to living a mindless life. Tart (1994) writes that without...

Poor Thinking Habits and Anger

These thoughts act to make the issue at hand too important and make you feel like you need to take a stand right noiv. Intensity of emotion is increased in part by taking past frustrations and bringing them forward to the present moment. In effect, these thoughts work to goad you on toward a more explosive conflict.

Dynamicity Fictivity and Scanning

The most obvious cases of dynamicity are those correlated with word order. Due to the temporality of the speech stream, we can hardly avoid accessing facets of a complex conception in the order given by the sequencing of the words that symbolize them. Dynamicity is not however limited to this dimension. It is essential that we not oversimplify the manifest complexity of language processing by assuming that a single left-to-right pass through a sentence is all there is. Instead, we can reasonably presume that sequenced processing occurs simultaneously in multiple dimensions and on different time scales. Simultaneously, for example, we have to keep track of discourse strategies, clause structure, and the conceptions evoked by individual lexical items, as well as the fine details of articulatory phonetics. In addition to following the order of presentation, we are able -by means of short-term memory - to backtrack and thus to reexamine and reanalyze material already encountered (e.g. in...

Michael J Devlin Stephen A Wonderlich B Timothy Walsh and James E Mitchell

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) remains the best established therapy. There is also strong evidence supporting the utility of interpersonal therapy (IPT) and there are suggestions that other sorts of therapy may be effective as well, including dialectic behavior therapy (DBT), therapies targeting eating awareness and mindfulness, and some recent modifications to CBT, including enhanced cognitive behavior therapy (CBT-E) and integrative cognitive affective therapy (ICAT). So, the field is making progress. However, a number of problems remain that we hope will be addressed soon interpersonal psychotherapy 153, 154 mindfulness in dialectical behavior therapy 123, 128, 129 during eating 132-3, 207, 212 training 103 Mindless Eating (dialectical behavior

Sigmund Freud A Brief Biography

Although Freud was born in Freiber g, Moravia, in 1856 (now part of the Czech Republic), his family moved to Vienna when he was 4 years old, and he spent virtually the remainder of his life there. Freud excelled in school and obtained his medical degree from the University of Vienna. Although he started out as a researcher in neurology, he realized that he could make more money to support his wife and growing family if he entered into private medical practice. After studying hypnosis with Jean-Martin Charcot in Paris, Freud returned to Vienna and started a private practice, treating patients with nervous disorders. During that time, Freud began developing the idea that portions of the human mind were outside conscious awareness. The unconscious is the part of the mind about which the conscious mind has no awareness. Freud sought to study empirically the implications of the unconscious for understanding people' s lives and their problems with living. From his early contact with...

Kay E Segal Sarah E Altman Jessica A Weissman Debra L Safer and Eunice Y Chen

Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) represents an example of one of the new-wave behavior therapies that integrate mindfulness practice into the treatment of Binge Eating Disorder (BED), e.g. acceptance commitment therapy (Lillis et al. 2011) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (Kristeller and Wolever 2010). DBT is an outpatient cognitive-behavioral therapy originally developed by Linehan (1993a, 1993b) for women with extreme emotion dysregulation and recurrent suicidal behavior i.e., borderline personality disorder (BPD). A comprehensive skills-based treatment, DBT integrates change-based behavioral strategies (e.g. problem-solving and contingency management) and crisis intervention with strategies derived from acceptance-based practices such as Zen and contemplation practice (e.g. mindfulness and validation). These strategies are integrated within a dialectical framework, emphasizing wholeness, interrelatedness, and process, and utilizing persuasive dialogue and the therapeutic...

Management of Emotions

Fmri Scan Examples Psychology

We all have to cover up such disappointments once in a while. But what about people who routinely suppress their emotions, who keep everything inside What are the consequences of chronically inhibiting one' s emotions Some theorists suggest that emotional inhibition leads to undesirable consequences. For example, Sigmund Freud (see Chapter 9) believed that most psychological problems were the result of inhibited negative emotions and motivations. That is, repression and the other defense mechanisms are ways of preventing an unacceptable emotion from surfacing and being directly experienced and expressed. The early psychoanalysts saw this suppression of emotion, the pushing of unacceptable desires or ur ges into the unconscious, as the root of all psychological problems. Psychoanalytic therapy , or the talking cure, was designed to bring unconscious emotion into conscious awareness, so that it could be experienced and expressed in a mature manner . Moreover, the therapeutic...

Subconscious Incubation

During the latter part of the 19th century Freud wrote much about how unconscious activities influence our thoughts and actions. In the mid-20th century many academic psychology departments were immersed in Skinnerian behaviorism, and during this time, the construct that unconscious mental activity had an influence on human behavior was disregarded. In the past 20 or 30 years, however, neurop-sychologists have provided convincing evidence that the brain can mediate cognitive activity while the person who is performing this activity might not be consciously aware that this activity is taking place. For example, Bauer (1984) studied one of my patients who had prosopagnosia (failure to recognize the faces of people who were previously known to this man) from bilateral traumatic hematomas (blood clots) of the ventral (bottom) temporal and occipital lobes. These hematomas impaired the visual what system I previously described. In his hand, Bauer recorded the electrical resistance which...

