Natural Menopause Relief Secrets

Natural Female Hormone Balance Program

Joan Atman with the help and inspiration from Dr Stephanie put down this book. Dr Stephanie is the mastermind behind this helpful guide. He is a nutritionist and a medical practitioner who has been very active in this case. Joan Atman is an international Life coach and Energy medicine specialist. The Natural Female Hormone Balance program is a 28 day Hormone reset Detox program for female. It is a very easy and gentle program that is designed by the author to support the female body detox and eventually regain the normal hormonal balance. All the tips and the dietary changes discussed in the program will kick start the body's natural ability to balance hormones. This eventually helps your body look and feel incredible. The full program contains 6 modules designed to lead you step by step through the Hormone reset Detox program. This program is available in PDF formats. The author has also included some video and audio tutorials. You can download the program and print or just download the PDF file, the Videos and the Audio. More here...

Natural Female Hormone Balance Program Summary


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Benefit 8 Protects Postmenopausal Women from Fat Gain and Loss of Lean Muscle

Lately, there has been a great deal of controversy over the safety of hormone replacement therapy. The major study designed by the Women's Health Initiative was stopped midway because some participants taking HRT developed higher incidences of breast cancer and heart disease. The main argument in favor of HRT has been that it has the ability to help postmenopausal women conserve lean muscle and avoid gaining body fat. The American College of Sports Medicine published an article in which researchers were seeking an alternative solution to taking HRT to maintain a healthy body composition. Four groups of women participated in a resistance exercise program At the end of one year, researchers discovered that the group of women who exercised and did not take HRT did better than the nonexer-cise HRT group and did as well or a little better than the group that exercised and took HRT. They concluded that resistance exercise was just as effective for menopausal women in keeping off body fat as...

For Postmenopausal Depression

An increase in the prevalence of depressive symptoms in women undergoing menopause can be related to fluctuating estrogen levels (56). Depression in women seems to increase with a change in hormone levels (57). The seroto-nergic system appears to play a major role in depression, although other neurotransmitters are also involved (2,58,59).

Is hormone replacement therapy HRT good for PD

Also, although studies are not conclusive, there is evidence that estrogen may protect against PD. Evidence for this is small but tantalizing. More men than women have PD 55 men for every 45 women. Estrogen may modulate dopamine receptors. Some premenopausal women report that their PD drugs are ineffective during ovulation (the middle of the menstrual cycle) and shortly before the start of their monthly menses, when estrogen levels are low. At menopause, women stop making estrogen, and for years have been prescribed an estrogen made from the urine of pregnant horses (Premarin) and progestin, a synthetic form of the hormone progesterone (Provera). The combination is called Prempro. The treatment was originally given to relieve such symptoms as hot flashes, but later to reduce bone thinning and heart disease. Estrogen alone relieved symptoms but produced a small increase in the risk for cancer of the uterus), so the synthetic progestin was added to lower this risk. But did...

Menopausal Symptoms

According to a review published by the Mayo clinic in the USA, behavioural changes in conjunction with vitamin E (800 lU day) is a reasonable initial approach for menopausal women with mild symptoms that do not interfere with sleep or daily function (Shanafelt et al 2002). The recommendation is based on a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial that found that vitamin E (800 lU day) was more effective than placebo in controlling hot flushes in breast cancer survivors.


Inhibition of serotonin reuptake and possible oestrogenic activity provide a theoretical basis for its use in pre- and postmenopausal women with mild to moderate depression (Ofir et al 2003, Takeuchi et al 1991). Constituents in licorice may bind to oestrogen receptors, enhance osteoblast function and attenuate vascular injury and atherosclerosis (Choi 2005, Somjen et al 2004a, b) suggesting a possible role in the prevention of bone disorders and cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women.

Menopause Problems

Many women in menopause realize that something is happening to their smile line. What is the smile line The gum line or outline of your teeth. If you notice that you are now getting a long-in-the-tooth appearance, it may be due to menopause. If your gums are loose and spongy, then this might be due to a hormonal problem. Your gums may bleed more readily and your tissue will start to recede. The most important thing is to moderate your diet. As the aging process starts and the hormones change, we must work with a healthier diet.

Assessment of proliferation

For practical reasons, it would appear that the MAI by itself is preferable for clinical practice. The MAI has been proven to be reproducible in a multicenter study involving routine laboratories.139 The prognostic value of the MAI holds for premenopausal lymph premenopausal

The Dissemination of Complex Homoeopathy

123 One can, in the case of a menopausal condition, give Sepia for the vasomotor syndrome, and at the same time Bryonia, or better even formic acid, against the accompanying arthropathy. We can call this a heterotropic drug mixture. . It compares favourably to the homotropic one because as a rule one can draw conclusions concerning the effect of each component. In practice, the mixture can be used without reservations, while the homotropic should be restricted because of the danger of obfuscation. Cf. Ritter (1962), p. 91.

QOL in Long Term Survivors of Breast Cancer

Eleven of the 16 studies discussed physical domain QOL outcomes for long-term survivors.2,4,32,41,43,46-51 Generally, survivors report lower physical domain QOL than healthy controls and poorer physical functioning.4,41,43,49 Arm pain, including swelling, loss of sensation, weakness, and stiffness, are common.4,32,48,50,51 Survivors also report fatigue,2,46 with one study finding that younger survivors report the lowest levels of vitality.51 Physical problems associated with treatment induced menopause are also common.2,32 One study shows that physical functioning was predicted by age at diagnosis,48 while another found that older age in general is related to worse physical domain QOL.47 Another study found that physical health was most affected among women who were both diagnosed with lymphoma and treated with chemotherapy.2 Menopausal Symptom Checklist (MSC) Social quality of life Twelve of the 16 studies discussed social domain QOL outcomes for long-term...

