Analyses of the Skills That Jobs Demand

Just as the skills that people possess have been factor analyzed, so too have the demands that jobs make. Both analyses yield analogous results, hardly a statistically necessary result. Just as there is a general ability factor among individuals, there is a general complexity factor among jobs. (See Gottfredson, 1985, on how the former may cause the latter.) The largest, most consistent distinction among jobs is the complexity of their information processing demands. In some studies, this jobs...

References

C., Flaum, M., Swayze, V., O'Leary, D. S., Alliger, R., Cohen, G., Ehrhardt, J., & Yuh, W. T. C. (1993). Intelligence and brain structure in normal individuals. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 130-134. Barrick, M., Mount, M., & Strauss, J. (1994). Antecedents of involuntary turnover due to a reduction of force. Personnel Psychology, 47, 515-535. Besetsny, L. K., Earles, J. A., & Ree, M. J. (1993). Little incremental validity for a special test for Air Force...

Economic and Social Class

The hypotheses of poverty or low social class as causes of racial differences in g have yielded very little supportive data (Eysenck, 1971 Jensen, 1998 Lynn, 1997). Although the correlation between economic success and intelligence has been cited as evidence for this hypothesis, the causal arrow may point in either direction. This correlation is of little value by itself. Furthermore, economic and social class hypotheses are contradicted by historical evidence. For instance, Jews arrived in...

Job Performance

Hunter (1983b) demonstrated that the predictive validity of g is a function of job complexity. In an analysis of U.S. Department of Labor data, Hunter classified 515 occupations into categories based on data handling complexity and complexity of dealing with things simple feeding offbearing and complex set-up work. As job complexity increased, the validity of g also increased. The average corrected validities of g were 0.40, 0.51, and 0.58 for the low, medium, and high data...

Mary L Tenopyr

Although it is recognized that g is important for success in the workplace, it is suggested that further research is necessary to understand the nature of g and to determine how prediction of job performance may be enhanced. Major relevant theories of intelligence are discussed and criticized. Questions about the roles of measures of knowledge, interests, and personality in providing incremental validity to that afforded by g are discussed. Difficulties in criterion definition and measurement...

What Is Our Current Understanding Of Racial Differences In Measured Intelligence

We address the question of racial differences out of a sense of necessity, and assuredly not because we are eager to experience the politically and emotionally heated attacks launched against others who discuss race. We believe that dealing with and understanding this issue is vitally important. There is much we do not know about the sources of racial differences in assessed intelligence. However, there is much we do know. It is through scientific research that answers and understanding can be...

Irwin L Goldstein

Department of Psychology University of Maryland In many ways, it could be argued that the finding of a simple generalizable relation between cognitive ability and performance has inhibited progress in our attempts to understand the prediction of job performance. In this article, we focus on how the reliance on the cognitive ability-performance relation has yielded a flawed model of selection that is overly loaded on cognition. By pinpointing potential theoretical and empirical shortcomings in...

Neil Anderson

Department of Psychology Goldsmiths College, University of London, UK This article reviews the evidence on General Mental Ability GMA and cognitive ability tests in connection with employment in the European Community EC . Five themes are reviewed prevalence, applicant reactions, testing standards, criterion validity, and recent advances. The first section shows that GMA and cognitive ability tests are used more often in Europe than in America. The second section, regarding applicant reactions,...

James L Outtz

Cognitive ability tests correlate with measures of job performance across many jobs. However, cognitive ability tests produce racial differences that are 3 to 5 times larger than other predictors such as biodata, personality inventories, and the structured interview that are valid predictors of job performance. Given that a cognitive ability tests can be combined with other predictors such that adverse impact is reduced while overall validity is increased, and b alternative predictors with less...

Kevin R Murphy

Department of Psychology Pennsylvania State University Cognitive ability tests represent the best single predictor of job performance, but also represent the predictor most likely to have substantial adverse impact on employment opportunities for members of several racial and ethnic minority groups. Debates over the use of these tests in selection often involve trade-offs between two criteria that are valued by decision makers that is, efficiency and equity. Findings and methods from decision...

Robert J Sternberg and Jennifer Hedlund

Department of Psychology Yale University Intelligence has been the most widely studied and controversial factor used to explain individual differences in job performance. The controversy stems not so much from the validity of some kind of g the evidence in support of some kind of g is impressive but from the perspective that g is the best or even the only indicator of human abilities. Although g is a fairly consistent predictor of performance, it is far from the sole determinant of performance....