Closer Look Empirical Studies of Repression

In the initial study, after subjects had completed the questionnaires, Weinberger et al. (1979) had the subjects engage in a phrase association task, where they match up phrases in one list with phrases in another list that have similar meaning several phrases contained angry and sexual overtones. As the subjects attempted to match up the phrases, the researchers measured their physiological reactions. The researchers also measured the subjects' self-reported levels of distress immediately after their performance. They found that the repressors reported the lowest levels of subjective distress yet were found to exhibit the highest levels of physiological arousal (heart rate, skin conductance). In short, repressors verbally say they are not distressed yet physiologically appear to be very distressed. Other researchers have obtained similar findings (e.g., Asendorpf & Scherer, 1983 Davis & Schwartz, 1987). These experimental results are consistent with Freud's view that repression keeps...

Techniques for Revealing the Unconscious

By relaxing the censor that screens our everyday thoughts, the technique of free association allows potentially important material into conscious awareness. This takes some practice. Patients are encouraged to say whatever comes to mind, no matter how absurd, trifling, or obscene. The technique is a bit like looking for a needle in a haystack, in that the psychoanalyst is likely to be subjected to a barrage of trivial material before stumbling on an important clue to an unconscious conflict

One of Freuds Famous Students Carl Gustav Jung

Think back to the first house or apartment you lived in as a child. If you are like most people, you can probably remember as far back as your fourth or fifth year of age. Try to recall the structure of the house or apartment, the location of the rooms relative to each other. Draw a floor plan, starting with the basement if there was one, then the first floor, then the upstairs rooms (if the house had a second floor). On your floor plan, label each room. Now think about each room, letting the memories of events that happened in each of them come back to you. It is likely that you will recall some people and events that you have not thought about for a decade or more. You also might notice that many of your memories have an emotional quality some memories are pleasant, whereas others are unpleasant. The memories that you can bring to conscious awareness are in your preconscious. You may have memories of events that occurred that do not come back to you during this exercise because they...

The Emotionally Disconnected Group

Expressing and working with emotions in the present moment of the group often represent a major challenge to people who are disconnected from their feelings and or acculturated to presenting a nice, accommodating stance in the presence of conflict. This reluctance to express so-called negative feelings is often closely associated with a suppression of body awareness and, therefore, little access to emotional awareness that can be stated in words. These disconnections can be bridged by the use of sensory and kinesthetic modes of expression, such as art, movement, and drama (Lark, 2001 Lusebrink, 1990, 2004).

The goal of beating your personal best

The next time you feel a craving, you're tempted, discouraged, unmotivated or you feel like skipping a workout, focus on your daily goals, not on the huge amount of work that is ahead of you. Tell yourself, All I have is today. All I have is this moment, this workout, this meal, the next 30 minutes, the next hour. If I just do what I know I must do now, then I know I'll reach my ultimate goal eventually. Concentrate on the task at hand in this moment. As the Zen masters of Japan remind us Be here now. The point of power is always in the present moment.

Contemporary Views on the Unconscious

Unconscious And Personality

The idea of a motivated unconscious is at the core of classical psychoanalytic theory . Most contemporary psychologists also believe in the unconscious, although it is a different version of the unconscious than that found in classical psychoanalytic theory . Consider the views of psychologist John Bar gh, a social psychologist whose research on unconscious processes has had a lar ge impact on psychology People are often unaware of the reasons and causes of their own behavior . In fact, recent experimental evidence points to a deep and fundamental dissociation between conscious awareness and the mental processes responsible for one' s behaviof' (2005, p. 38). This can be illustrated with one of Bar gh's own experiments in which college student subjects took part in what they thought was an experiment on language, where they were presented with many different words. Half of the participants were presented with words We can term these two dif fering views on the unconscious the...

Lindlahr Henry 18621924

Gordon (1990) New Age Encyclopedia A Guide to the Beliefs, Concepts, Terms, People, and Organizations That Make Up the New Global Movement Toward Spiritual Development, Health and Healing, Higher Consciousness, and Related Subjects, Detroit, Mich. Gale Research, pp. 164-5.

Exercises For Developing Technical Skill

The best sports are going to be those that the student enjoys and will, therefore, participate in regularly. Racquet sports help in coordination, but dance and contact sports are probably better for posture, balance and the psychomotor development necessary for osteopathic technique. Physical strength is not a requirement for an osteopath. However, a reasonable level of stamina and fitness is useful. A high proportion of students who become good technicians have done some training in martial arts. It seems that the discipline, fitness and body awareness have many uses in their subsequent osteopathic career. Team games seem to have less to offer in terms of the future needs of an osteopath, but that is not to say that they do not have their use in general fitness.

Reminders Symbolic Understanding And Memory Development

Memory Reminder Chart

One explanation for these results may be that children do not need to understand the symbolic nature of representational media such as photographs, videos, and scale models for them to be effective reminders. It may be that to use a photograph, video, or a scale model effectively as a reminder, one must only recognize the similarity between the representational medium and the previously experienced event, and that is enough to activate the memory for the past event. This matching between the representational reminder and a child's memory of a previous event can take place at an implicit level that does not require conscious awareness (e.g., Tulving, 1983). Thus, an explicit understanding of the representation-referent relationship may not be necessary. Therefore, the amount of information and similarity of that information to a child's memory representation of a previous event may be the important factors in the development of children's understanding of representational reminders...