Genetic Counseling Process

During the cancer genetics consultation, the patient's medical history is reviewed. If the patient has had cancer, particular attention is paid to the age at diagnosis and any other prior or synchronous malignancies. Menopausal status is noted for women with breast cancer for those with ovarian cancer in particular, pathology is important. If the patient has colorectal cancer, any additional polyps are also recorded.

Female Reproductive System Disorders

Menopausal hot flushes According to one randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled study EPO supplementation significantly reduces the maximum number of night-time flushes, although other symptoms failed to respond. The study used a dose of four capsules daily (each containing 500 mg EPO and 10 mg vitamin E) over 6 months (Chenoy et al 1994). A position statement of the North American Menopause Society (2004) concluded that evidence was lacking to warrant the use of EPO in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause.

Other Inputs of Adipose Tissue on Female Reproductive Ability

Adipose tissue is a significant extragonadal source of estrogen. Conversion of androgen to estrogen takes place in the adipose tissue of the breast and abdomen, the omentum, and the fatty marrow of the long bones. This conversion accounts for approximately one-third of the circulating estrogen of premenopausal women and is the main source of estrogen in postmenopausal women. Men also convert androgen into estrogen in body fat.

Supplements Are They Necessary Are They Safe

To begin with, the RDAs take no account of individual circumstances. The fact is, nutritional needs vary enormously. Requirements for nutrients can vary according to genetic make-up, sex, age, levels of stress, activity levels, alcohol consumption, pollution, smoking, the use of prescription medications, pregnancy and menopause. The RDAs make no provision for the special requirements individuals may have for nutrients.

Challenges of Ovarian Cancer Screening

Second, except for patients with an increased risk of ovarian cancer based on family history, identification of the appropriate groups in the general population to target for screening is problematic. The prevalence of ovarian cancer in the general population is 40 per 100,000 postmenopausal women. Therefore, the detection of early-stage ovarian cancer requires tests with high sensitivity and specificity because of the low prevalence of ovarian cancer in the general population. In general, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 10 has been proposed as a clinical cut-point for screening tests for ovarian cancer. Clinically, a PPV of 10 means that there will be 10 operations for every one case of ovarian cancer detected. Screening tests must, therefore, achieve a sensitivity of at least 75 and a specificity of greater than 99.6 to achieve a PPV of 10 .

Progesterone receptor

Therapy raised questions, with the most striking data derived from a retrospective analysis of the results of the ATAC trial.60,110 This trial randomized postmenopausal women with early breast cancer to 5 years of treatment with the AI anastrozole or tamoxifen, or a combination of the two. Time to recurrence was longer for anastrozole-treated than tamoxi-fen-treated patients in both ER-positive PR-positive and ER-positive PR-negative subgroups, but the benefit was substantially greater in the PR-negative subgroup.111 Two neoadjuvant AI trials validated these observations.104,112 This suggests that the overall benefit of anastrozole may be due to reduced tamoxifen efficacy in patients with PR-negative tumors. These data also indicate that ER-positive PR-negative breast tumors are less responsive to SERM therapy than ER-positive PR-positive tumors. Clearly, the simple theory that PR serves as an indicator of a functionally intact ER pathway fails to explain why some patients with...

Fibrocystic Breast Disease

Most premenopausal women experience fibro-cystic breast disease characterized by tenderness, sometimes painful breasts, and small lumps that can be felt. It may be part of PMS and is associated with an excess of estrogen. If the lump is tender or painful, it is likely a cyst and not a tumor. Avoiding coffee and any foods or drugs containing caffeine can reduce symptoms signifi

Screening of asymptomatic cases for early detection

High index of suspicion must be maintained if endometrial carcinoma will be diagnosed at an early stage. Postmenopausal bleeding should be taken to mean endometrial carcinoma until proved otherwise.(10) 1. Transvaginal sonography (TVS) is used to assess the endometrial thickness. This has been used as screening method combined with outpatient suction endometrial sampling (e.g. using a pipette). The cutoff thickness (myometrium to myometrium) expected in postmenopausal women, was once thought to be up to 8 mm.(11) If the endometrium is thickened or insufficient material is obtained by biopsy for diagnosis, then a more invasive procedure is required. This ideally comprises hysteroscopy accompanied or followed by a diagnostic curettage. (11)However, as yet, there is no agreed-upon criterion for endometrial thickness that has both a high sensitivity and specificity a high rate of false-positive results is also a limiting factor.(12) Previous meta-analyses on endometrial thickness...

Estrogenic and Antiestrogenic Effects

The factors that dictate what response a phytoestrogen will produce are actually complex, but in general, phy-toestrogens possess weak estrogenic activity as compared to estrogen, and they compete with estrogen for estrogen receptors in a cell's nucleus. In addition, they can occur at much higher plasma concentrations than estrogen. Therefore, when estrogen levels are low (as in postmenopausal women), they have the potential to produce estrogenic effects. At least one human study using moderate isoflavone doses (140 milligrams per day, from soy concentrate) noted a slight but significant es-trogenic effect in postmenopausal women.38 Using the same reasoning, when estrogen levels are high (as in premenopausal women), we would expect genistein or other phytoestrogens to produce antiestro-genic effects. The effects of genistein on premenopausal women, however, are still uncertain. Mild estrogenic effects from genistein have been reported in some human studies, and two studies have noted...

