Natural Menopause Relief Secrets

Women's Midlife Revolution Summit

The Women's Midlife Revolution Summit is an online event that presents a wonderful opportunity for women to learn, bond and share in the privacy of their homes. The interviews of the day will be online viewable for 24 hours for absolutely FREE, starting at 10:00 am. And every day for eleven days, there will be another set of experts videos releasedfor 24 hours for FREE viewing. This will be 11 days packed with knowledge, experience, inspiration, and wisdom as Arnold interviews 22 female professionals, releasing two new interviews per day over this 11-day period. Female nutritionists, doctors, herbalists, holistic therapists, authors, life coaches, entrepreneurs, hormone experts, and physical trainers have all been gathered to lend credence to the joy of seasoned womanhood. Registration is free. You will be required to fill a registration form. After filling the form you will receive an email to click on a link to confirm your participation. Then 3 days before the event starts, you will receive the Playbook for this event, which you can download.You can join the talks easily on your PC, Tablet, Laptop or Cellphone. It is time to shed light on the myths and lies women are told about aging and let women reclaim their power. More here...

Womens Midlife Revolution Summit Summary

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Benefit 8 Protects Postmenopausal Women from Fat Gain and Loss of Lean Muscle

Lately, there has been a great deal of controversy over the safety of hormone replacement therapy. The major study designed by the Women's Health Initiative was stopped midway because some participants taking HRT developed higher incidences of breast cancer and heart disease. The main argument in favor of HRT has been that it has the ability to help postmenopausal women conserve lean muscle and avoid gaining body fat. The American College of Sports Medicine published an article in which researchers were seeking an alternative solution to taking HRT to maintain a healthy body composition. Four groups of women participated in a resistance exercise program At the end of one year, researchers discovered that the group of women who exercised and did not take HRT did better than the nonexer-cise HRT group and did as well or a little better than the group that exercised and took HRT. They concluded that resistance exercise was just as effective for menopausal women in keeping off body fat as...

For Postmenopausal Depression

An increase in the prevalence of depressive symptoms in women undergoing menopause can be related to fluctuating estrogen levels (56). Depression in women seems to increase with a change in hormone levels (57). The seroto-nergic system appears to play a major role in depression, although other neurotransmitters are also involved (2,58,59).

Menopausal Symptoms

The natural oestrogen-receptor activity of soy is popularly considered an alternative to controversial HRT for postmenopausal women (Sliva 2005). A recent analysis of 17 trials, however, found mixed results for the effects of soy isoflavone extracts on menopausal symptoms (Nelson et al 2006). Although some data seem to support the efficacy of isoflavones in reducing the incidence and severity of hot flushes, many studies have not found any difference between the isoflavone recipients and the controls. Inadequate data exist to evaluate the effect of isoflavones on bone mass and vaginal dryness (Greenwood et al 2000).

Is hormone replacement therapy HRT good for PD

Also, although studies are not conclusive, there is evidence that estrogen may protect against PD. Evidence for this is small but tantalizing. More men than women have PD 55 men for every 45 women. Estrogen may modulate dopamine receptors. Some premenopausal women report that their PD drugs are ineffective during ovulation (the middle of the menstrual cycle) and shortly before the start of their monthly menses, when estrogen levels are low. At menopause, women stop making estrogen, and for years have been prescribed an estrogen made from the urine of pregnant horses (Premarin) and progestin, a synthetic form of the hormone progesterone (Provera). The combination is called Prempro. The treatment was originally given to relieve such symptoms as hot flashes, but later to reduce bone thinning and heart disease. Estrogen alone relieved symptoms but produced a small increase in the risk for cancer of the uterus), so the synthetic progestin was added to lower this risk. But did...

Menopause

Inhibition of serotonin reuptake and possible oestrogenic activity provide a theoretical basis for its use in pre- and postmenopausal women with mild to moderate depression (Ofir et al 2003, Takeuchi et al 1991). Constituents in licorice may bind to oestrogen receptors, enhance osteoblast function and attenuate vascular injury and atherosclerosis (Choi 2005, Somjen et al 2004a, b) suggesting a possible role in the prevention of bone disorders and cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women.

Menopause Problems

Many women in menopause realize that something is happening to their smile line. What is the smile line The gum line or outline of your teeth. If you notice that you are now getting a long-in-the-tooth appearance, it may be due to menopause. If your gums are loose and spongy, then this might be due to a hormonal problem. Your gums may bleed more readily and your tissue will start to recede. The most important thing is to moderate your diet. As the aging process starts and the hormones change, we must work with a healthier diet.

Specific Nutrients Calcium

Decade, there is a steady decline in bone calcium. This is especially marked after menopause in women, when estrogen declines, and often leads to bone loss (osteopenia) to below a threshold that predisposes women in particular to fractures (osteoporosis). Osteoporosis is not just a disease of the elderly, and may occur in much younger patients, especially athletic young women, those with anorexia nervosa, those on steroids and other medications, and in anyone on prolonged bed rest, including astronauts experiencing long periods of weightlessness.

What Is Unique about This Book

The many kinds of hormones that affect fat storage and utilization. This book is one of the first to offer questionnaires to help you realize when your own hormones are working against you. It also discusses how the hormonal changes that occur with menopause and andropause can cause you to become overfat and tells you how exercise and nutrition can help rebalance these hormones.

TABLE 2 Causes of Dry Mouth

Component, while others also use subjective criteria. As a result of these differing criteria, the prevalence estimates of SS have ranged from 2 to 10 million persons in the United States, and it has remained undiagnosed in many. The disease affects primarily peri- or postmenopausal women, at a ratio of nine females to one male however, it is being diagnosed with increased frequency in younger individuals. SS has also been described in a cohort of young persons under the age of 16 who presented with salivary gland swelling, positive antinuclear antibody, and an indolent course over a seven-year follow-up period (3).

Safey Issues Related to Inhaled and Systemic Corticosteroids

The NHLBI document states that inhaled corticosteroids are the most effective therapy for long-term control of mild, moderate, and severe persistent asthma and are well tolerated at recommended dosages. The overwhelming evidence demonstrating their efficacy far outweighs the small risks of adverse effects. Local adverse effects of ICS include oral candidiasis, dysphonia, reflex cough, or bronchospasm with inhalation. Spacer devices are recommended to prevent dysphonia and oral candidiasis. The key recommendations for reducing the potential adverse effects of ICSs are (i) administer ICS drugs with holding chambers or spacers (ii) patients should be instructed to rinse their mouths with tap water after each dose (iii) use the lowest effective doses (iv) consider adding a LABA to a low or medium dose of ICS rather than increase ICS dose (v) monitor growth in children and (vi) recommend supplemental calcium (1000-1500 mg day) and vitamin D in postmenopausal women receiving ICS therapy (2).

Medical And Nonmedical Uses

AASs are prescribed by physicians to treat a variety of medical conditions (Bagatell & Bremner, 1996). The most accepted use is for treating boys and men unable to produce normal levels of their own testosterone, a condition known as testosterone deficiency or hypogonadism. AASs are also used to treat a rare skin condition called hereditary angioedema, certain forms of anemia (deficiency of red blood cells), advanced breast cancer, and endometriosis (a painful condition in females in which tissue usually found only in the uterus develops in other body parts). AASs are also combined with female hormones to treat distressing symptoms that can accompany menopause. Experimentally, AASs have been used to treat a condition in which bone loss occurs (osteoporosis), to treat impotency and low sexual desire, and as a male birth control pill. In addition, AASs have been used in the treatment of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) to stimulate appetite, weight gain, strength, and...