Does shortness of breath mean Im worse

Breathing is a basic function that occurs automatically, usually without conscious awareness. Breathing is controlled by the respiratory center in the brainstem. When a signal arrives from the respiratory center, the chest wall muscles and the diaphragm contract. This increases the space between the chest wall and the lungs, which in turn decreases the pressure inside the lungs. The lungs inhale to equalize the pressure inside with the pressure outside. As the lungs expand to fill Shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, or a conscious awareness of breathing can occur because of disease of the heart. The heart is a muscle, a pump, that circulates fluid through the body. If the heart muscle is damaged by repeated heart attacks, by inflammation, or by drugs such as alcohol, the pump fails and fluid (edema) accumulates in the lungs. If you are having shortness of breath, have your heart checked.

The Process of Psychoanalysis

With the help of free association, dream analysis, and projective techniques, the psychoanalyst gradually comes to understand the unconscious source of the patient' s problems. The patient must also come to understand the unconscious dynamics of his or her situation. Toward this end, the psychoanalyst of fers the patient interpretations of the psychodynamic causes of the problems. The patient is led to view problematic thoughts, dreams, behaviors, symptoms, or feelings as all having unconscious roots and as expressions of unconscious conflicts or repressed u ges. The psychoanalyst might say, Could it be that the reason you feel so sleepy when you go out with your boyfriend is that you are afraid of being sexually attractive to him The patient is confronted with an explanation of something she has been keeping from herself. Through many interpretations, the patient is gradually led to an understanding of the unconscious source of her problems. This is the beginning of insight. Insight,...

HOME and Socio Emotional Development

Developmental theory also stipulates that the meaning a child makes of any particular action on the part of parents is conditioned by the full tableaux of experiences within the family and in those other micro-contexts in which the child spends time (e.g., child care, school, peer group) (Bronfenbrenner, 1995). Family life is complexly organized and its influence on the lives of children involves a myriad of interwoven processes. At the moment when it is encountered, a specific parenting action operates at the foreground of a child's conscious awareness. That action is set against a background of other actions, objects, events and conditions occurring both in and through time. It is this background, together with the foreground, that determines the meaning a child makes of the specific action. Unfortunately, the vast majority of studies on parenting do not consider the impact of each child's background of experience when examining particular types of parenting actions, opting instead...

Distress and Quality of Life

A unique modification on MBSR that has been applied to cancer patients is called mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT), which combines the principles of MBSR with other creative modalities. In a recently completed 2-year RCT (N 111), researchers compared the 8-week MBAT intervention to wait-list control in a heterogeneous cohort of women with mixed cancer types receiving usual oncologic care. They found that compared to the usual care group, the MBAT participants had less depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms of stress, and less hostility.106

Empirical Support For Mbsr In Cancer Survivors

Our first study of MBSR specifically for cancer patients was also the first published in the scientific literature, in the year 2000, so this area is still in its infancy. Nonetheless, a growing body of empirical support indicates that MBSR may be helpful to survivors in ways that would theoretically be expected. A recent review paper of MBSR studies in cancer95 joins several prior review papers which document what is known about the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions within diverse patient populations.96-98 The following overview is structured to coincide with the four categories of symptoms pertinent to cancer patients described in the first section. such as temperament, social support, and heredity, as well as health behaviors such as diet, exercise and smoking, on health outcomes. These factors interact with the experience of life stress, which can in turn influence neuroendocrine, immune and cardiovascular processes that effect disease course and recovery. The MBSR...

Mind Body Interventions

Meditation is the ability to self-regulate your thoughts in order to suspend the normal stream of consciousness. A common goal of meditation, which distinguishes it from relaxation, is to reach a state of thoughtless awareness during which you are passively aware of sensations at the present moment. There are a number of different methods that people use to meditate. The methods that involve the constant repetition of sounds or images without aiming for a state of thoughtless awareness are sometimes called quasi-meditative. Meditation is generally thought to be safe for most people. (Meditation is explored in more detail in Chapter 12.)

Overview of the Memory System

The information-processing model is particularly useful in understanding explicit memory, the type of memory of greatest interest to parents and teachers. Explicit memories are potentially conscious and can be described verbally or pictured in images. A child uses explicit memory when she describes a class field trip or edits a report by applying grammatical rules she has learned. In contrast, some information may affect task performance without entering the individual's conscious awareness. In this case, it is described as implicit memory. Implicit memory is assessed by indirect measurements, such as determining how much quicker individuals can add letters to complete a word when they have previously been presented with a target word, or by physiological indicators, such as changes in galvanic skin response.

How This Book Is Organized

Chapter 7 shows you how certain core beliefs darken and distort your view of yourself, your world, and your future as surely as eyeglasses with the wrong prescription muddle normal sight. We include tools for regrinding your life-lenses so you see things more clearly. Finally, in Chapter 8, you have the opportunity to practice mindfulness and acceptance more techniques for handling troubling thoughts.

Other Types Of Exercise

Yoga has become a very popular activity for many people. Yoga for people with MS can be beneficial in improving overall flexibility and body awareness. In addition, yoga is performed at the level of the participant, so fatigue and balance problems can be minimized. Yoga can be performed through organized classes or by using video tapes to guide you through the different poses. When researching yoga classes, discuss with the instructor any limitations you may have and how they will be accommodated during the class. Many MS clinics and local chapters of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society offer yoga classes specifically for people with MS.

