Has she had any miscarriages or abortions

A miscarriage (spontaneous abortion) is when a pregnancy ends before the woman is 6 months pregnant, while the baby is still too small to live outside the mother. This is common and often happens before the woman even knows she is pregnant It is usually difficult to know why a miscarriage happens, but some causes of miscarriage are preventable. Malaria, sexually transmitted infections, injury, violence, and stress can all cause a pregnancy to end. Sometimes miscarriages happen because a woman...

Men must also be responsible for family planning

When men and women choose family planning together, it is much easier to use family planning successfully. Because men do not get pregnant, they do not always take the responsibility that women do for pregnancy and family planning. Many men think of family planning as the woman's problem. Some men do not want their partners to use family planning. They may want lots of children, or they believe family planning is wrong, or they may feel that family planning is expensive or inconvenient to use...

Family planning programs that work

Midwives help individual women and men decide about family planning methods. In this work, they may find that family planning is difficult to get in their communities. Midwives may then get involved in making family planning programs work better. What makes a family planning program work to improve a woman's health, her knowledge, and her control over her body A wide choice of methods, for both men and women, with clear information about benefits and risks. Good testing to know if a woman has a...

T

Cut a piece of material this size and shape 2. Sew a little soft wire or plastic along the flat edge of the material 2. Sew a little soft wire or plastic along the flat edge of the material 3. Fold the material together to make a tube. Sew, leaving a small opening just big enough to fit the cervix of the womb into 5. Turn the tube so the right sides face out . Make a knot here to show the clitoris Make a dot or a hole to show the urethra (opening that urine comes out of). 6. Attach the womb to...

How to make a homemade sponge

1.Mix 2 tablespoons or 1 teaspoon ofor of vinegar with lemon juice p 1 cup of clean with 1 cup of ' boiled water clean boiled water 2. Wet a boiled piece of sponge about the size of an egg with one of these liquids. 3. Push the sponge deep into the vagina no more than 1 hour before having sex. 4. Leave the sponge in for at least 6 hours after having sex. Then take it out. This method may irritate the vagina, which can make it easier for a woman to get STIs. The woman should stop using this...

How pregnant is she now When is the baby due

Find out how many months pregnant the woman is at the time of her first checkup . This will also tell you the date that she will probably give birth (the due date). There are 3 ways to figure out how pregnant the woman is now and her due date Use the date of her last monthly bleeding . Measure the size of her womb . Have the woman get an ultrasound at a medical center. Note It is normal and safe for the baby to be born as much as 3 weeks earlier or 2 weeks later than the due date. Using the...

How many children has she had

Women who have had 1 or 2 babies and whose children were born alive and healthy usually have the fewest problems giving birth I have already had one normal birth. My birth will probably be safe. Other women may have more problems . First births are often more difficult than later births . It may be safer for a woman giving birth for the first time to give birth near a medical center. Watch carefully for risk signs and have transportation available for emergencies A woman who has given birth to...

Choosing a family planning method

On the following pages we describe different family planning methods. Before recommending a method, find out about the woman's needs. Does she want to be sure she will not get pregnant using this method Is she concerned about side effects (uncomfortable and unintended effects) Does she want a method she does not have to think about every day or can she use a method that requires keeping charts or taking a pill each day Is the woman's partner willing to cooperate in using family planning How...

Family planning

Having the number of children you want, when you want them, is called family planning. It is also sometimes called child spacing. There are many methods, both traditional and modern, that can be used for family planning. Family planning methods are sometimes called birth control or contraception. Why might a woman and a man want to use family planning to take time to finish their education or have an income before they have children to allow a couple of years between their children to have only...

Introduction

Midwives help women and families during pregnancy and birth, but also with health needs that are not directly connected to giving birth. This makes sense because the skills and understanding that a midwife brings to a woman during pregnancy and birth are also of use when a woman needs other health care, or is having a medical emergency. For example, a midwife who is already skilled at stopping bleeding after a birth can easily learn to stop bleeding after a pregnancy has ended early. In many...

Alternatives to breastfeeding

Breastfeeding is best, but there are a few times when it is not possible. If a mother is infected with HIV, if she is very sick, or if she adopts a child, she may not be able to or may choose not to breastfeed . For some families, formula may be a safe alternative to breast milk . the family has enough clean water to make plenty of formula to feed the baby the family has enough fuel to boil bottles . the family can afford to buy all the formula the baby needs (and will not dilute it with too...