Lack of Scientific Evidence for Clinical Efficacy and Safety

Except for the handful of phytomedicines known in the West, the risk-benefit profile of many herbal therapies is not known. Randomized control trials are the gold standard for clinical efficacy and they have been performed only for a handful of commonly used drugs such as gingko, St. John's wort, ginseng, echinacea, saw palmetto, and kava (10). Little is known about the vast majority of the huge body of herbal extracts and formulae registered in the Chinese pharmacopoeia. The importance of well-organized, long-term clinical trials cannot be better illustrated than in the recent issue of hormone replacement therapy and its risks and benefits. Despite the long duration of clinical use of hormone replacement in postmenopausal women, it is only in recent years that certain significant risks have been well recognized and better understood.

Assessment of proliferation

For practical reasons, it would appear that the MAI by itself is preferable for clinical practice. The MAI has been proven to be reproducible in a multicenter study involving routine laboratories.139 The prognostic value of the MAI holds for premenopausal lymph premenopausal

Gender Age and Genetics

The two greatest known risk factors for FM appear to be a family history of the disease and being female. In fact, two recent studies have revealed that FM in a first-degree female relative is the greatest predictor of developing FM. No one knows why more women are diagnosed with FM than men. Various studies based on prevalence data show that women are seven to nine times more likely to have fibromyalgia than men and that the female peak age for diagnosis is during the childbearing years. This has led researchers to suspect that either childbirth or menopause might be triggers for some women. However, there are

Carrie Amazing Changes in Her Lipid Profile

Since Carrie had stopped jogging to save her joints and had moved away from the city where her dance classes were located, she had stopped exercising except for walking about four times per week. She had read enough to know that if she continued on her present path, her health would deteriorate when she entered menopause, so she was determined to change her lifestyle, eating habits, and approach to exercise.

Traditional versus Nontraditional Medicine

In spite of the rigorous process of bringing new treatments to cancer patients, and in spite of all the scientific oversight, things do not always run smoothly in traditional medicine. This fact is clear when one looks at medical news in the media for example, you may recall the controversies involving whether relatively healthy postmenopausal women should take hormone replacement therapy and whether it is safe for people in pain to use certain anti-inflammatory medications. While the confusion around these issues is still being sorted out, the reality is that the vigorous testing methods employed in conventional medicine help to ensure that the vast majority of treatments medical doctors prescribe are more helpful than harmful. These therapies, called evidence-based medicine, come from scientifically established best practices. Nonetheless, one advocate of evidence-based medicine, Canadian scientist Brian Haynes, cautions, The advance of knowledge is incremental, with many false...

The Dissemination of Complex Homoeopathy

123 One can, in the case of a menopausal condition, give Sepia for the vasomotor syndrome, and at the same time Bryonia, or better even formic acid, against the accompanying arthropathy. We can call this a heterotropic drug mixture. . It compares favourably to the homotropic one because as a rule one can draw conclusions concerning the effect of each component. In practice, the mixture can be used without reservations, while the homotropic should be restricted because of the danger of obfuscation. Cf. Ritter (1962), p. 91.

Prescription Drugs And Cancer

Synthetic Hormones and Steroid Preparations. The natural and synthetic estrogens used for contraception and for postmenopausal hormone replacement have been associated with an increased risk of uterine cancer. As of the late 1990s, these estrogens are usually combined with progestins, which appear to lower this risk. Diethylstil-bestrol (DES), which is used to treat menopausal symptoms and advanced cancers of the breast, may cause vaginal or cervical cancer in women whose mothers took DES during pregnancy. Oxymetholone (Anadrol), a steroid related to testosterone, is reported to increase the risk of liver cancer.

Early Effects Of The Diagnosis And Initial Treatment On

There is also consensus regarding a third set of findings from this literature on early effects of diagnosis and treatment with regard to the physical realm. These include menstrual changes and menopause, infertility, sleep problems, lymphedema, pain, problems with physical and recreational activities, and weight gain and reduced energy.15,18,30,32-40 Ganz found nearly identical rates of arm problems 2 and 3 years posttreatment related to the initial surgical procedure (numbness, tightness and pulling in the arm, and intermittent mild pain).30 Other early effects are energy reduction, decreases in physical functioning, and symptom distress as found in our early study of Hodgkin's disease.28 Sexual, urinary, and bowel function changes are specific to prostate cancer.29

QOL in Long Term Survivors of Breast Cancer

Eleven of the 16 studies discussed physical domain QOL outcomes for long-term survivors.2,4,32,41,43,46-51 Generally, survivors report lower physical domain QOL than healthy controls and poorer physical functioning.4,41,43,49 Arm pain, including swelling, loss of sensation, weakness, and stiffness, are common.4,32,48,50,51 Survivors also report fatigue,2,46 with one study finding that younger survivors report the lowest levels of vitality.51 Physical problems associated with treatment induced menopause are also common.2,32 One study shows that physical functioning was predicted by age at diagnosis,48 while another found that older age in general is related to worse physical domain QOL.47 Another study found that physical health was most affected among women who were both diagnosed with lymphoma and treated with chemotherapy.2 Menopausal Symptom Checklist (MSC) Social quality of life Twelve of the 16 studies discussed social domain QOL outcomes for long-term...

Endogenous Formation of Choline Moiety as Phosphatidylcholine

SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in humans may exist and, if so, would influence dietary requirements for choline. In mice in which this gene is knocked out, the dietary requirement for choline is increased and they get fatty liver when eating a normal choline diet. Estrogen induces greater activity of PEMT perhaps explaining why premenopausal women require less choline in their diets. In addition to formation of choline, this enzyme has an essential role in lipoprotein secretion from the liver.

Comparisons Of Longterm Effects Of Diagnosis And Treatment By Cancer Site Breast Cancer And Hodgkins Disease

We found no significant changes in marital partner status or in employment status in the breast cancer group. With regard to the SF-36 subscales, social function improved over time. We did not find differences in sexual activity or reporting of sexual problems even though by now most women were menopausal (75 due to treatment) and there were fewer children at home. There were significant decreases in the size of one's social network and emotional support. In multivariate analyses, less reduction in emotional support predicted better QOL.

DCoronary Heart Disease

Recent studies have shown that the risks of nonfatal myocardial infarction and CHD death increase with increasing levels of BMI. Risks are lowest in men and women with BMIs of 22 or less and increase with even modest elevations of BMI. In the Nurses' Health Study, which controlled for age, smoking, parental history of CHD, menopausal status, and hormone use, rel

Reproduction And Pregnancy

Impotence, atrophy of the testes, infertility, and decreased libido are not uncommon complaints in male alcoholics. These observations are thought to be secondary to the direct effects of alcohol on testicular tissue, to an alcohol-associated decrease in sperm motility, and to an alcohol-related decrease in Vitamin A and zinc. Both Vitamin A and zinc are important in maintaining testicular tissue growth. In young females, alcohol abuse is associated with amenorrhea and anovulation in chronic users, with early menopause. There is evidence that vaginal blood flow decreases as the alcohol serum level increases.

Genetic Counseling Process

During the cancer genetics consultation, the patient's medical history is reviewed. If the patient has had cancer, particular attention is paid to the age at diagnosis and any other prior or synchronous malignancies. Menopausal status is noted for women with breast cancer for those with ovarian cancer in particular, pathology is important. If the patient has colorectal cancer, any additional polyps are also recorded.

Looking Elsewhere for a Doctor How to Know if Its Time

Joan changed doctors many times because she felt that they weren't taking her medical problem seriously. In fact, she says that she saw 22 doctors over 18 months until, at long last, she found a rheumatologist who diagnosed her with FMS and treated her. Joan says that the other doctors had told her that her condition was caused by the four pregnancies she'd had and by the onset of menopause. She says she was angry that the doctors didn't listen to her or believe her, but she's very happy that she's found a good doctor now. Joan is glad that she didn't decide to just settle for one of the other doctors. Follow Joan's example Don't settle.

Female Reproductive System Disorders

Menopausal hot flushes According to one randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled study EPO supplementation significantly reduces the maximum number of night-time flushes, although other symptoms failed to respond. The study used a dose of four capsules daily (each containing 500 mg EPO and 10 mg vitamin E) over 6 months (Chenoy et al 1994). A position statement of the North American Menopause Society (2004) concluded that evidence was lacking to warrant the use of EPO in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause.