Am lonely as I want to be able to talk but have a hard time

One year after Feather and I had that conversation I received the following note from her. I want her note to bring you hope and to feel that inner peace is within your child's reach. Remember how she said that she could not 'feel' the love Her pacing up and down and the feeling of warmth showed me that she felt it but either felt afraid or that no one helped her label these feelings as love.

Your Bodyyourself Draw Your Body And Explore Your Selfimage

Psychodynamic-oriented group psychotherapists (Rutan & Stone, 2000) usually encourage verbal interaction in the group and work with words, not with action or art materials (Malchiodi, 1998). When they do use planned active interventions they find it hard to incorporate these techniques into their regular group process. The following technique is used to enhance body awareness (Cash & Pruzinsky, 2002), but also to deepen exploration of self-image. It is used not as a stand-alone technique, but as part of a psychodynamic group, and therefore the interaction between group members around the drawings and the feedback they receive from one another is an important part of using it. Beyond the specific exercise of drawing one's body, this demonstrates how to integrate any art and action exercise into a psychodynamic group.

Emotional intelligence

Whether or not we regulate our emotions depends on our own emotional awareness (part of emotional intelligence) and how we think about our own moods. Also, we need strategies to use that can affect our feelings. So, for example, we might make ourselves feel good by helping other people, or by leaving the more pleasant things that we have to do until later in the day. (Of course, some people might start off with the more pleasant tasks and never actually get round to the less pleasant ones.)

Application Of Mbsr To Cancer Survivors

Training in mindfulness meditation develops the capacity for the intentional self-regulation of attention and applies this capacity toward the cultivation of insight regarding the basic processes through which each of us construe identity and meaning from experience. The skills and understandings thus developed have broad applicability for cancer survivors, which include but are not limited to the goal of stress reduction. A principal aspect of mindfulness meditation that has particular salience for cancer patients is its here and now orientation, that is, the radical insistence on paying attention to present moment experience. Some sources of stress for cancer patients relate to the past. These might include attributions about cancer causation, regrets about past decisions or life priorities, and concerns about the future. Other worries also relate to future expectancies regarding health such as enduring pain or suffering or the loss of life itself. The practice of mindfulness...

Learn as Much as You

Parents must become educated in the school laws (IDEA and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act). Children with ADHD may be eligible for special education, related services, and or accommodations in the classroom. With awareness of these laws, parents can help their child obtain school supports.

What do we have to accept

Should any person claim that he can cure autism, ask him 'Did you ever give lessons to the wind on how to blow Or have you the power to demand the wind not to blow ' Should he ask 'What do you mean ' then ask another question, 'Can you make the wind sing ' And should he answer yes, then tell him that you want him to teach laughter to your child, and that your child should learn to sing a joyful song of life. Then let him meet your child and as they play observe your child. Intuitively trust your soul to tell you if his silent soul is laughing joy, which his big eyes exude with inner peace and laughter, or, if through screaming or through deepest silences, he's crying, seeking your protection. But should the teacher tell you that the wind must only blow the way he wants it when he wants, then teach that teacher that your child is human, remind him that the strongest human bonds and freedom were born from love, humility or laughter not through humiliation, submission or compliance....

A strict need for accuracy

Finding an answer to the above questions took ten years of interaction. My explanations and understandings of autism do not stem from quantity, as in meeting hundreds of autistic people and diagnosing them according to their behaviours. They stem from attempted, re-attempted, re-re-attempted, refined and re-refined interaction with 20 people (my son included), to whom I was devoted and did my level best to help assume a rightful dignified place in life. In return, their developments helped me find my own inner peace, which stems from hard-earned understanding and a mutually respectful relationship with my son.

The new science of consciousness

Point of view (Chalmers 1996 Velmas 1996 Blackmore 2003). As Stuart Hameroff has pointed out, the recent interest has been confirmed by the 'boom' in new books, articles and international symposiums on the subject (Hameroff et al. 1996 1997 1999). For instance, since 1994 a major debate has been held every two years in Tucson at the Center for Consciousness Studies, University of Arizona, where scientists and researchers from various backgrounds meet to discuss the 'new science of consciousness'. The discussion is mainly about what David Chalmers originally called the 'hard problem' of consciousness (Chalmers 1996). But what is the 'hard problem' The answer varies considerably from investigator to investigator, but a consensus seems to have emerged that the 'hard problem' refers to the problem of how subjective experience associated with cognitive or mental events arises from the objective activity of brain cells.

Themes or Foreshadowed Problems

The idea of exhibiting anxiety, or other feelings, goes some way towards taking on board Freudian ideas about defences distorting or occluding the expression, and indeed the conscious awareness, of feelings such as anxiety (see the discussion of indicators later). It thereby keeps open the possibility of empirical study of the affective area. Thus it is important to examine episodes where the subject appears to be expressing other feelings (or no feelings) - whereas s he may nevertheless be exhibiting anxiety.