Common difficulties while breastfeeding

Breast Abscess

Some women are afraid that they do not have enough breast milk Health workers or family members may even tell them they do not have enough Assure the mother that this is almost never true . The more a baby suckles, the more milk a mother's breasts will make. If the baby does not seem satisfied, If the baby does not seem satisfied, At times the baby may suddenly want more milk than before . Assure the mother that this is normal . It means the baby is growing and so is his hunger . The baby does...

When the mother works outside the home

When a mother works away from home, it can be hard for her to give her baby only breast milk during the first 6 months If possible, the mother can bring her baby with her to work, or someone can bring the baby when it is time for her to feed. In some places, people are trying to get laws passed that allow women workers to take breaks to breastfeed their babies or to remove breast milk by hand. Another way for the mother to give breast milk when she is away is to remove the milk from her breasts...

How to breastfeed

Help mothers start breastfeeding within an hour of the baby's birth. The first yellow-colored milk, called colostrum, is just what a new baby needs . It has the right nutrition and provides extra protection against infection . Colostrum also cleans the baby's intestines . There is no need to give teas or herbs to do this . A baby will usually show she is ready to feed by moving toward her mother's breast or by smacking her lips . If the baby has a hard time breastfeeding at first, the mother...

Breast is best

Breast milk has all the nutrition a baby needs . It also gives many other benefits Breast milk protects the baby against many illnesses including diarrhea, pneumonia, diabetes, and cancer. Sucking on the breast, close to the mother, helps the baby feel safe. Breast milk is always fresh, clean, and Breastfeeding helps the mother's Breastfed babies are healthier . womb contract after birth and slows bleeding . Breastfeeding can prevent the mother from getting pregnant again right away....

What to do for the baby

Encourage the baby to breastfeed and watch how she grows The baby should breastfeed every few hours, from the first hour after the birth on . A baby who is breastfeeding enough and who is healthy should urinate and pass stool within the first 24 hours after birth, and regularly after that. She should not have signs of dehydration, and should gain weight. Keep the baby warm and dry, and play with her If the baby is not breastfed enough, if she has diarrhea or vomits, or if she has a fever, she...

What to do for the mother

Mothers need care after birth just as babies do . After birth, the mother's body is tired and her womb is open . It is easy for her to get infected, but she can stay healthy by eating a variety of nutritious foods (see pages 33 to 42) . drinking plenty of fluids . staying clean washing her hands, genitals, and breasts . In some cultures, women rest in bed with their babies for 2 weeks or more after a birth . This is a healthy custom because it helps the mother heal, helps her and her baby to be...

The first weeks after the birth

In the first few days and weeks after the birth, the mother's body will start to heal. Her womb should get smaller and stop bleeding. Her milk should come in. The baby should learn to breastfeed normally and start to gain weight. The mother and baby will still benefit from your care after the birth. Visit them at least 2 times the day after the birth, and then again at least once in the following week. If you visit even more, you may prevent more problems. Visit every day if there are signs of...

Clean up and answer the familys questions

Anything that has blood on it, including the placenta, must be disposed of so it does not spread germs . See page 67 to learn how to safely dispose of tools and wastes . Make sure the parents have all of their questions answered before you leave . What to do for the mother Help the mother care for herself 269 Watch the mother's womb and bleeding 270 Watch the mother for signs of womb infection 271 Watch the mother for signs of vaginal infection 272 What to do for the...

Help the baby breastfeed

If everything is normal after the birth, the mother should breastfeed her baby right away. She may need some help getting started. Chapter 16 is about breastfeeding, and explains what breastfeeding positions work well . The first milk to come from the breast is yellowish and is called colostrum . Some women think that colostrum is bad for the baby and do not breastfeed in the first day after the birth . But colostrum is very important It protects the baby from infections Colostrum also has all...

Check the mothers physical signs

The main risk to the mother during stage 3 is heavy bleeding . Normally, the mother pushes the placenta out soon after the birth . Then the womb contracts (tightens and shrinks) to stop the bleeding from the place where the placenta was attached . If the mother is not bleeding or having other health problems, the midwife can watch and wait while the family gets to know their new baby. But if the mother begins to bleed, the midwife must take action . Heavy bleeding can cause the mother to be...

The birth of the placenta stage 3 of labor

This can be a wonderful and exciting time for the family. Watch closely to be sure that everything is healthy and normal. But be sure to give the mother and family time to be with the new baby. After the birth of the baby, the plac born. This is stage 3. Stage 3 usual less than 1 hour. After the birth of the baby, the plac born. This is stage 3. Stage 3 usual less than 1 hour. If you have a helper, one of you can help the mother while the other one watches the baby. If you are working alone,...