Genetic Predisposition

To contain the costs to the population, chemoprevention or prophylactic surgery for ovarian cancer may be directed at high-risk groups. In the United States, a woman on average has a 1.4 lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer. In contrast, the risk increases to 4 to 5 with one first-degree relative with ovarian cancer. With two first-degree relatives, the lifetime risk further increases to 7 . Approximately 10 of ovarian malignancies appear to be hereditary. Genetic predisposition should be suspected in a woman with a diagnosis of premenopausal breast cancer, with ovarian cancer in a family member at any age, and with cancers in multiple family members of two to four generations. Two hereditary syndromes are described.

Prophylactic Surgery in the General Population

Prophylactic surgery for ovarian cancer encompasses several procedures. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with removal of both the fallopian tubes and the ovaries is often advocated for the prevention of ovarian cancer. The procedure may be performed through an open or laparoscopic approach. All peritoneal surfaces should be examined. The procedure should result in the removal of the entire ovary and all but the intramural portion of the fallopian tube. The ovarian vessels should be clamped approximately 2 cm proximal to the ovary to reduce the risk of retained ovarian tissue. All adhesions should be excised. In addition to operative risk, reproductive-age women face surgical menopause after prophylactic oophorectomy. Both bilateral tubal ligation and hysterectomy without removal of the tubes and ovaries have also been shown to reduce the risk of subsequent ovarian cancer. Hysterectomy along with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy has been advocated by some groups to remove the intramural...

Hormonally Mediated Events

Menopause may cause uncomfortable symptoms in many women and can be controlled to a great extent by HRT. Some of these symptoms, hot flashes, fatigue, and bone thinning (leading to osteoporosis) can intensify symptoms and problems related to MS. Osteoporosis has been linked to the treatment of MS with steroids, and this condition may worsen during the peri-menopausal or menopausal state of life. Unfortunately, there is some controversy in the medical community about the benefit risk ratio of HRT and women should consult their personal physician and gynecologist to discuss the pros and cons of these medications. There are other reasons your physician might suggest HRT for a person with MS, as they can reduce post-menopausal complications that include osteoporosis, weight gain, fatigue, vaginal dryness, diminished libido, increased cardiovascular disorders, and decreased exercise tolerance.

Screening for Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer in women and is the most common cause of gynecologic cancer mortality. Approximately 1 in 70 women will develop ovarian cancer in their lifetime. Many risk factors have been identified in the carci-nogenesis of ovarian cancer, and patients with varying levels of risk can be further stratified into different groups. Recommendations for ovarian cancer screening vary according to the patient's level of risk. Advancing age, infertility, endometriosis, and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy typically lead to a mildly increased risk of ovarian cancer in individuals compared with that of the general female population (relative risk RR < 3),2-5 whereas inherited mutations in the cancer susceptibility genes such as BRCA1, BRCA2, and mismatch repair genes associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) syndrome lead to much higher RRs of approximately 30 to 45, 6 to 20, and 6 to 9, respectively, compared with RRs of the...

Intervention Studies

Most intervention studies on fiber and breast cancer have examined fiber intake and plasma or urinary indicators of estrogen (e.g., estrone, estradiol). Since certain breast cancers are hormone dependent, the concept is that fiber may be protective by decreasing estrogen concentrations. Rose and coworkers (1991) provided three groups of premenopausal women with a minimum of 30 g d of Dietary Fiber from wheat, oats, or corn. After 2 months, wheat bran was shown to decrease plasma estrone and estradiol concentrations, but oats and corn were not effective. Bagga and coworkers (1995) provided 12 premenopausal women a very low fat diet (10 percent of energy) that provided 25 to 35 g d of Dietary Fiber. After 2 months there were significant decreases in serum estradiol and estrone concentrations, with no effects on ovulation. Woods and colleagues (1989) found that a low fat (25 percent of energy), high fiber (40 g of Dietary Fiber) diet significantly reduced serum estrone sulfate concentra-...

Folliclestimulating hormone

After menopause women still produce FSH, but since they have no follicles or eggs in their ovaries the hormone is simply excreted in their urine. Originally, drug companies used to produce FSH for fertility treatment by extracting the hormone from postmenopausal women's urine. The hormone was purified and turned into powdered form. The quality of this drug varied between batches and there was an element of uncertainty about its purity and

Other Inputs of Adipose Tissue on Female Reproductive Ability

Adipose tissue is a significant extragonadal source of estrogen. Conversion of androgen to estrogen takes place in the adipose tissue of the breast and abdomen, the omentum, and the fatty marrow of the long bones. This conversion accounts for approximately one-third of the circulating estrogen of premenopausal women and is the main source of estrogen in postmenopausal women. Men also convert androgen into estrogen in body fat.

Supplements Are They Necessary Are They Safe

To begin with, the RDAs take no account of individual circumstances. The fact is, nutritional needs vary enormously. Requirements for nutrients can vary according to genetic make-up, sex, age, levels of stress, activity levels, alcohol consumption, pollution, smoking, the use of prescription medications, pregnancy and menopause. The RDAs make no provision for the special requirements individuals may have for nutrients.

Challenges of Ovarian Cancer Screening

Second, except for patients with an increased risk of ovarian cancer based on family history, identification of the appropriate groups in the general population to target for screening is problematic. The prevalence of ovarian cancer in the general population is 40 per 100,000 postmenopausal women. Therefore, the detection of early-stage ovarian cancer requires tests with high sensitivity and specificity because of the low prevalence of ovarian cancer in the general population. In general, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 10 has been proposed as a clinical cut-point for screening tests for ovarian cancer. Clinically, a PPV of 10 means that there will be 10 operations for every one case of ovarian cancer detected. Screening tests must, therefore, achieve a sensitivity of at least 75 and a specificity of greater than 99.6 to achieve a PPV of 10 .

Vitamin and Mineral Supplements

Protecting your bones is extremely important. Fractures are a serious and common cause of disability in people who have either mild bone loss (osteopenia) or more severe bone loss (osteoporosis). Osteoporosis has been studied especially in postmenopausal women, but anyone (including young men who normally have strong bones) who has been through cancer treatment may be at risk for decreased bone mineral density. Simple imaging studies (usually specialized x-rays) are a good way to determine whether you have osteopenia or osteoporosis. Ask your doctor whether you are at risk for bone loss due to your cancer treatments or perhaps factors such as other medical problems or your age. Either your primary care doctor or your oncologist can order bone mineral density studies.

Progesterone receptor

Therapy raised questions, with the most striking data derived from a retrospective analysis of the results of the ATAC trial.60,110 This trial randomized postmenopausal women with early breast cancer to 5 years of treatment with the AI anastrozole or tamoxifen, or a combination of the two. Time to recurrence was longer for anastrozole-treated than tamoxi-fen-treated patients in both ER-positive PR-positive and ER-positive PR-negative subgroups, but the benefit was substantially greater in the PR-negative subgroup.111 Two neoadjuvant AI trials validated these observations.104,112 This suggests that the overall benefit of anastrozole may be due to reduced tamoxifen efficacy in patients with PR-negative tumors. These data also indicate that ER-positive PR-negative breast tumors are less responsive to SERM therapy than ER-positive PR-positive tumors. Clearly, the simple theory that PR serves as an indicator of a functionally intact ER pathway fails to explain why some patients with...

Fibrocystic Breast Disease

Most premenopausal women experience fibro-cystic breast disease characterized by tenderness, sometimes painful breasts, and small lumps that can be felt. It may be part of PMS and is associated with an excess of estrogen. If the lump is tender or painful, it is likely a cyst and not a tumor. Avoiding coffee and any foods or drugs containing caffeine can reduce symptoms signifi

Special Dietary Concerns in Cancer Survivors

(Atlanta American Cancer Society, 2003). A. L. Petri, A. Tjonneland, M. Gamborg, D. Johansen, S. Hoidrup, T. I. A. So-rensen, and M. Gronbaek, Alcohol Intake, Type of Beverage, and Risk of Breast Cancer in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women, Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 28 (2004) 1084.