Model C Approaches Informed by Psychoanalysis

Therefore, much thought and activity takes place outside of conscious awareness everyday life is mediated by unconscious images, thoughts and fantasies (Hunt 1989). If repressed contents 'return' to consciousness, they retain their charge but tend to be found in a disguised or distorted form, for example as jokes, or 'slips of the tongue', or in dreams. This unconscious material is linked to complex webs of meaning. The affective charge can move from one idea to another along chains of associations by displacement, and can build up on one particular idea through condensation.

Rethinking Mathematical Affect as Emotion

Place outside of conscious awareness thus it begins to question the idea of a rational subject. Finally, the integration of psychoanalytic ideas into poststructuralist approaches (such as Walkerdine's) in 'Model D', proposes the fluidity of language as a basis for understanding unexpected flows of meaning and emotion it thereby further calls into question the idea of a rational, unitary subject, as well as the closed nature of mathematical discourse. This model also allows an understanding of how discourse in its historical development positions social groups differently in relation to 'rationality' and emotionality.

Issues Of Diversity Culture And The Needs Of Older People With Learning Disabilities

The use of interpreters, for example, is a practical way of communicating with people for whom English is not their first language. However, this does not absolve you as a carer from increasing your awareness and appreciation of culturally specific issues for the people with whom you work. Assumptions that interpreters or people who share a common cultural heritage will work more effectively with a person with a learning disability may not always be valid or be the person's preferred option. Noting issues of diversity within black and ethnic minority communities themselves can identify conflicts where the life experience of the minority ethnic group carer may have little in common with the person with whom s he is working. The key is partnership, working with individuals, families and other support networks, in line with the recommendations of PCP - ensuring that people with learning disabilities have access to information presented in a format that they can relate to. For example,...

Short And Longterm Group Populations

The intervention of using mindfulness in group psychotherapy is effective with most patients both in short-term and longer-term groups. In a short-term group, this intervention is best limited to building mindfulness of feelings and bodily sensations which are already close to awareness. In a long-term group this intervention can be used to teach them to be mindful of feelings and bodily sensations which are less congruent with how they want to perceive themselves. tion in terms of the patient being mindful of transference issues with the therapist, each group member, and the group as a whole. The cognitively oriented therapist can use this intervention while perhaps focusing more on the patient's thoughts and schemas. The behaviorally oriented therapist would tend to focus more on mindfulness as a behavior rather than as a mental process. The key to promoting mindfulness in group is based upon helping the individual to become more in touch with what he or she is feeling and thinking...

Contraindica Tion

It has been our experience that there is not any population for which these interventions are contraindicated although individuals must have some introspective ability. If one has the ego strength to be in a process-oriented group therapy setting, then working on mindfulness will enhance the group process. These interventions can be applied to individuals, the group, and the therapist to enhance mindfulness in the group setting. Gerrner, C. K., (2005). Mindfulness What is it What Does it Matter. In C. Germer, R. Siegel, and P. Fulton (Eds.). Mindfulness and Psychotherapy (pp. 3-27). New York The Guilford Press. Ormont, L. R. (1992). The Group Therapy Experience From Theory to Practice. New York St. Martin's Press. Surrey, J. L., (2005). Relational Psychotherapy, Relational Mindfulness. In C. K. Germer, R. Siegel, & P. Fulton (Eds. ). Mindfulness and Psychotherapy (pp. 91110). New York The Guilford Press. Tart, C. T. (1994). Living the Mindful Life A Handbook For Living In The Present...

Remembering When Therapist As a Historian

As a psychodynamic group psychotherapist with humanistic and existential psychological leanings my role as a facilitator is to work with the group and its members to make conscious material that may not yet be fully conscious, conscious. Conscious awareness allows the clients to take personal responsibility and to make conscious choices. In service of tracking the development of the group as a whole and its members as well as offering gentle process interpretations, I use group produced historical material. I will recount a

If Feelings Dont Cause Behavior What Does

As a nice corollary of the control systems view, we can now provide an account of why we can act without the causal impetus of our feelings, why we smile before we are happy, and our hearts pound before we are afraid. Those things happen because they are parts of ongoing control systems that operate routinely without our conscious awareness. Human beings, and doubtless all organisms, seem to be built to perform complex actions through the action of these systems (Carver & Scheier, 1998).

Selfperception Conscious And Unconscious

In chapter 1 I asserted strongly that self-perception processes, and ordinarily the cues they work on, were not available to conscious awareness and self-report. Virtually everyone who has taken a self-perception-like position, from James onward, has at least implied that the processes were not conscious (Bem, 1972 James, 1884 Laird, 1974, 1984 Laird & Bresler, 1992). The reason is, of course, that no one ever reports experiencing self-perception processes occurring in their everyday experience.

Cognitive Feelings of Knowing Familiarity and Tip of the Tongue

Perhaps the answers to all these questions were clear, and even before the answers came to mind you were sure that you knew them perfectly. Instead, perhaps you knew immediately that you did not know the answers to some of these questions, and no amount of thought would yield an answer. But perhaps for a moment or two at least you could not answer one or more of them, but you were sure that with a little more struggle you could. As we say when this kind of thing happens to us in everyday life, the answer is on the tip of my tongue. Feelings like these are the focus of this chapter. They are feelings rather than judgments, in the sense that they come to us immediately, without conscious awareness of any supporting evidence. We just know that we know something, or we do not. Or, we know something but cannot think of it now. And we also do not know how we know that we know these things. These feelings are different from those discussed in previous chapters in that they are about our...