Baby is very small or more than 5 weeks early

A baby born early or small may have problems, such as a difficult or impossible birth position (like a sideways position). a softer skull, which means she can easily be injured during the birth . difficulty keeping herself warm after the birth . difficulty breathing and breastfeeding . For these reasons, it is best for small or early babies to be born in a medical center. If they are born at home, it is important that they get medical care as soon as possible. If you must deliver small or early...

Cut the cord when it turns white and stops pulsing

Most of the time, there is no need to cut the cord right away . Leaving the cord attached will help the baby to have enough iron in his blood . It will also keep the baby on his mother's belly where he belongs . When the baby is just born, the cord is fat and blue . If you put your finger on it, you will feel it pulsing . This means the baby is still getting oxygen from his mother. When the placenta separates from the wall of the womb, the cord will get thin and white and stop pulsing . Now the...

Support the mothers pushing

When the cervix is open, the mother's body will push the baby out . Some midwives and doctors get very excited during the pushing stage . They yell at mothers, Push Push But mothers do not usually need much help to push . Their bodies push naturally, and when they are encouraged and supported, women will usually find the way to push that feels right and gets the baby out . Let the mother choose the position that feels good to her Half-sitting Lying on the side Hands-and-knees This position may...

Help the mother have a safe birth

Check the mother's and baby's physical signs Check the mother's blood pressure and pulse every 30 minutes or so during stage 2 for signs of pre-eclampsia, infection, or bleeding. Write down the numbers each time. If the mother's blood pressure is 140 90 or higher she may have pre-eclampsia (see page 180). If it suddenly drops - more than 15 points in the bottom number, she may be losing blood (see page 183) . If her pulse is faster than 100 beats a minute between contractions, she may be...

What happens during stage 2 of labor

During stage 2, when the baby is high in the vagina, you can see the mother's genitals bulge during contractions . Her anus may open a little. Between contractions, her genitals relax Each contraction (and each push from the mother) moves the baby further down Between contractions, the mother's womb relaxes and pulls the baby back up a little (but not as far as he was before the contraction). After a while, you can see a little of the baby's head coming down the vagina during contractions . The...

Watch for signs that stage 2 is near or starting

It is safe for the mother to start pushing her baby out when her cervix has opened all the way and she has a strong urge to push . The only way you can be certain the cervix is open all the way is to do a vaginal exam (see page 339). But remember vaginal exams can cause infection . It is better not to do a vaginal exam . With experience, you can usually tell when the mother is ready to push without doing an exam . Instead of doing a vaginal exam, look for the following signs . If the mother has...

Stage 1 of labor

Stage 1 of labor (also called dilation) begins when contractions start to open the cervix. It ends when the cervix is completely open . Stage 1 is usually the longest part of labor, but it lasts a different amount of time at each birth . Stage 1 could be less than an hour or it could be a day and a night or more . What happens during stage 1 of labor Stage 1 has 3 parts light labor, active labor, and late labor. In light labor, the contractions are usually mild and short (about 30 seconds long)...

Giving good care during labor and birth

Cervix Opening During Early Labor

In this chapter, we give general information about labor and birth, and explain some ways a midwife can support a woman all through the birth of her baby. Labor is easier to explain in different parts, so in this book, we divide it into 3 stages opening, pushing, and the birth of the placenta . This chapter has some information about these stages, and we talk more about each of them in separate chapters after this one . During pregnancy the cervix is long and firm, like e big toe. For most of...

Learning a pregnant womans health history

Probable Signs Pregnancy Pictures

To give good care to a pregnant woman, you should find out about her general health, her past health, and her past pregnancies and births . You also need to know what this pregnancy has been like so far. This is called a health history. Learning a woman's health history will help you give advice to make this pregnancy and birth as safe as possible . The best way to learn about a woman's history is to ask her. At first, she may not be comfortable talking with you . If she feels shy about her...

Helping a woman after a pregnancy ends early

With miscarriage the woman simply starts bleeding or having contractions until the pregnancy comes out When a pregnancy is ended on purpose, it is called an abortion . Most miscarriages do not cause problems, but some do . Most abortions done by people who are experienced and skilled, and with tools that have been sterilized or the correct medicines, are not dangerous . But many abortions are not done safely. For more information about miscarriage, see page 91....

Q

Also see Talking about eating habits, 34 answering family's questions, 267 finding root causes of health problems, 21-22 in pregnancy health history, 85-107 in prenatal checkup, 109-115 midwives asking why, 2, 21-22 breastfeeding, 45 from medicine, 103 poor nutrition and, 11 7 Razor blades, 65 Records hours, 253 of labor, 164-165, 170 prenatal care, 144-145 womb measurement, 131, 132 Rectal fluids, giving, 342 Rectal sphincter, sewing, 366 Red color baby, 266 legs (mother), 273 Reflexes baby,...