Cancer Prevention

Breast cancer High lutein and zeaxanthin intake has been related to reduced risk of breast cancer (Dorgan et al 1998, Toniolo et al 2001). High lutein intake (> 7 mg day) was associated with a 53 reduction in the risk of developing breast cancer compared with low consumption (< 3.7 mg day) in a population-based case-control study of 608 premenopausal women over age 40 (Freudenheim et al 1996). Similar risk reductions were found in a nested case-control study of 540 New York women (Toniolo et al 2001) and another nested case-control study of 969 cases of breast cancer and matched controls from the Nurses' Health Study found that the risk of breast cancer was 25-35 less for women with the highest quintile compared with that for women with the lowest quintile of lutein zeaxanthin and total carotenoid intake (Tamimi et al 2005). Although this association is encouraging, another study of 4697 women followed over 25 years found no significant relationships between lutein intake and...

Healthy Diets Healthy Hearts

Frank Hu and colleagues compared the health and lifestyles of roughly 86,000 women in the Nurses' Health Study. Between 1980 and 1994, the incidence of heart disease dropped 31 percent. Diet explained roughly half (16 percent) of the decline, while a drop in smoking accounted for 13 percent, and the increased use of estrogen by postmenopausal women explained 9 percent.

Cardiovascular Effects

In a double blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial of red clover-derived isoflavones (43.5 mg day), with 205 women aged between 49 and 65 years, active treatment had no significant effect on total cholesterol or HDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels or triglycerides (Atkinson et al 2004b). A single-blind, randomised crossover study of 21 healthy premenopausal women (aged 18-45 years) found that tablets containing 86 mg day isoflavones for two menstrual cycles did not significantly change total cholesterol, HDL- or LDL-cholesterol or triglyceride levels (Samman et al 1999). Another study of postmenopausal women with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia also found red clover did not significantly affect plasma lipids (Howes et al 2000). A recent double-blind, randomised parallel study found that 86 mg day purified isoflavones derived from red clover also had no effect on cholesterol homeostasis or insulin resistance in 25 premenopausal women (Blakesmith et al 2003). However, there have...

Osteoporosis Prevention

Pharmaceutical HRT is sometimes used for preventing loss of bone following menopause however, a growing number of users are concerned about the increased risk of breast cancer associated with long-term HRT. As such, phyto-oestrogens have been used as an alternative to prevent osteoporosis. Most research has focused on soy isoflavones, although there is some evidence that red clover-derived isoflavones may also be of benefit. In a recent trial by Atkinson et al, loss of lumbar spine bone mineral content and bone mineral density was significantly reduced in women taking red clover-derived isoflavones (43.5 mg day) compared to placebo in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial in 205 women over 12 months (Atkinson et al 2004c). Bone formation markers were also significantly increased however, no improvement in hipbone mineral content or bone mineral density was noted. A double-blind study of 46 postmenopausal women investigated the effects of a red clover isoflavone...

Table 112 Symptoms of Anxiety

Often a number of factors occur simultaneously and contribute to a person's emotional crisis. One of my patients is a woman in her late forties who is raising two teenage children. Several years ago she was diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent a lumpectomy and radiation treatment. More recently, she had a local recurrence of her cancer and opted for a mastectomy followed by reconstructive surgery and then chemotherapy. When I first saw her, there was no single reason for her depression. She was stressed over the teenage rebellion going on in her home. Sleep was difficult because of uncontrolled hot flashes, a result of premature menopause that was induced by the chemotherapy, and

Adverse Reactions

The oestrogenic potency of the isoflavones has been well documented. Overgrazing cattle or sheep on red clover can be detrimental to their fertility. In 'clover disease', ewes are made permanently infertile by clover consumption. In animals with clover disease, the uterine response to oestrogen is reduced, as is the surge in LH. Clover disease has not been observed with normal therapeutic doses in humans. None of the trials has reported adverse effects. An isoflavone preparation from soya bean, and red clover extracts containing genistein, daidzein, biochanin A and formononetin, did not modify the endometrial architecture in 25 postmenopausal women taking the preparation for 1 year (Aguilar et al 2002).

Epidemiological Evidence for Reduced Risk of Chronic Diseases and Mortality

Since the articulation of the HHS recommendation for a minimum 30 minutes day of physical activity (HHS, 1996), evidence from epidemio-logical, observational and intervention studies continue to support the quoted statement above. Recently, the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study reported that 2.5 hours week of vigorous exercise was associated with significantly reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women (Manson et al., 2002). Moreover, they showed that more vigorous exercise was associated with an increased degree of protection. Conversely, physical inactivity, noted by prolonged sitting, was shown to be a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

Cardiovascular Disease

There are many potential mechanisms by which soy may improve cardiovascular outcomes, including reduction in total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, lipoprotein a, blood pressure, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, endothelial function, systemic artery compliance, and oxidised LDL (Balk et al 2005). A review by the North American Menopause Society suggests that the most convincing health effects of soy can be attributed to the actions of isoflavones on lipids, with studies finding statistically significant reductions in LDL and triglycerides, as well as increases in HDL (Greenwood et al 2000). It is unclear how soy exerts its beneficial effects on lipid metabolism or Soy 1107 Although it has been suggested that there is no evidence of beneficial effects of phyto-oestrogens on blood pressure, arterial compliance or oxidation of LDL-cholesterol, there may be beneficial effects on endothelial function and homocysteine concentrations in postmenopausal women (Cassidy & Hooper 2006)....