Psychotherapy and Weight Change

Therapy for eating disorders has now reached into the online world of the Internet. There is the claim that internet-driven intervention combined with individual therapy is more effective than therapy alone. Such online activities tend, it is claimed, to reduce clients' anxiety about how they appear and being judged when they are unseen by the therapist. The use of online behavioral therapy together with online virtual reality has been claimed to modify the body awareness and thus impact on problematic social and eating behaviors (Derrig-Palumbo and Zeine 2005 117-18).

Treatment Strategies for Each Class of Targets

As her self-injurious and therapy-interfering behaviors gradually decreased, more therapy time could be devoted to C. N.'s serious quality-of-life-interfering behaviors. A major one was her total involvement in the drug community. She was strongly encouraged to build a friendship network outside of this subculture to support her commitment not to abuse drugs. Interpersonal effectiveness skills were employed to assist her in asking acquaintances to socialize with her. In addition, a typical day involved going to work, exercising, eating dinner, and going to bed. C. N. often commented that she dreaded each day and looked forward to nothing. In keeping with the overarching treatment goal of building a life worth living, she was strongly encouraged to engage in daily pleasant activities and to be mindful of any positive emotions they occasioned, just in that moment, without worrying about whether she deserved it, whether it was going to last, and so forth (i.e., combining a traditional CT...

Supplementing Standard CT

Neobehavioral techniques are derived from more recent models of treatment, including dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), and mindfulness-and acceptance-based models. DBT techniques, for example, are often help ful when working with adolescents who engage in self-damaging behavior, such as cutting. Self-soothing techniques that focus on emotion regulation and distress tolerance, such as guided imagery, distraction, and controlled breathing (Linehan, 1993), can be quite helpful in this regard. Acceptance-based interventions focus on recognizing and observing with detachment depressive, anxious, or suicidal thoughts and emotions (Teasdale, 2004). Patients are taught to disengage from maladaptive thoughts and to limit rumination. Unlike standard CT, which focuses on changing the content of thoughts, mindfulness-based approaches emphasize the value of decenter-ing from maladaptive thoughts (i.e., viewing them as objects, and not as central to one's sense of self) and of accepting them...

Group CT May Reduce Relapse and Recurrence

For example, Teasdale et al. (2000) randomized patients with recurrent MDD who were in recovery remission (i.e., who did not meet MDE criteria) for 12 or more weeks after discontinuing antidepressant medication, to treatment as usual (TAU i.e., patients sought help on their own, as needed) or to TAU plus mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). CT included eight weekly group sessions followed by four monthly group sessions lasting 2 hours. Over 60 weeks, for 105 patients with a history of more than three depressive episodes, CT reduced relapse (40 defined as meeting MDE criteria) compared to TAU (67 ) alone. For a smaller subset of 32 patients with two depressive episodes, relapse recurrence rates did not differ significantly (56 CT, 31 TAU). Very similar results were found in a replication study (Ma & Teasdale, 2004). Over 60 weeks, MBCT reduced relapse

Covert Face Recognition Dissociation Without Separate Systems

Prosopagnosia is an impairment of face recognition that can occur relatively independently of impairments in object recognition (Farah, Klein, and Levinson 1995 see object RECOGNITION, HUMAN NEUROPSYCHOLOGY). Recently it has been observed that some prosopagnosic patients retain a high degree of face recognition ability when tested in certain ways ( covert recognition ), while performing poorly on more conventional tasks ( overt recognition ) and professing no conscious awareness of face recognition. This has been taken to imply that recognition and awareness depend on dissociable and distinct brain systems (De Haan, Bauer, and Greve 1992). My colleagues and I were able to account for covert recognition with a network consisting of units representing facial appearance, general information

The Experience Gap Argument

In thinking about Ewing's point, I imagine talking to this distinguished philosopher, a fellow of the British Academy and a lecturer at Cambridge, in my backyard in California. Grab a red-hot coal from your charcoal grill he challenges me. Hold it in your hand and observe carefully the searing unendurable pain that arises in your consciousness. Does that seem anything like a brain state I am so sure that he has the empirical facts right that I grant his premises without even performing the experiment. Leibniz and Ewing draw forcefully to our attention the fact that having an experience is quite unlike what one supposes perceiving a brain state or process would be like they conclude that experiences and thoughts are not brain states or processes. Can we grant the premise but avoid the conclusion

The Importance Of Being Aware Of Symptoms

It's important to notice triggers and warning signs as early as possible. The more intense your symptoms are or the more symptoms you experience, the less able you are to recognize that you may need help or take the necessary steps to get support. Having insight into your symptoms is particularly important with mania and hypomania. In mania, as you experience more symptoms, your awareness of your symptoms decreases, so you'll have more trouble seeing that you're becoming manic and that you need to get help.

Table 122 Examples of Meditation Practices

Mindfulness This type of meditation is advocated by Jon Kabat-Zinn, who describes it in this way Mindfulness is an ancient Buddhist practice which has profound relevance for our present-day lives. This relevance has nothing to do with Buddhism per se or with becoming a Buddhist, but it has everything to do with waking up and living in harmony with oneself and with the world. It has to do with examining who we are, with questioning our view of the world and our place in it, and with cultivating some appreciation for the fullness of each moment we are alive. Most of all, it has to do with being in touch. In his book Wherever You Go There You Are, Kabat-Zinn helps readers get started with this advice TRY Setting aside a time every day for just being. Five minutes would be fine, or ten or twenty or thirty if you want to venture that far. Sit down and watch the moments unfold, with no agenda other than to be fully present. Use the breath as an anchor to tether your attention to the present...