Regulation of Metabolism

As discussed below, alterations in homocysteine metabolism also occur after menopause, in diabetes, and in hypothyroidism. These observations suggest that hormones, including estrogen, insulin, thyrox-ine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone, may directly or indirectly affect homocysteine metabolism. As for oxidative stress, the mechanisms by which these hormones affect homocysteine metabolism are poorly understood.

Other Causes of Hyperhomocysteinemia

Premenopausal women tend to have lower plasma homocysteine than men of similar age, and homocysteine levels tend to rise in women after the menopause. Hormone replacement therapy reduces homocysteine back to premenopausal levels. Moreover, homocysteine decreases in male to female transsexuals, and increases in female to male transsexuals, primarily related to the estrogen and androgen regimens that such individuals respectively follow. Taken together, these observations strongly suggest an influence of sex hormones on homocysteine metabolism, though the mechanisms are not well understood.

Screening of asymptomatic cases for early detection

High index of suspicion must be maintained if endometrial carcinoma will be diagnosed at an early stage. Postmenopausal bleeding should be taken to mean endometrial carcinoma until proved otherwise.(10) 1. Transvaginal sonography (TVS) is used to assess the endometrial thickness. This has been used as screening method combined with outpatient suction endometrial sampling (e.g. using a pipette). The cutoff thickness (myometrium to myometrium) expected in postmenopausal women, was once thought to be up to 8 mm.(11) If the endometrium is thickened or insufficient material is obtained by biopsy for diagnosis, then a more invasive procedure is required. This ideally comprises hysteroscopy accompanied or followed by a diagnostic curettage. (11)However, as yet, there is no agreed-upon criterion for endometrial thickness that has both a high sensitivity and specificity a high rate of false-positive results is also a limiting factor.(12) Previous meta-analyses on endometrial thickness...

Estrogenic and Antiestrogenic Effects

The factors that dictate what response a phytoestrogen will produce are actually complex, but in general, phy-toestrogens possess weak estrogenic activity as compared to estrogen, and they compete with estrogen for estrogen receptors in a cell's nucleus. In addition, they can occur at much higher plasma concentrations than estrogen. Therefore, when estrogen levels are low (as in postmenopausal women), they have the potential to produce estrogenic effects. At least one human study using moderate isoflavone doses (140 milligrams per day, from soy concentrate) noted a slight but significant es-trogenic effect in postmenopausal women.38 Using the same reasoning, when estrogen levels are high (as in premenopausal women), we would expect genistein or other phytoestrogens to produce antiestro-genic effects. The effects of genistein on premenopausal women, however, are still uncertain. Mild estrogenic effects from genistein have been reported in some human studies, and two studies have noted...

Recommended Dietary Intakes

The US and Canadian recommended iron intakes are intended to meet the requirements of 97.5 of the healthy population, replacing excreted iron and maintaining essential iron functions with a minimal supply of body iron stores. They also assume a relatively high bioavailability of the dietary iron. The recommended 8mg daily for adult men and postmenopausal women can easily be met with varied Western-style diets. More careful food choices are needed to obtain the 18 mg recommended to meet requirements for 97.5 of adult menstruating women. This higher recommendation reflects the high menstrual iron losses of some women the median iron requirement is 8.1 mg for menstruating women.

Cancer Prevention

Breast cancer High lutein and zeaxanthin intake has been related to reduced risk of breast cancer (Dorgan et al 1998, Toniolo et al 2001). High lutein intake (> 7 mg day) was associated with a 53 reduction in the risk of developing breast cancer compared with low consumption (< 3.7 mg day) in a population-based case-control study of 608 premenopausal women over age 40 (Freudenheim et al 1996). Similar risk reductions were found in a nested case-control study of 540 New York women (Toniolo et al 2001) and another nested case-control study of 969 cases of breast cancer and matched controls from the Nurses' Health Study found that the risk of breast cancer was 25-35 less for women with the highest quintile compared with that for women with the lowest quintile of lutein zeaxanthin and total carotenoid intake (Tamimi et al 2005). Although this association is encouraging, another study of 4697 women followed over 25 years found no significant relationships between lutein intake and...

Healthy Diets Healthy Hearts

Frank Hu and colleagues compared the health and lifestyles of roughly 86,000 women in the Nurses' Health Study. Between 1980 and 1994, the incidence of heart disease dropped 31 percent. Diet explained roughly half (16 percent) of the decline, while a drop in smoking accounted for 13 percent, and the increased use of estrogen by postmenopausal women explained 9 percent.

Osteoporosis Prevention

One long-term study has reported an increase in bone density for magnesium hydroxide supplementation in a group of menopausal women (Sojka & Weaver 1995). After the 2-year test period, fracture incidence was also reduced. Another 2-year study showed that Mg supplementation in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis results in increased bone mass at the wrist after 1 year, with no further increase after 2 years of supplementation (Stendig-Lindberg et al 1993). The regimen used here was oral Mg 750 mg day for the first 6 months followed by 250 mg day thereafter.

Sex Cord Stromal Tumors of the Ovary

Ovarian sex cord and stromal tumors represent a heterogeneous group of rare tumors arising from the ovarian stroma and cells that surround the oocytes. Their rarity precludes any definite recommendations regarding their management. Surgery is the cornerstone of therapy and is required for definitive diagnosis. The staging system is the same as that for epithelial ovarian cancer. Most malignant ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, however, tend to present at an earlier age and stage and to follow an indolent course and recur late, and can thus be managed more conservatively. In their review of 83 women with sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary, Chan and colleagues108 reported that nearly 50 of their patients were less than 50 years of age and over 70 presented with early-stage disease. They were able to confirm that, similar to previous reports, tumor size (less than 10 cm) and absence of residual disease improved prognosis with a nearly 8 decrease in risk of death for every 1 cm decrease...

The Metabolic Fitness

Most people think of calcium as something you should take to minimize bone loss with the onset of andropause or menopause, and indeed this is true. But calcium also has many other health benefits, including the ability to aid in fat reduction. An article in the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, which evaluated five clinical studies involving 780 women in their thirties, fifties, and eighties, showed that taking 1,000 mg calcium daily was associated with as much as an 8 kg (17.6 pounds) loss in body weight over four years. A random analysis of forty-three other studies showed that 1,000 mg calcium a day over a period of two weeks led to a significant reduction in blood pressure. Calcium also lowers serum cholesterol. A recent study conducted on 223 healthy postmenopausal women showed that taking 1,000 mg calcium per day produced a 7 percent increase in HDL and a 6 percent decrease in LDL.

Fatty Foods Breast Cancer

Women who eat more animal fat have a higher risk of premenopausal breast cancer. (In earlier studies, the same researchers found no link to postmenopausal women.) For roughly eight years, researchers tracked the diets of more than 90,000 premenopausal women, 7,800 of whom were diagnosed with breast cancer (average age 43) during that time. The risk of breast cancer was linked to red meat, whole milk, cream, ice cream, butter, cream cheese, and other cheeses (except cottage and ricotta).38 Natural Prescription for Health Not all studies agree with these findings, though few have tracked so many premenopausal women. Nevertheless, it's worth cutting back on full-fat dairy foods and red meat to lower the risk of heart disease.