Cognitive Function

Although not all studies have consistently shown benefits of soy on cognitive function, there have been a number of double-blind RCTs showing that soy improves memory and frontal lobe function in young volunteers (File et al 2001) and postmenopausal women (Duffy et al 2003, File et al 2005). In one 6-week double-blind trial in 50 postmenopausal women, 60 mg day total isoflavone equivalents significantly improved non-verbal short-term memory and performance on tests of frontal lobe function with no effects on long-term memory, category generation, or sustained attention (File et al 2005). Similarly, another double-blind controlled trial of 33 postmenopausal women found that 12 weeks' supplementation with the same supplement significantly improved recall of pictures, sustained attention, learning rule reversals and planning at 12 weeks without affecting menopausal symptoms, self-rating of mood, bodily symptoms or sleepiness (Duffy et al 2003). A further double-blind, randomised,...

Female reproductive changes with ageing

Declining oestrogen and progesterone levels cause numerous physical changes in women with age. Ovulation usually stops 1-2 years before the menopause. As the ovaries reach the end of their productive cycle, they become unresponsive to gonadotrophic stimulation. With ageing, the ovaries atrophy and become thicker and smaller. After the menopause the uterus shrinks rapidly to half its pre-menstrual weight. The cervix atrophies and no longer produces mucus for lubrication and the endometrium and myometrium become thinner.

Mineral And Phytate Concentrations And Ratios

Fractional Calcium Absorption from Calcium Carbonate as Influenced by Calcium Load and Phytate Calcium Molar Ratios in Healthy Premenopausal Women.3 TABLE 13.1. Fractional Calcium Absorption from Calcium Carbonate as Influenced by Calcium Load and Phytate Calcium Molar Ratios in Healthy Premenopausal Women.3

Disorders of Galactose Metabolism Clinical Manifestations

Ovarian atrophy appears to be an important manifestation of galactose toxicity, with clinical and biochemical evidence of ovarian dysfunction present in nearly all affected females. The basis of the toxicity has not been defined. The consequences of the gonadal dysfunction range from failure of pubertal development, through primary amenorrhea to secondary amenorrhea or premature menopause (75-76 of affected females). Although gonadal function has been described as early as infancy based on elevations of follicle stimulating hormones

Robert J Ferguson Raine Riggs Tim Ahles and Andrew J Saykin

Neuropsychological performances to published norms and not matched control participants. Also, many studies evaluated chemotherapy recipients immediately following completion of chemotherapy regimes when acute effects of treatment, such as stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms could adversely influence neuropsychological test performance. Nonetheless, these early results paved the way for more rigorous research that utilized control comparison designs and isolated the effects of anxiety, depression, fatigue, and menopausal status on cognitive performance. Sherwin39 assessed a group of premenopausal women before they underwent a surgical menopause and again 4 months post surgery. Half of the women received estrogen replacement therapy after the surgery, while the other half received a placebo. The women who received estrogen replacement therapy maintained their preoper-ative scores on all of the neuropsychological tests, while the placebo group demonstrated a significant decline in...

Established Recommended Intakes for Older Persons

The change in recommendations occurs at either age 50 or 70 years. In women over 50 years, the RDA for dietary iron decreases from 18 mg to 8 mgday-1 there is no change in requirement for the 70 year plus age group. This lower value is the recommendation for adult men of all ages. The fact that the menopause allows women to replete iron stores depleted by an adulthood of monthly menstrual blood loss accounts for this lower RDA in older women.

Clare Stevinson Kristin L Campbell Christopher M Sellar and Kerry S Courneya

Cumulative lifetime exposure to sex steroids, particularly estrogens has been linked to breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer, while androgen exposure has been linked to prostate cancer. Physical activity has been shown to lower estrogen levels in premenopausal women through a continuum of alterations in menstrual cycle function.34 Furthermore, for postmenopausal women, exercise leads to reductions in body fat, and increases in sex hormone binding globulin concentration, resulting in less bio-available estrogens and androgens in both men and women.25 The effects of a 12-month aerobic exercise intervention were examined in 173 sedentary, overweight, postmenopausal women without cancer.35 The exercise group had a significant decrease in estrone, estradiol, and free estradiol compared to no change or increase in the control group at 3 months. These differences were maintained at 12 months, but were no longer statistically significant. A similar nonsignificant decrease in androgens was...

Indications Italian Cypress

Convulsion (f VOD) Cough (f BOU PH2 VOD) Diabetes (f BIB) Diarrhea (f1 BOU HHB VOD) Dyspepsia (f BIB) Enterosis (f HJP VOD) Enuresis (f BOU) Fever (f BIB) Flu (f BIB) Gastrosis (f JLH) Hemorrhoid (f1 BOU HHB KAB VOD) Hepatosis (f JLH) Hiccup (f HJP) Infection (f EFS) Inflammation (f HJP) Mastosis (f JLH) Menopause (f VOD) Menorrhagia (f VOD) Myofibroma (f BIB) Neurosis (f VOD) Orchosis (f JLH) Pertussis (f EFS WOI) Polyp (f BIB) Prolapse (f BIB) Pulmonosis (f VOD) Rheumatism (f VOD) Rhinosis (f JLH) Sclerosis (f BIB) Splenosis (f JLH) Swelling (f BIB HJP) Ulcer (f HJP) Uterosis (f VOD) Varicosity (1 HHB) Wart (f BIB) Worm (f HHB VOD) Wound (f HJP).

The Tryptophan Load Test

Tryptophan Degradation Test Estrogens and Apparent Vitamin B6 Nutritional Status Rose (1966a, 1966b) was the first to report apparent vitamin B6 deficiency in women taking combined progestagen-estrogen oral contraceptives. There was increased urinary excretion of xanthurenic acid after a tryptophan load, which was normalized by the administration of relatively high doses of vitamin B6. A great many later reports have confirmed abnormal tryptophan metabolism among women taking the now obsolete high-dose oral contraceptives, and estrogens as menopausal hormone replacement therapy. Although they have been widely interpreted as evidence of estrogen-induced vitamin B6 deficiency or depletion, when other indices of vitamin B6 nutritional status have been measured, they have been unaffected by contraceptive use. This suggests an effect on tryptophan metabolism per se, rather than on vitamin B6 nutritional status.