The Motivational Fabric

Where do I fit in How do I find a safe place for myself within or outside this (or any) group and what does it cost me to stay there These very human questions form part of the motivational fabric of any group. The answers are complex, weaving together earlier relational experiences, current social concerns, and the present moment of group life. Staying in the moment of group encounter long enough to examine these questions can be difficult, however, requiring the ability to be both aware of one's feelings and willing to explicate those feelings.

Defense Mechanisms

Early in his theorizing, Freud used the term repression to refer to the process of preventing unacceptable thoughts, feelings, or ur ges from reaching conscious awareness. Repression was the forerunner of all other forms of defense mechanisms. Repression is defensive in the sense that, through it, a person avoids the anxiety that would arise if the unacceptable material were made conscious. From his clinical practice, Freud learned that people often tended to remember the pleasant circumstances surrounding an event more easily than the unpleasant ones. He concluded that unpleasant memories were often repressed. Although these examples seem to involve conscious awareness and a calculating choice of how to express the unacceptable emotion, the process of displacement takes place outside of awareness. Deliberately redirecting one's anger, for example, is not displacement, even though someone might do this to manage a situation. Real displacement is an unconscious means of avoiding the...

Indirect Technique

Contraction and allows slight movement in the direction of muscle contraction to maintain the muscle in the same tension. The 'retraining' of muscle is perceived to change the tone and body awareness of the muscle so that it can learn a new pattern of useful contraction.


Additional evidence that blindsight does not depend on conscious visual experience was reported by Rafal et al. (1990). They found that blindsight patients performed at chance when given the task of detecting a light presented to the blind area of the visual field. However, their speed of reaction to a light presented to the intact part of the visual field was slowed down when a light was presented to the blind area at the same time. Thus, a light that did not produce any conscious awareness nevertheless received sufficient processing to disrupt visual performance on another task.

Demographic profile

Rupert Sheldrake has recently attempted to explain telepathy in relation to his theory of the 'sense of being stared at' (Sheldrake 2003). Sheldrake believes that the experiments which he and other collaborators have carried out over the past few years have produced some evidence for telepathy, but so far the scientific world is generally not convinced. The debate gave rise to a special edition of the Journal of Consciousness Studies entitled 'The Sense of Being Glared At What Is It Like to Be a Heretic ' (2005). One of Sheldrake's studies involved the investigation of possible telepathic communication in connection with e-mails. On each planned session, there were four potential e-mailers, one of whom was selected at random by the experimenter. One minute before a prearranged time at which the e-mail was to be sent, the participant guessed who would send it. Fifty participants (29 women and 21 men) were recruited through an employment web-site. Of 552 trials, 235 (43 per cent)...

Figure 613

Freud (1915, 1943) emphasised the importance of emotional factors in forgetting. He argued that very threatening or anxiety-provoking material is often unable to gain access to conscious awareness, and he used the term repression to refer to this phenomenon. According to Freud (1915, p. 86), The essence of repression lies simply in the function of rejecting and keeping something out of consciousness. However, Freud sometimes used the concept to refer merely to the inhibition of the capacity for emotional experience (Madison, 1956).


Another important aspect of the theory proposed by Treisman (1964) was that the thresholds of all stimuli (e.g., words) consistent with current expectations are lowered. As a result, partially processed stimuli on the unattended channel sometimes exceed the threshold of conscious awareness. This aspect of the theory helps to account for the phenomenon of breakthrough.


This can be something in the room, such as a picture you have brought along, or it can be a mental image or a word you repeat to yourself over and over. When distracting thoughts come into your consciousness, allow them to pass by, without dwelling on them, and bring your focus back to your chosen focal point.

Figure 217

Fendrich, Wessinger, and Gazzaniga (1992) favoured an alternative position. According to conventional assessment, their patient had no conscious awareness of visual stimuli within a large area. However, when they used a more sensitive method, they discovered that the patient could report visual stimuli presented to certain small regions of the visual field. They concluded that their patient had preserved islands of function within the cortex that permitted him to show the phenomena of blindsight. However, it is unlikely that this is true of most other blindsight patients.

Sperry Roger Wolcott

Step Assessment Bogen

Later, with the clinical application of commissurotomy to treat multifocal epilepsy, the split-brain approach was extended to human patients, opening the way to tests of active rational consciousnesses in left and right hemispheres, their convergent influence over acts and ideas of the whole person, and the role of language (Sperry, Gazzaniga, and Bogen 1969 Levy 1990). This research brought dramatic scientific confirmation of Sperry's theory of the causal potency of conscious ideas and beliefs. Commissurotomy research at CalTech boosted neuropsychological analysis of hemispheric differences, and, by clarifying the special modes of processing in isolated cortical territories, prompted the cognitive revolution of the 1960s (Sperry 1993). In his scientific work Sperry had an idealist impulse that led him beyond searching for motive principles in awareness. In the 1960s, he formulated a philosophy of natural humanistic values, and enunciated ethical principles that recognize the innate...