Urogenital Infections

Probiotics are widely used to decrease the frequency of recurrent bacterial vaginosis and candidal vulvovaginitis, and have undergone clinical testing that supports this use. They are administered both orally and intravaginally. Additionally, lactobacilli play a significant role in the prevention of UTIs. One study using intravaginal administration of probiotics such as Lactobacillus GR-1 and B-54 or RC-14 strains twice weekly for 2 weeks and then monthly for 2 months demonstrated that treatment resulted in 45 less UTIs than placebo and improved the maintenance of normal flora (Reid & Burton 2002). A significant reduction in UTI rate was also reported in a randomised double-blind study involving 55 premenopausal women (Reid 2001 b). The study investigated the effectiveness of treatment for 1 year with a weekly suppository containing either 0.5 g L rhamnosus GR-1 and L. fermentum B-54 or a Lactobacillus growth factor. Treatment resulted in the UTI rate decreasing by 73 and 79 ,...

Introduction A Estrogens

Estrogens are steroid hormones that exhibit a broad range of physiological activities. 17 3-Hydroxyestradiol is the female sex hormone active in developing the mammary gland and the uterus, maintaining pregnancy, relieving menopausal symptoms, and preventing cardiovascular and bone diseases (1). An apparent consequence of estrogen is the increase in short-term meno- pausal symptoms including vasomotor hot flashes, urogenital atrophy, and psychological functioning. A hot flash is the classic sign of menopause and the primary clinical symptom experienced by women during this transitional stage (2). Estrogen is beneficial in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (35). The incidence of heart disease among premenopausal women is low compared with men, whereas the incidence among postmenopausal women approaches that of men. The administration of estrogen to postmenopausal women decreases the incidence of heart disease (6). This protective effect of estrogen may partly be attributed to...

Cardiovascular Effects

In a double blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial of red clover-derived isoflavones (43.5 mg day), with 205 women aged between 49 and 65 years, active treatment had no significant effect on total cholesterol or HDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels or triglycerides (Atkinson et al 2004b). A single-blind, randomised crossover study of 21 healthy premenopausal women (aged 18-45 years) found that tablets containing 86 mg day isoflavones for two menstrual cycles did not significantly change total cholesterol, HDL- or LDL-cholesterol or triglyceride levels (Samman et al 1999). Another study of postmenopausal women with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia also found red clover did not significantly affect plasma lipids (Howes et al 2000). A recent double-blind, randomised parallel study found that 86 mg day purified isoflavones derived from red clover also had no effect on cholesterol homeostasis or insulin resistance in 25 premenopausal women (Blakesmith et al 2003). However, there have...

Table 112 Symptoms of Anxiety

Often a number of factors occur simultaneously and contribute to a person's emotional crisis. One of my patients is a woman in her late forties who is raising two teenage children. Several years ago she was diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent a lumpectomy and radiation treatment. More recently, she had a local recurrence of her cancer and opted for a mastectomy followed by reconstructive surgery and then chemotherapy. When I first saw her, there was no single reason for her depression. She was stressed over the teenage rebellion going on in her home. Sleep was difficult because of uncontrolled hot flashes, a result of premature menopause that was induced by the chemotherapy, and

Adverse Reactions

The oestrogenic potency of the isoflavones has been well documented. Overgrazing cattle or sheep on red clover can be detrimental to their fertility. In 'clover disease', ewes are made permanently infertile by clover consumption. In animals with clover disease, the uterine response to oestrogen is reduced, as is the surge in LH. Clover disease has not been observed with normal therapeutic doses in humans. None of the trials has reported adverse effects. An isoflavone preparation from soya bean, and red clover extracts containing genistein, daidzein, biochanin A and formononetin, did not modify the endometrial architecture in 25 postmenopausal women taking the preparation for 1 year (Aguilar et al 2002).

Metabolic Characteristics of Visceral and Subcutaneous

The main function of adipose tissue is to store and break down fat based on energy excess or need, respectively. The uptake of fat is regulated by the enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL). This enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols into free fatty acids, which can then be transported into the adipocyte and reesterified for storage. Greater LPL activity is associated with greater accumulation of fat. In pre-menopausal women, its activity is higher in the gluteal-femoral adipose areas than in the abdominal areas. The opposite is true in men, in whom LPL activity is the same or higher in the abdominal adipose areas than in the gluteal-femoral regions.

Homeopathic medicine

Acute attacks are also treated according to specific symptoms. Remedies include Aconite, if onset is sudden, especially after shock, with a fear of dying and Nux vomica, if palpitations result from overindulgence, or if there is physical and mental exhaustion with overarousal from doing too much, chilliness, and irritability. Digitalis is given for palpitations preceding a feeling as though the heart has stopped, with a fear that the least movement might make it stop again and Lachesis is prescribed for menopausal women who feel faint and anxious, and complain of a constricted feeling in the chest.

Epidemiological Evidence for Reduced Risk of Chronic Diseases and Mortality

Since the articulation of the HHS recommendation for a minimum 30 minutes day of physical activity (HHS, 1996), evidence from epidemio-logical, observational and intervention studies continue to support the quoted statement above. Recently, the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study reported that 2.5 hours week of vigorous exercise was associated with significantly reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women (Manson et al., 2002). Moreover, they showed that more vigorous exercise was associated with an increased degree of protection. Conversely, physical inactivity, noted by prolonged sitting, was shown to be a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

Red wine polyphenolics

The well publicized French paradox means that when in France one can eat and drink with abandon without fear of becoming obese. Red wine consumption has often been cited as the protective factor in this phenomenon. The good news is that there may well be a scientific basis for this happy situation. Pal et al. (2004) studied the impact of acute consumption of red wine polyphenolics in postmenopausal women. They found that red wine polyphenolics attenuate postprandial chylomicron and chylomicron remnant levels in plasma, possibly by delaying absorption of dietary fat.

Micronutrient Deficiency

In older adults reduced cutaneous synthesis and enteric absorption of vitamin D increases the risk of vitamin D deficiency. Reduced renal responsiveness to parathormone is an added risk factor. At least 500IUday 1 of vitamin D are required to prevent significant osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Institutionalized patients with reduced exposure to sunlight are at higher risk of vitamin D deficiency due to reduced cutaneous synthesis. The role of calcium supplementation in the prevention of osteoporosis is also well accepted. Additional evidence suggests that inadequate dietary calcium consumption may play a role in the genesis of colorectal cancer and hypertension.

Other Lifestyle Factors

Other lifestyle choices, such as smoking, alcohol abuse, and physical activity, also impact overall bone health. Excessive alcohol intake is a risk factor for low bone mass. This finding may be a consequence of poor dietary quality in chronic alcoholics and may also be related to adverse effects of excessive alcohol intake on osteoblast function. Cigarette smoking also adversely impacts bone health. Smokers may be leaner, and female smokers may experience an earlier menopause and have lower postmenopausal estrogen levels. Smoking may also have adverse effects on bone cells either directly or indirectly through an increase in oxidative stress.

Cardiovascular Disease

There are many potential mechanisms by which soy may improve cardiovascular outcomes, including reduction in total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, lipoprotein a, blood pressure, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, endothelial function, systemic artery compliance, and oxidised LDL (Balk et al 2005). A review by the North American Menopause Society suggests that the most convincing health effects of soy can be attributed to the actions of isoflavones on lipids, with studies finding statistically significant reductions in LDL and triglycerides, as well as increases in HDL (Greenwood et al 2000). It is unclear how soy exerts its beneficial effects on lipid metabolism or Soy 1107 Although it has been suggested that there is no evidence of beneficial effects of phyto-oestrogens on blood pressure, arterial compliance or oxidation of LDL-cholesterol, there may be beneficial effects on endothelial function and homocysteine concentrations in postmenopausal women (Cassidy & Hooper 2006)....

Emotion Mood and Bipolar Disorder in Children

Learned a good deal about gender effects in BD, although important questions remain, particularly about the impact of puberty and menopause on the illness, and about the management of BD during pregnancy and the postpartum. In the young and old, considerably more work needs to be done to understand age differences in the presentation and management of the illness. However, we can take heart from the increased research attention now being devoted to these topics.