The Classic Female Fat Pattern

While I would agree with the self-help authors who tell female readers that the key to self-esteem is to love your body, I believe that a woman should find a balance between accepting her body just as it is and paying serious attention to the significant health risks of being overfat. There is nothing life-affirming about having type 2 diabetes, painful and over-stressed joints, and an increased risk of heart disease after menopause. As we have seen, being overfat also increases the risk of certain types of cancers. For example, a recent report published by the National Cancer Institute showed that women with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or greater were twice as likely to develop cervical cancer. Women with the lowest waist-to-hip ratio, indicating a significant accumulation of abdominal fat, Most women believe that it is inevitable that their body fat-to-lean muscle ratio will rise as they age and experience the hormonal changes associated with menopause. In fact, the tables you see...

Malandrinum Homeopathy For Acne Treatment

See also Melilotus officinalis Melilotus arvensis see Melilotus officinalis Melilotus officinalis (Melilotus) 154-55, 299 meninges 178 menopause 48, 258-59 menorrhagia see heavy periods men's health 75, 99 self-help ailments 264-65 serious ailments 200, 202-3 see also individual ailments by name, e.g., balanitis menstrual cramps 90 menstrual problems 256-59

Musculoskeletal System

Bone mineral content declines with age this aging process is known as 'osteopenia.' (It should be distinguished from the related pathological process in which bone architecture is altered, producing 'osteoporosis.') From the peak in the third and fourth decades, a 30 average decline in bone mineral density occurs through the ninth decade. In women, there is well-characterized acceleration of the rate of bone mineral loss immediately following the menopause. Decreasing levels of anabolic hormones may be associated with musculoskeletal atrophy and decrease in function that is observed in older women. This change in skeletal mineralization with aging is not associated with any apparent change in vitamin D nutriture as reflected in circulating levels of the vitamin.

Detection and Characterization of Ovarian Tumors Role of Ultrasound

Ovarian Cancer Ultrasound

The features suggestive of ovarian malignancy on ultrasound include septations greater than 3 mm, mural nodularity, and papillary projections. Unilocular or multi-locular ovarian cystic lesions without solid parts are more likely to be benign.21,22 In other words, the most significant feature predictive of ovarian malignancy is the presence of solid components within the mass.23 When solid excrescences or solid portions of the tumor demonstrate vascular flow with color Doppler sonography (conventional or power), the likelihood of malignancy is even greater.23,24 Some benign lesions, such as endometriomas and hemorrhagic cysts, may mimic ovarian neoplasms on ultrasound (Fig. 5-1). Therefore, for premenopausal women, it may be prudent to obtain short-term follow-up on ovarian lesions to exclude transient physiologic changes.22 demonstrates low-resistance waveforms because tumor neovasculature lacks smooth muscle and arteriovenous shunting often occurs.25 Lower RI, lower PI, and higher...

Point by point how do you answer charges that

With regard to the other problems associated with vitamin A useage, the scientific literature shows that vitamin a is safe in adult men and post-menopausal women at a dose of 30,000 IU per day. This is about several times the dose of vitamin A found in multivitamin supplements.

Fat Distribution and Disease Risk

Since fat distribution is correlated with age as well other risk factors for disease, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and menopause in women, it is important to control for the effects of these variables in order to obtain an estimate of the independent effect of central obesity on morbidity. The impact of some of these correlates of fat distribution may be subtle and unlikely to seriously distort relationships between fat patterning and disease. However, age, the ultimate risk factor for disease and death, is sufficiently highly correlated with fat distribution to result in substantial distortion. Similarly, cigarette smoking is related adequately strongly to fat patterning and to various diseases and outcomes to make analyses that do not adjust for smoking difficult to interpret.

Available Self Help Materials and Target Audience

A search of the Web site using the keywords self-help and sleep produced over 40 hits. Included in the top-selling books were No More Sleepless Nights (Hauri, 1996), Can't Sleep, Can't Stay Awake A Woman's Guide to Sleep Disorders (Kryger, 1999), Say Good Night to Insomnia (Jacobs, 1999), and Seven Days to a Perfect Sleep (Gordon, 2003). The majority of available materials come in book form. Audio media (tapes or compact disks) comprise the remaining commercially available titles. The latter products typically consist of audio recordings of relaxation or self-hypnotic exercises. It should be noted that these titles are ones devoted exclusively to the topic of sleep. Many self-help books on other health problems (e.g., chronic pain, depression, menopause) include abbreviated advice for enhancing sleep or combating insomnia.

Prophylactic Surgery in the High Risk Population


Hysterectomy has been advocated as part of prophylactic surgery for several proposed benefits. Since the risk of endometrial carcinoma is no longer present, hormone replacement therapy with unopposed estrogen can be given to control menopausal symptoms. Normally, women with BRCA1 mutations may carry an increased risk of endometrial and fallopian tube cancer. Hysterectomy would address this risk. Finally, BRCA mutation carriers undergoing hysterectomy are not at an increased risk for endometrial cancer if they opt to use the selective estrogen-receptor modulator tamoxifen for chemoprophylaxis of breast cancer. In view of the lack of screening methods for ovarian cancer and the lack of efficacy of current surveillance methods, it is recommended that BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers undergo prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy after age 35 or once childbearing is completed. Gynecologic surgery such as hysterectomy and bilateral tubal ligation, which does not remove...