Getting ready for labor and birth

Get ready for the birth as soon as the mother has signs that labor will start soon. There is no way to be sure when a woman's labor will begin, but there are some signs that it will start soon. In the weeks before birth, the baby may drop lower, the mother may feel more contractions, or the mother may just feel different. Other signs may happen only a day or 2 before labor starts. The mother's stool may change, or a little show (bloody mucus) may come out of the vagina. Sometimes, the...

Baby is breech

There are 3 breech (bottom down) positions A frank breech is the easiest and safest kind of breech to deliver . Dangers of breech births Breech births can go well, but they are often dangerous for the baby. They are especially dangerous for a first baby, because no one knows if the mother's pelvis is big enough for birth There are serious dangers of breech birth The cord can more easily prolapse when the waters break (see page 176). The baby's head can get stuck at the cervix. This can happen...

A womans body in pregnancy

Sex Images Panirs Mouth

In this chapter, we describe the parts of a woman's body that are most affected by sex, pregnancy, and birth . We call these parts sexual or reproductive parts . We also explain how pregnancy happens, and how a woman's body changes during pregnancy A woman's sexual and reproductive parts a very sensitive spot that can give sexual pleasure when touched the opening of the rectum and intestine, where stool comes out The bones below the belly are called the pelvis. The pelvis is shaped like a bowl...

Check the mothers blood pressure

healthy signs Blood pressure stays between 90 60 and 140 90 and does not go up much during pregnancy R P s High blood pressure . The mother has high blood pressure if either of these is true The top number is over 140 . The bottom number is over 90 . (Very low blood pressure is also a warning sign, but is usually only caused by heavy bleeding or shock. See page 180 . ) A woman's heart is like a pump, pumping her blood through her body. High blood pressure means that the heart must work harder...

Help the mother give birth Help prevent tears in the vaginal opening

Pushing Delivery Hot Images

The birth of the baby's head may tear the mother's vaginal opening . Some midwives do not touch the vagina or baby at all during the birth . This is a good practice because interference can lead to infection, injury, or bleeding . But you may be able to prevent tears by supporting the vagina during the birth Often tears happen whether you try to prevent them or not . In some communities, circumcision of girls (also called female genital cutting) is common . Female genital cutting (FGC) causes...

How to insert an IUD

Iud Insertion

The intrauterine device (IUD) is a small device made of plastic, or plastic and copper, that is put inside the womb to prevent pregnancy. A string hangs off the end of the IUD and out of the cervix. This is what a womb and an IUD would look like i f you could see them inside a woman's body. This is what a womb and an IUD would look like i f you could see them inside a woman's body. Some notes about learning to insert an IUD Before you read this chapter you must understand infection prevention...

Uses dosage and precautions for the medicines referred to in this book

Medicines are drugs that are used to help the body fight problems like bleeding, allergy, or infection. Some medicines reduce pain. When we refer to medicines in this book, we usually mean both modern and traditional medicines, but this part of the book is mostly about the modern medicines that are used for women and babies during pregnancy, birth, and after birth. Traditional medicines vary a lot from one place to another, so a remedy that is used in one place may not be available anywhere...

How to examine a womans vagina and womb

What Does Fallen Bladder Look Like

A pelvic exam is a way to learn what is happening inside a woman's vagina and womb. Doing a pelvic exam can help you learn if a woman is pregnant, and how many weeks she has been pregnant. if she has an infection in her womb or vagina. if she might have cancer of the cervix or womb. You also must do a pelvic exam to insert an intrauterine device (see Chapter 21) or to do manual vacuum aspiration (see Chapter 23) . This exam is not difficult to learn, and with practice, most people can do it. A...

Book for Midwives

Care for pregnancy, birth, and women's health Susan Klein, Suellen Miller, and Fiona Thomson Hesperian Foundation Berkeley, California, USA The Hesperian Foundation and the contributors to A Book for Midwives do not assume liability for the use of information contained in this book. All health workers have a responsibility to be honest with themselves and the people they care for about the limits of their skills. This means only perform the procedures you are trained to. Find help from other,...

Can 600 Mcg Of Misoprostol And 300mg Of White Quinine Cause Abortion

For malaria (see p. 98), give 600 mg by mouth once a day for 2 days. Then on the third day, give 300 mg. artemisinin, clindamycin, quinine, others. WARNING In many parts of the world, chloroquine no longer stops malaria. People with epilepsy should not use chloroquine. Clindamycin is a strong antibiotic. In this book, we only describe how to use it to treat malaria. Side effects Diarrhea, vomiting, rash, metallic taste in the mouth. May cause yeast infection in women or diaper rash in children....