Cognitive Function

Although not all studies have consistently shown benefits of soy on cognitive function, there have been a number of double-blind RCTs showing that soy improves memory and frontal lobe function in young volunteers (File et al 2001) and postmenopausal women (Duffy et al 2003, File et al 2005). In one 6-week double-blind trial in 50 postmenopausal women, 60 mg day total isoflavone equivalents significantly improved non-verbal short-term memory and performance on tests of frontal lobe function with no effects on long-term memory, category generation, or sustained attention (File et al 2005). Similarly, another double-blind controlled trial of 33 postmenopausal women found that 12 weeks' supplementation with the same supplement significantly improved recall of pictures, sustained attention, learning rule reversals and planning at 12 weeks without affecting menopausal symptoms, self-rating of mood, bodily symptoms or sleepiness (Duffy et al 2003). A further double-blind, randomised,...

Biological explanation of breast cancer

Breast cancer usually arises after menopause (age 40+), but it can also arise before menopause in very rare cases. The ovarian-pituitary axis synchronizes the normal breast physiology during the reproductive cycle. The biological reason for it is that the glandular component of the breast gradually degenerates after menopause and the breast is mostly substituted by adipose tissue. Any problem in this process causes the development of breast cancer, whereas by epithelial cells of the breast ducts, uncontrolled growth and survival takes place, and in later stages the characteristics of neo-angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis occurs (Heldermon and Ellis, 2006).

Obesity and Sleep Apnea

There are several correlates of sleep apnea. It is well recognized that it is more prevalent in males, although the difference is less pronounced in population-based studies than in laboratory-based studies. 20 Some studies have suggested that the prevalence of sleep apnea in women increases after menopause. Snoring also correlates with sleep apnea, increasing up to late middle age and decreasing thereafter. 20, 282, 654, 655 The other major correlate of sleep apnea is obesity 20, 653, 654, 656 in both men and women. In general, women have to be significantly more obese than men for the clinical syndrome to be apparent. 657 At present, no published epidemiologic studies

Female reproductive changes with ageing

Declining oestrogen and progesterone levels cause numerous physical changes in women with age. Ovulation usually stops 1-2 years before the menopause. As the ovaries reach the end of their productive cycle, they become unresponsive to gonadotrophic stimulation. With ageing, the ovaries atrophy and become thicker and smaller. After the menopause the uterus shrinks rapidly to half its pre-menstrual weight. The cervix atrophies and no longer produces mucus for lubrication and the endometrium and myometrium become thinner.

Mineral And Phytate Concentrations And Ratios

Fractional Calcium Absorption from Calcium Carbonate as Influenced by Calcium Load and Phytate Calcium Molar Ratios in Healthy Premenopausal Women.3 TABLE 13.1. Fractional Calcium Absorption from Calcium Carbonate as Influenced by Calcium Load and Phytate Calcium Molar Ratios in Healthy Premenopausal Women.3

Effects of mediumchain triglycerides on energy expenditure

Consequently, longer studies to assess the impact of MCT on EE were undertaken. White et al. (1999), fed 12 non-obese, premenopausal women a diet containing 40 of energy as fat, either in the form of butter and coconut oil or beef tallow, over 14 days. On day 7, mean BMR and PP EE values were significantly greater with the MCT diet than with the LCT diet. On day 14, PP total EE was still greater with the MCT diet, but not

Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators SERM

The rise of estrogen level in blood proposed the use of a therapeutic modulator to oestrogen, a selective oestrogen receptor modulator, or SERM (Jordan, 1999). The evidences from breast cancer treatment trials presented the ability of the first SERM, tamoxifen, to avoid tumors in the contralateral breast of women receiving adjuvant therapy (Ragaz and Coldman, 1998). Tamoxifen considerably lessens the rate of treatment failure in breast cancer patients, with lesser frequency of clinically obvious toxic effects. For tamoxifen, response rates range from 16 to 56 , and an improved toxicity profile than alternative therapies, for example large dosage of estrogen or adrenalectomy results in quick acceptance of tamoxifen as a selective cure for advanced disease (Muss et al., 1994). The combination of ovarian suppression and tamoxifen is referred to as the first line therapy for HR+ advanced breast cancer in pre-menopausal women. Some examples of SERM comprise raloxifene and toremifine (Holli...

Treatment of low risk group see table

Once cervical stromal invasion exceeds 3 mm the risk of nodal metastases approaches 3.5 , and by the time the tumour is 4 cms the risk of pelvic nodal metastasis is likely to approach between 10-20 . Whilst the prognosis is good for patients with stage 1a2 i.e. 3-5mm invasion the preferred treatment is hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy. For the majority of patients with stage 1b or 2a lesions less than 4 cms the survival for patients treated with radical radiotherapy or radical surgery is similar (180). Surgery is usually to be preferred in younger women which will spare ovaries in post menopausal women who may not be as good a surgical risk, radiotherapy may be preferred.

Presentday Cultivation And Usage

Sunflower seeds are used for the production of SO, which is a very useful dietary supplement, being enriched in fatty acids and used as an ingredient in many pharmaceutical preparations. Seeds can be sprinkled over cereals, salads, and soups, and mixed with vegetables and snacks. The seeds are diuretic and expectorant, and are now highly valued for the treatment of bronchial, laryngeal and pulmonary infections, coughs, and colds. They are also used to reduce the risk of colon cancer, the severity of hot flushes in women going through menopause, and also diabetic complications. They are also prescribed for snake bite and scorpion sting. Sunflower seed oil is used internally to alleviate constipation, as a lubricant, and is used externally as a massage oil, an oil dressing, and in the treatment of skin lesions, psoriasis, and rheumatism. The oil-cake is a valuable food for cattle and poultry (Bruneton, 1999 The Wealth of India, 2001 LaGow, 2004 Chopra et al., 2006). The oil is used in...

The National Womens Health Information Center

The National Women's Health Information Center is part of the Office on Women's Health (OWH), within the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). OWH's mission is the development and implementation of new programs and initiatives to improve women's health not only in the United States but internationally. The center provides links to sites with herbal information relevant to women's health issues. For example, black cohosh tea has been used in Native American cultures for centuries to alleviate the symptoms associated with menopause.

Q What is your subject selection

On the other hand, underserved populations can also not be excluded from research if there is a reasonable likelihood that benefit could accrue as a result of participation. Similarly, particular ethnic groups need to be included in numbers proportional to the local population. The potential risks and benefits of the research should be equitably distributed. For example, if a particular ethnic group or gender is excluded from the research, then if the treatment is found to be effective, they will be deprived of the benefit since they were not included. This has occurred with children, pre-menopausal (fertile) women, African- Americans and others.

Other Health Outcomes Bone Status Cancer and Diabetes

Although a number of the original weight cycling studies also tested associations between weight cycling and cancer, cancer end points have typically not followed the same patterns as cardiovascular disease. It has also been observed that temporary weight cycling (weight loss followed by weight gain) is not associated with increased risk of post-menopausal breast cancer.

Enhance your Patient Education with Nhlbi Materials

Multiple Risk Factors Healthy Heart Handbook for Women. Tells women (both with and without heart disease) how to take action to make their hearts healthier. Topics include how to talk to the doctor, blood pressure and blood cholesterol, physical activity, weight loss, hormone replacement therapy, heart attack symptoms, and heart-healthy eating.

Disorders of Galactose Metabolism Clinical Manifestations

Ovarian atrophy appears to be an important manifestation of galactose toxicity, with clinical and biochemical evidence of ovarian dysfunction present in nearly all affected females. The basis of the toxicity has not been defined. The consequences of the gonadal dysfunction range from failure of pubertal development, through primary amenorrhea to secondary amenorrhea or premature menopause (75-76 of affected females). Although gonadal function has been described as early as infancy based on elevations of follicle stimulating hormones

Robert J Ferguson Raine Riggs Tim Ahles and Andrew J Saykin

Neuropsychological performances to published norms and not matched control participants. Also, many studies evaluated chemotherapy recipients immediately following completion of chemotherapy regimes when acute effects of treatment, such as stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms could adversely influence neuropsychological test performance. Nonetheless, these early results paved the way for more rigorous research that utilized control comparison designs and isolated the effects of anxiety, depression, fatigue, and menopausal status on cognitive performance. Sherwin39 assessed a group of premenopausal women before they underwent a surgical menopause and again 4 months post surgery. Half of the women received estrogen replacement therapy after the surgery, while the other half received a placebo. The women who received estrogen replacement therapy maintained their preoper-ative scores on all of the neuropsychological tests, while the placebo group demonstrated a significant decline in...