Internal factors affecting the skin

At the onset of menstruation the skin may erupt due to the adjustment of hormone levels at that time. During pregnancy, pigmentation changes may occur, but usually disappear after birth. During the menopause the activity of the sebaceous glands is reduced and the skin becomes drier.

Sertoli Leydig Cell Tumors Androblastomas

Sertoli Leydig Ovarian Tumor Ultrasound

Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) are rare, accounting for 0.2 of all ovarian tumors. Unlike granulosa-stromal cell tumors, they occur principally in women in the reproductive years with 75 occurring before age 40 and occurring less commonly during menopause or childhood. Similar to theca cells, SLCTs are usually hormonally active and secrete testosterone, thus resulting in androgen excess and potential virilization.

1997 Naafa Cherry Hill Convention Monica

Diseases and syndromes that various medical studies indicate are less common among heavier people include . . . Comstock et al., Subcutaneous Fatness and Mortality, Am J Epidemiol 83, 548-63 (1966) Krieger et al., An Epi-demiologic Study of Hip Fracture in Postmenopausal Women, Am J Epidemiol 116, 141-48 (1982) Kauffmann and Brille, Bronchial Hypersecretion, Chronic Airflow Limitation, and Peptic Ulcer, Am Rev Resp Dis 124, 646-49 (1981) Hooy-man et al., Fractures from Rheumatoid Arthritis A Population-Based Study, Arth Rheumatism 27, 1353-61 (1984) Tverdal, Body Mass Index and Incidence of Tuberculosis, Eur J Resp Dis 69, 355-62 (1986). How many people are aware that heavier women have much lower rates of osteoporosis . . . Avioli, Significance of Osteoporosis A Growing International Health Care Problem, Calcif Tissue Int 49, S5-S7 (1991) Edelstein and Barrett-Connor, Relation Between Body Size and Bone Mineral Density in Elderly Men and Women, Am J Epidemiol 138, 160-69 (1993)...

Being Prepared The Side Ef fects o f Treatm ent

Before talking about specifics of each therapy, let's address some concerns that are common to all forms of cervical cancer treatment, namely their impact on you as a woman in terms of sexuality, childbearing, and menopause. Treatment may also bring about menopause if you have not already begun it. Surgery may include removing your ovaries if you are close to menopause or there is concern that the cancer may have spread to them. Radiation can also lead to menopause because your ovaries will be irradiated (although if you require radiation, your physician can, in certain situations, perform an oophoropexy in which the ovaries are moved out of the pelvis and into the abdomen. This places them outside of the area to be irradiated and allows the patient to maintain ovarian function and can allow for collection of eggs at a later date for in vitro fertilization). Menopause is different for each woman. Symptoms can include hot flashes, vaginal dryness, decreased libido (interest in sex),...

Acidum Nitricum For Heartburn

See also Polygala senega senile dementia & dementia 72, 266-67 Sepia officinalis (Sepia) 112, 306 hair loss 242-43 heavy periods 258-59 menopause 258-59 sulphuratum rubrum sulfuret of lime see Hepar sulphuris calcareum Sulphur (Sulfur) 99, 308 dandruff 242-43 heartburn 234-35 diaper rash 246-47 measles 252-53 menopause 258-59 mild eczema 240-41 skin problems in elderly people 268-69 vaginal thrush 260-61 Sulphur iod. sulfur iodide 308

Vidifferential Effects Of Glabridin And Glabrene On Era And Erb Expressions

Estrogen is known to offer protection from coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women, to be involved in Alzheimer's disease, and to inhibit oxidative stress-induced nerve cell death and apoptosis, which are implicated in a variety of pathologies including strokes and Parkinson's disease. The existence of estrogen receptors in these cells and tissues, and the possibility that some of these estrogen effects are ER-dependent, led to the investigation of whether phytoestrogens, known to bind the estrogen receptor and exhibiting some estrogen-like activities, can also regulate the expression of ERs. These data suggest that phytoestrogens not only mimic the estradiol function as physiological regulators of ERa and ERp expressions but also present tissue selectivity. They may also suggest that treatment using both estradiol and specific phytoestrogens may increase tissue sensitivity to estradiol, enabling fewer hormones to be used, thus leading to favorable effects of estradiol and a...

Sex Cord Stromal Tumors

Sex cord-stromal tumors may also secrete a combination of hormones. In estrogen-secreting tumors, breast enlargement and vaginal bleeding are the most common symptoms. Women of reproductive age may present with menstrual irregularities. The postmenopausal female typically presents with postmenopausal bleeding and breast tenderness. In androgen-secreting tumors, hirsutism, deepening of the voice, male-pattern baldness, breast shrinkage, clitoromegaly, and acne may occur. Treatment for sex cord-stromal tumors is controversial because these tumors are relatively rare. The general consensus for postmenopausal women includes total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with complete surgical staging. Staging should include pelvic washings, peritoneal biopsies, omen-tectomy, and pelvic and para-aortic lymph node sampling. In a woman who desires future fertility, it is acceptable to leave the remaining ovary and uterus as long as (1) the tumor is confined to one ovary,...

Changes in Calcium Metabolism during the Life Span

Menopause begins a period of bone loss that extends until the end of life. It is the major contributor to higher rates of osteoporotic fractures in older women. The decrease in serum estrogen concentrations at menopause is associated with accelerated bone loss, especially from the spine, for the next 5 years, during which approximately 15 of skeletal calcium is lost. The calcium loss by women in early menopause cannot be prevented unless estrogen therapy is provided. Calcium supplements alone are not very helpful in preventing postmeno-pausal bone loss. Upon estrogen treatment, bone resorption is reduced and the intestinal calcium absorption and renal reabsorption of calcium are both increased. Similarly, amenorrheic women have reduced intestinal calcium absorption, high urinary calcium excretion, and lower rates of bone formation (compared to eumenorrheic women). In both men and women, there is a substantial decline in intestinal absorption of calcium in later life.