Implicit Learning

Berry and Broadbent (1984) studied implicit learning by using a complex task in which a sugar-production factory had to be managed to maintain a specified level of sugar output. Participants learned to perform this task effectively, but most of them could not report the principles underlying their performance. Those participants whose reports revealed good knowledge of these principles tended to perform the task less well than those with poor knowledge. This suggests that the task information available to conscious awareness was of no value to the learners. A key theoretical question is whether learning is possible with little or no conscious awareness of what has been learned. Shanks and St. John (1994) proposed two criteria for learning to be regarded as unconscious

Neural Plasticity

Perceptual learning has been shown to apply to a wide range of sensory tasks, including visual acuity, hue discrimination, velocity estimation, acoustic pitch discrimination, and two-point somatosensory acuity. This is a form of implicit learning, generally not reaching conscious awareness or requiring error feedback, but is associated with repetitively performing discrimination tasks.

Extended bodies

One of the most outstanding aspects of Ichikawa's theory is that it conceives of the human body in terms of 'corporeal extensions', which articulate themselves on these three different levels. This view has several implications for consciousness studies, particularly in the field of visual

Sample Statement

In the course of discussion, thoughts and feelings come to light that may have been demanding expression, but for some reason remain underground. Sometimes this is because of the members' reluctance to put them into words often they are not in anyone's conscious awareness. Encouraging group free association to a payment discrepancy promotes the emergence of this important unconscious material.

The Inter Vention

The overriding goal for my psychotherapy groups is for the participants to view themselves less as targets of others' ill will, a result of poor parenting, or as individuals who are innately bad in a world of good people. By working toward conscious awareness, each participant has the opportunity to rewrite his or her own view of their world. It is in this rewrite that he or she is able to take responsibility when needed and forgive when necessary. The work for the therapist in this intervention is to avoid blame, whether toward client or others while delicately reminiscing.

Whose Chair Is This

Taking it one step further, the therapist may create a conflict through a group experiential exercise as a vehicle for learning. According to Hornyak and Baker (1989, p. 3) experiential treatment techniques are based on psychological principles, and are used for increasing clients' present awareness of feelings, perceptions, cognitions, and sen

Humanistic therapies

Some aspects of the person's behaviour or belief system. The idea is to help patients make some contact with their 'real' selves and find out what their basic goals and desires are. As part of this they are encouraged to bring their underlying emotions and motivations into conscious awareness.

Mid Level Vision

Of surface representation, is required for a range of processes more traditionally associated with early vision, including motion perception (see motion, perception of), forms of stereopsis, texture segregation and saliency coding. More speculatively, there has been a proposal that mid-level vision is the first level of processing, the results of which are available to conscious awareness (Jackendoff 1987 Nakayama, He, and Shimojo 1995), thus implying that mid-level vision is the earliest level to which attention can be deployed.

Word Identification

Cheesman and Merikle (1984) replicated the Stroop effect. They also found that the effect could be obtained even when the colour name was presented below the level of conscious awareness. This latter finding suggests that word identification does not depend on conscious awareness.

Figure 134

Hayes and Flower (1980, 1986) have enhanced our understanding of writing processes. However, protocol analysis (on which Hayes and Flower rely heavily) can provide information only about those processes of which there is conscious awareness. Writers are unlikely to be aware of how they search long-term memory for ideas, how they think of inferences, and so on. The requirement to verbalise while writing adds to the writer's processing load, and so may alter the writing process. Rymer (1988) found that only five out of nine scientists approached were willing to try thinking out loud while composing a scientific paper, and only one of them produced useful protocols. Directed retrospection provides less information than protocol analysis, and shares with it a focus on conscious processes. However, it is much less intrusive.

Boas Franz

Boas's concept of culture changed radically in the context of these ideas about history, for he came to view culture as a body of patterns that people learn through interactions with the members of their society. People adhere to such patterns as hunting practices and marriage rules not because they recognize that these help to improve their lives, as the evolutionists thought, but because the members of society absorb the cultural forms of their social milieu. By this view, these historically variable patterns largely govern human behavior and thus are the most important component of the human character. Furthermore, most of culture is emotionally grounded and beyond the level of conscious awareness. Whereas the evolutionists assumed that people are consciously oriented by patterns of rationality and that reason itself is universal and not local although different societies exhibit different degrees of it from Boas's perspective people are oriented by a body of cultural patterns of...

Future Directions

One valuable line of inquiry is investigating potential mechanisms of MBSR action. As indicated in Figure 1, a number of psychological mechanisms have been proposed88 including Reperceiving, which denotes a fundamental shift in perspective. Through the application of mindfulness, one is able to stop or refrain from identifying oneself with the contents of consciousness (i.e., one's thoughts), and view moment-by-moment experience with greater clarity and objectivity. Rather than being immersed in the drama of one's personal narrative or life story, one becomes able to stand back and simply witness it. This is hypothesized to lead to additional mechanisms that in turn contribute to the positive outcomes produced by mind-fulness practice (1) self-regulation and self-management (2) emotional, cognitive, and behavioral flexibility (3) values clarification and (4) exposure. Inherent in all of these mechanisms are the three axioms of intention, attention, and attitude. The process by which...

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