Established Recommended Intakes for Older Persons

The change in recommendations occurs at either age 50 or 70 years. In women over 50 years, the RDA for dietary iron decreases from 18 mg to 8 mgday-1 there is no change in requirement for the 70 year plus age group. This lower value is the recommendation for adult men of all ages. The fact that the menopause allows women to replete iron stores depleted by an adulthood of monthly menstrual blood loss accounts for this lower RDA in older women.

Clare Stevinson Kristin L Campbell Christopher M Sellar and Kerry S Courneya

Cumulative lifetime exposure to sex steroids, particularly estrogens has been linked to breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer, while androgen exposure has been linked to prostate cancer. Physical activity has been shown to lower estrogen levels in premenopausal women through a continuum of alterations in menstrual cycle function.34 Furthermore, for postmenopausal women, exercise leads to reductions in body fat, and increases in sex hormone binding globulin concentration, resulting in less bio-available estrogens and androgens in both men and women.25 The effects of a 12-month aerobic exercise intervention were examined in 173 sedentary, overweight, postmenopausal women without cancer.35 The exercise group had a significant decrease in estrone, estradiol, and free estradiol compared to no change or increase in the control group at 3 months. These differences were maintained at 12 months, but were no longer statistically significant. A similar nonsignificant decrease in androgens was...

Indications Italian Cypress

Convulsion (f VOD) Cough (f BOU PH2 VOD) Diabetes (f BIB) Diarrhea (f1 BOU HHB VOD) Dyspepsia (f BIB) Enterosis (f HJP VOD) Enuresis (f BOU) Fever (f BIB) Flu (f BIB) Gastrosis (f JLH) Hemorrhoid (f1 BOU HHB KAB VOD) Hepatosis (f JLH) Hiccup (f HJP) Infection (f EFS) Inflammation (f HJP) Mastosis (f JLH) Menopause (f VOD) Menorrhagia (f VOD) Myofibroma (f BIB) Neurosis (f VOD) Orchosis (f JLH) Pertussis (f EFS WOI) Polyp (f BIB) Prolapse (f BIB) Pulmonosis (f VOD) Rheumatism (f VOD) Rhinosis (f JLH) Sclerosis (f BIB) Splenosis (f JLH) Swelling (f BIB HJP) Ulcer (f HJP) Uterosis (f VOD) Varicosity (1 HHB) Wart (f BIB) Worm (f HHB VOD) Wound (f HJP).

The Tryptophan Load Test

Tryptophan Degradation Test

9.5.4.2 Estrogens and Apparent Vitamin B6 Nutritional Status Rose (1966a, 1966b) was the first to report apparent vitamin B6 deficiency in women taking combined progestagen-estrogen oral contraceptives. There was increased urinary excretion of xanthurenic acid after a tryptophan load, which was normalized by the administration of relatively high doses of vitamin B6. A great many later reports have confirmed abnormal tryptophan metabolism among women taking the now obsolete high-dose oral contraceptives, and estrogens as menopausal hormone replacement therapy. Although they have been widely interpreted as evidence of estrogen-induced vitamin B6 deficiency or depletion, when other indices of vitamin B6 nutritional status have been measured, they have been unaffected by contraceptive use. This suggests an effect on tryptophan metabolism per se, rather than on vitamin B6 nutritional status.

The Classic Female Fat Pattern

While I would agree with the self-help authors who tell female readers that the key to self-esteem is to love your body, I believe that a woman should find a balance between accepting her body just as it is and paying serious attention to the significant health risks of being overfat. There is nothing life-affirming about having type 2 diabetes, painful and over-stressed joints, and an increased risk of heart disease after menopause. As we have seen, being overfat also increases the risk of certain types of cancers. For example, a recent report published by the National Cancer Institute showed that women with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or greater were twice as likely to develop cervical cancer. Women with the lowest waist-to-hip ratio, indicating a significant accumulation of abdominal fat, Most women believe that it is inevitable that their body fat-to-lean muscle ratio will rise as they age and experience the hormonal changes associated with menopause. In fact, the tables you see...

Malandrinum Homeopathy For Acne Treatment

See also Melilotus officinalis Melilotus arvensis see Melilotus officinalis Melilotus officinalis (Melilotus) 154-55, 299 meninges 178 menopause 48, 258-59 menorrhagia see heavy periods men's health 75, 99 self-help ailments 264-65 serious ailments 200, 202-3 see also individual ailments by name, e.g., balanitis menstrual cramps 90 menstrual problems 256-59

Musculoskeletal System

Bone mineral content declines with age this aging process is known as 'osteopenia.' (It should be distinguished from the related pathological process in which bone architecture is altered, producing 'osteoporosis.') From the peak in the third and fourth decades, a 30 average decline in bone mineral density occurs through the ninth decade. In women, there is well-characterized acceleration of the rate of bone mineral loss immediately following the menopause. Decreasing levels of anabolic hormones may be associated with musculoskeletal atrophy and decrease in function that is observed in older women. This change in skeletal mineralization with aging is not associated with any apparent change in vitamin D nutriture as reflected in circulating levels of the vitamin.

Detection and Characterization of Ovarian Tumors Role of Ultrasound

Ovarian Cancer Ultrasound

The features suggestive of ovarian malignancy on ultrasound include septations greater than 3 mm, mural nodularity, and papillary projections. Unilocular or multi-locular ovarian cystic lesions without solid parts are more likely to be benign.21,22 In other words, the most significant feature predictive of ovarian malignancy is the presence of solid components within the mass.23 When solid excrescences or solid portions of the tumor demonstrate vascular flow with color Doppler sonography (conventional or power), the likelihood of malignancy is even greater.23,24 Some benign lesions, such as endometriomas and hemorrhagic cysts, may mimic ovarian neoplasms on ultrasound (Fig. 5-1). Therefore, for premenopausal women, it may be prudent to obtain short-term follow-up on ovarian lesions to exclude transient physiologic changes.22 demonstrates low-resistance waveforms because tumor neovasculature lacks smooth muscle and arteriovenous shunting often occurs.25 Lower RI, lower PI, and higher...

Point by point how do you answer charges that

With regard to the other problems associated with vitamin A useage, the scientific literature shows that vitamin a is safe in adult men and post-menopausal women at a dose of 30,000 IU per day. This is about several times the dose of vitamin A found in multivitamin supplements.

Fat Distribution and Disease Risk

Since fat distribution is correlated with age as well other risk factors for disease, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and menopause in women, it is important to control for the effects of these variables in order to obtain an estimate of the independent effect of central obesity on morbidity. The impact of some of these correlates of fat distribution may be subtle and unlikely to seriously distort relationships between fat patterning and disease. However, age, the ultimate risk factor for disease and death, is sufficiently highly correlated with fat distribution to result in substantial distortion. Similarly, cigarette smoking is related adequately strongly to fat patterning and to various diseases and outcomes to make analyses that do not adjust for smoking difficult to interpret.