Nutritional Value of Fish and Shellfish Introductory Remarks

Recent research found that eating just one serving a week of fish decreased the risk of developing dementia by 30 . Eating fatty fish several times a week may also lower the risk of developing prostate cancer by as much as half. A Swedish study of 3500 postmenopausal women eating two servings of fatty fish a week found that they were 40 less likely to develop endometrial cancer than those eating less than one-fourth of a serving a week.

Coronary Artery Disease CAD

Menopause phase in a woman's life during which ovulation and menstruation ends and one in five in the United States, dies from heart disease each year. In the United States, CAD has declined more rapidly in whites than in blacks. CAD affects women ten years later than men, mostly due to the protective production of estrogen. After menopause, a woman is two times more susceptible to heart disease than women who have not reached menopause.

Human Clinical Trials

Current information regarding the effect of soy on body composition and body fat distribution is very limited. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 3-month trial and a cross-sectional study of postmenopausal women, a diet high in soy decreased body mass index and waist circumference (Sites etal., 2007). By contrast, one randomized, placebo-controlled trial of soy on body composition performed in perimenopausal or postmenopausal women reported that soy did not affect body mass index (Kim et al, 2005). Inclusion of isoflavones in the diet of postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome has been shown to improve glycemic control, insulin resistance, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (Azadbakht et al., 2007 Jayagopal et al., 2002). In 15 postmenopausal women 42 postmenopausal women with the metabolic syndrome 32 postmenopausal women 208 postmenopausal women cross-sectional (Goodman-Gruen and Kritz-Sliverstein, 2001) and cross-over trials (Duncan et al, 1999)...

Potential Importance of Phytoestrogens to Human Health Molecular Mechanisms of Action

Increased resistance to LDL oxidation has also been reported in a 12-week single open-group dietary intervention with soy foods (60 mg total isofla-vones day) in normal postmenopausal women. A randomized crossover study in hyperlipidemic male and female subjects consuming soya-based breakfast cereals (168 mg total isoflavones day) and control breakfast cereals, each for 3 weeks, reported decreased oxidized LDL (total conjugated diene content) following consumption of the soy-based breakfast cereal compared to the control. Effects of soya isoflavones on arterial function, including flow-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation (reflecting endothelial function) and systemic arterial compliance (reflecting arterial elasticity), may contribute to vascular protection and these have been measured in a number of studies. A randomized double-blind study administering either soy protein isolate (118 mg total isoflavones day) or cesin placebo for 3 months to healthy male and postmenopausal...

Units for testosterone measurement

Median value for premenopausal females Table 3. Typical serum testosterone values in different units. Morote's value represents level of serum testosterone, determined with direct chemiluminescent immuno assay in prostate cancer patients on hormonal treatment, above which shorter time to progression was observed compared to patients with testosterone values below this level 9 . For curiosity, median value for premenopausal females can also be used as guideline for supplementation in hypoactive sexual desire disorder 30 . Table 3. Typical serum testosterone values in different units. Morote's value represents level of serum testosterone, determined with direct chemiluminescent immuno assay in prostate cancer patients on hormonal treatment, above which shorter time to progression was observed compared to patients with testosterone values below this level 9 . For curiosity, median value for premenopausal females can also be used as guideline for supplementation in hypoactive sexual...

Bipolar Disorder across the Reproductive Life Cycle

Pregnancy, the postpartum period, and menopause are each stages of the reproductive life cycle that may impact bipolar illness. Some have suggested that pregnancy may be a time in which women with BD experience a relief from their mood symptoms. However, this opinion has not been conclusively supported by the available evidence. Most notably, Blehar et al. 7 closely examined the timing of pregnancy and emotional problems in 51 women with BD type I, and found that 19 51 (37 ) reported mood episodes during their pregnancy, and 7 51 (14 ) reported mood episodes during both pregnancy and the postpartum period. During their pregnancy, 7 51 (14 ) of the women reported a manic episode, and 3 51 (6 ) were hospitalized. Although preliminary, these results suggest that pregnancy may not be protective in terms of mood episodes in women with BD. Menopause. The effect of menopause on the course of BD has not received much research attention, and what has been reported has been...

Populus Candicans Medicine In South Africa Pharmacy

See AfricaBib Ltd, 11 Bills. See Legislation BIOETHICSLINE, 131 Biomedical information, 127 Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), 32, 66. See also Menopause Blood Root (Sanguinaria canadensis), 30 America, 7, 137 MEDLINE, 128. See also Dr. Felix's Free MEDLINE Pages PubMed MEDLINEplus, 124 MedWatch, 107. See also Adverse reactions Food and Drug Administration Menopause, 66, 149. See also Black Cohosh, Women's Health Menopause Online, 149 Men's health Medicine. See AfricaBib, 126 Women's health. See also Black Cohosh breast cancer, 151 CAM center, 62 menopause, 149 National Women's Health

Medication generictrade Alprazolam Xanax

Her sleep problems were due to working swing shifts and also wondered if maybe she was experiencing early menopause. Her primary provider diagnosed her correctly with FM. They spent the next year working on cognitive behavioral strategies, exercise programs, physical therapy, and sleep hygiene. She gave up working swing shifts, even though that meant a slight reduction in pay. Her sleep and pain improved about 30 percent, but she was still unable to fall asleep or sleep for more than two hours despite trying the three FDA medications approved for FM and a plethora of over-the-counter sleep aids, including Benadryl and melatonin. She could not tolerate Zolpidem due to nightmares and sleepwalking. Her mother, who also has FM, told Vicki that she had been taking a low-dose of Clonazepam for nearly thirty years without dose escalation or tolerance. Vicki reported this to her provider who agreed to have her try Clonazepam. One year later Vicki's sleep is 75 percent improved and she remains...