Available Self Help Materials and Target Audience

A search of the Amazon.com Web site using the keywords self-help and sleep produced over 40 hits. Included in the top-selling books were No More Sleepless Nights (Hauri, 1996), Can't Sleep, Can't Stay Awake A Woman's Guide to Sleep Disorders (Kryger, 1999), Say Good Night to Insomnia (Jacobs, 1999), and Seven Days to a Perfect Sleep (Gordon, 2003). The majority of available materials come in book form. Audio media (tapes or compact disks) comprise the remaining commercially available titles. The latter products typically consist of audio recordings of relaxation or self-hypnotic exercises. It should be noted that these titles are ones devoted exclusively to the topic of sleep. Many self-help books on other health problems (e.g., chronic pain, depression, menopause) include abbreviated advice for enhancing sleep or combating insomnia.

Prophylactic Surgery in the High Risk Population

Cholecystectomy

Hysterectomy has been advocated as part of prophylactic surgery for several proposed benefits. Since the risk of endometrial carcinoma is no longer present, hormone replacement therapy with unopposed estrogen can be given to control menopausal symptoms. Normally, women with BRCA1 mutations may carry an increased risk of endometrial and fallopian tube cancer. Hysterectomy would address this risk. Finally, BRCA mutation carriers undergoing hysterectomy are not at an increased risk for endometrial cancer if they opt to use the selective estrogen-receptor modulator tamoxifen for chemoprophylaxis of breast cancer. In view of the lack of screening methods for ovarian cancer and the lack of efficacy of current surveillance methods, it is recommended that BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers undergo prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy after age 35 or once childbearing is completed. Gynecologic surgery such as hysterectomy and bilateral tubal ligation, which does not remove...

Internal factors affecting the skin

At the onset of menstruation the skin may erupt due to the adjustment of hormone levels at that time. During pregnancy, pigmentation changes may occur, but usually disappear after birth. During the menopause the activity of the sebaceous glands is reduced and the skin becomes drier.

Sertoli Leydig Cell Tumors Androblastomas

Leydig Cell Sertoli Cell

Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) are rare, accounting for 0.2 of all ovarian tumors. Unlike granulosa-stromal cell tumors, they occur principally in women in the reproductive years with 75 occurring before age 40 and occurring less commonly during menopause or childhood. Similar to theca cells, SLCTs are usually hormonally active and secrete testosterone, thus resulting in androgen excess and potential virilization.

1997 Naafa Cherry Hill Convention Monica

Diseases and syndromes that various medical studies indicate are less common among heavier people include . . . Comstock et al., Subcutaneous Fatness and Mortality, Am J Epidemiol 83, 548-63 (1966) Krieger et al., An Epi-demiologic Study of Hip Fracture in Postmenopausal Women, Am J Epidemiol 116, 141-48 (1982) Kauffmann and Brille, Bronchial Hypersecretion, Chronic Airflow Limitation, and Peptic Ulcer, Am Rev Resp Dis 124, 646-49 (1981) Hooy-man et al., Fractures from Rheumatoid Arthritis A Population-Based Study, Arth Rheumatism 27, 1353-61 (1984) Tverdal, Body Mass Index and Incidence of Tuberculosis, Eur J Resp Dis 69, 355-62 (1986). How many people are aware that heavier women have much lower rates of osteoporosis . . . Avioli, Significance of Osteoporosis A Growing International Health Care Problem, Calcif Tissue Int 49, S5-S7 (1991) Edelstein and Barrett-Connor, Relation Between Body Size and Bone Mineral Density in Elderly Men and Women, Am J Epidemiol 138, 160-69 (1993)...

Being Prepared The Side Ef fects o f Treatm ent

Before talking about specifics of each therapy, let's address some concerns that are common to all forms of cervical cancer treatment, namely their impact on you as a woman in terms of sexuality, childbearing, and menopause. Treatment may also bring about menopause if you have not already begun it. Surgery may include removing your ovaries if you are close to menopause or there is concern that the cancer may have spread to them. Radiation can also lead to menopause because your ovaries will be irradiated (although if you require radiation, your physician can, in certain situations, perform an oophoropexy in which the ovaries are moved out of the pelvis and into the abdomen. This places them outside of the area to be irradiated and allows the patient to maintain ovarian function and can allow for collection of eggs at a later date for in vitro fertilization). Menopause is different for each woman. Symptoms can include hot flashes, vaginal dryness, decreased libido (interest in sex),...

Acidum Nitricum For Heartburn

See also Polygala senega senile dementia & dementia 72, 266-67 Sepia officinalis (Sepia) 112, 306 hair loss 242-43 heavy periods 258-59 menopause 258-59 sulphuratum rubrum sulfuret of lime see Hepar sulphuris calcareum Sulphur (Sulfur) 99, 308 dandruff 242-43 heartburn 234-35 diaper rash 246-47 measles 252-53 menopause 258-59 mild eczema 240-41 skin problems in elderly people 268-69 vaginal thrush 260-61 Sulphur iod. sulfur iodide 308

Vidifferential Effects Of Glabridin And Glabrene On Era And Erb Expressions

Estrogen is known to offer protection from coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women, to be involved in Alzheimer's disease, and to inhibit oxidative stress-induced nerve cell death and apoptosis, which are implicated in a variety of pathologies including strokes and Parkinson's disease. The existence of estrogen receptors in these cells and tissues, and the possibility that some of these estrogen effects are ER-dependent, led to the investigation of whether phytoestrogens, known to bind the estrogen receptor and exhibiting some estrogen-like activities, can also regulate the expression of ERs. These data suggest that phytoestrogens not only mimic the estradiol function as physiological regulators of ERa and ERp expressions but also present tissue selectivity. They may also suggest that treatment using both estradiol and specific phytoestrogens may increase tissue sensitivity to estradiol, enabling fewer hormones to be used, thus leading to favorable effects of estradiol and a...

Sex Cord Stromal Tumors

Sex cord-stromal tumors may also secrete a combination of hormones. In estrogen-secreting tumors, breast enlargement and vaginal bleeding are the most common symptoms. Women of reproductive age may present with menstrual irregularities. The postmenopausal female typically presents with postmenopausal bleeding and breast tenderness. In androgen-secreting tumors, hirsutism, deepening of the voice, male-pattern baldness, breast shrinkage, clitoromegaly, and acne may occur. Treatment for sex cord-stromal tumors is controversial because these tumors are relatively rare. The general consensus for postmenopausal women includes total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with complete surgical staging. Staging should include pelvic washings, peritoneal biopsies, omen-tectomy, and pelvic and para-aortic lymph node sampling. In a woman who desires future fertility, it is acceptable to leave the remaining ovary and uterus as long as (1) the tumor is confined to one ovary,...

Changes in Calcium Metabolism during the Life Span

Menopause begins a period of bone loss that extends until the end of life. It is the major contributor to higher rates of osteoporotic fractures in older women. The decrease in serum estrogen concentrations at menopause is associated with accelerated bone loss, especially from the spine, for the next 5 years, during which approximately 15 of skeletal calcium is lost. The calcium loss by women in early menopause cannot be prevented unless estrogen therapy is provided. Calcium supplements alone are not very helpful in preventing postmeno-pausal bone loss. Upon estrogen treatment, bone resorption is reduced and the intestinal calcium absorption and renal reabsorption of calcium are both increased. Similarly, amenorrheic women have reduced intestinal calcium absorption, high urinary calcium excretion, and lower rates of bone formation (compared to eumenorrheic women). In both men and women, there is a substantial decline in intestinal absorption of calcium in later life.

Nutritional Value of Fish and Shellfish Introductory Remarks

Recent research found that eating just one serving a week of fish decreased the risk of developing dementia by 30 . Eating fatty fish several times a week may also lower the risk of developing prostate cancer by as much as half. A Swedish study of 3500 postmenopausal women eating two servings of fatty fish a week found that they were 40 less likely to develop endometrial cancer than those eating less than one-fourth of a serving a week.

Natural Cures For Menopause

Natural Cures For Menopause

Are Menopause Symptoms Playing Havoc With Your Health and Relationships? Are you tired of the mood swings, dryness, hair loss and wrinkles that come with the change of life? Do you want to do something about it but are wary of taking the estrogen or antidepressants usually prescribed for menopause symptoms?

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