Endocrine Therapies For Breast Cancer

However, tamoxifen is only partially effective because of intrinsic or acquired tumor resistance. Approximately 40 of patients with ER-positive breast cancer will not respond to tamoxifen (de novo resistance). Moreover, long-term follow-up and clinical trials have demonstrated that up to 62 of cancers initially responsive to endocrine therapy subsequently escaped control with the patient requiring salvage surgery.6,7 To circumvent such tamoxifen resistance, drugs such as aro-matase inhibitors (AIs) have been developed. AIs reduce peripheral estrogen synthesis, and include the irreversible steroidal AI exemes-tane (Aromasin) and the reversible nonsteroidal inhibitors anastrozole (Arimidex) and letrozole (Femara). Recently, third-generation AIs have proved to be more effective than tamoxifen for treating both advanced and early hormone-sensitive breast cancers in postmenopausal women, as either first- or second-line therapy.8,9 The greater efficacy of AIs compared with tamoxifen in...

Indications Milk Thistle

HHB) Fibrosis (1 CGH) Food Allergies (1 WAM) Gallstones (1 HHB MAB SKY HC020444-262 NP9(2) 6) Gastrosis (f APA) Hematuria (f HC020444-262 NP9(2) 6) Hemoptysis (f BIB) Hemorrhage (f KAB MCK) Hemorrhoid (f BIB HHB MAB WOI) Hepatosis (f12 KOM PH2 SHT WAM) Hepatosis A (1 BGB) High Blood Pressure (1 MCK HC020444-262) High Cholesterol (1 MAB) High Triglycerides (1 CGH X15177299) Hydrophobia (f BIB GMH) Hypereme-sis (f1 NP9(2) 6) Hypotonia (f HH3) Infection (f HHB) Inflammation (f1 APA HC020444-262 X15617879) Intoxication (1 FAD) Insulin Resistance (1 SYN) Itch (1 MAB) Jaundice (f2 BIB HH3 MAB PH2 PNC WAM) Leukemia (f1 HC020444-262 NP9(2) 6) Leukorrhea (f BIB) Malaria (f1 BIB HHB PHR PH2 HC020444-262) Menopause (f HHB) Metastasis (1 X15224346) Metrorrhagia (f HHB) Migraine (f HH3) MS (f ACT9 251) MS (1 HC020444-262) Mushroom Poisoning (2 FAD SHT) Myalgia (1 HC020444-262) Nausea (f1 MAB Cyto-protective (1 NP9(2) 6) Nephrosis (f12 BGB NP9(2) 6) Neurosis (f ACT9 251) Obesity (1 PNC) Oligolactea...

Select the points according to a given medical diagnosis and consider them as having a pseudopharmacological activity

In the patient in Figure 10.5 the main symptom prompting consultation with the acupuncturist was tiresome hot flushes in menopause. Secondary symptoms were neck stiffness, constipation and hemorrhoids. Seven tender points were identified with PPT (Fig. 10.5A). The selection of points in the first session was directed particularly on the areas commonly related to a climacteric syndrome the antitragus and the fossa ovalis. Two points were selected on the antitragus one within the genital or gonadotropinic area of Nogier, corresponding to the Chinese forehead area (AT1 e), the second on the lower part of the antitragus within the area of dysthymia and depression, corresponding to the French hypothalamus and Chinese temple (AT2 nie). One tender point was selected on the fossa triangularis, within the area

Gender Differences In The Consequences Of Substance Abuse

Women's reproductive function increases alcohol- and drug-related health risks to themselves and to their unborn children. Alcohol and drug abuse are associated with numerous disorders of the female reproductive system, including breast cancer, amenorrhea, failure to ovulate, atrophy of the ovaries, miscarriage, and early menopause. Men also experience reproductive and sexual difficulties as a result of alcohol and drug abuse, including impotence, low testosterone levels, testicular atrophy, breast enlargement, and diminished sexual interest.

Familial Lipoprotein a Excess

Lp(a) concentrations are highly variable among individuals however, they tend to remain constant during a person's lifetime. Between 80 and 90 of the variability appears to be of genetic origin, owing, for the most part, to variations at the structural apo(a) gene locus. Lp(a) concentrations are inversely associated with a size polymorphism of apo(a). This polymorphism is due to differences in the number of a multiple repeat of a protein domain highly homologous to the kringle 4 domain of plas-minogen. Diets and medications used to lower LDL cholesterol levels do not appear to have a significant effect on Lp(a) concentrations however, niacin has been reported to decrease Lp(a) levels. There have been reports suggesting that diets high in trans fatty acids have some raising effects on Lp(a) levels, whereas estrogen replacement lowers Lp(a) in post-menopausal women.

Edible Plants and Phytochemicals

In vitro studies show conflicting effects. On the one hand, soy isoflavones induce apoptosis of many types of cancer cells on the other hand, estrogen receptor-bearing human breast cancer cells proliferate in tissue culture when exposed to isoflavones. Although the widespread use of soy in Asia is cited in support of the safety of soy foods, the intake of isoflavones among Asian women consuming soy regularly is in the range of 15-40 mgday-1, significantly less than the isofla-vone content of a serving of soymilk as consumed in the US. In clinical trials, soy isoflavones have not been effective in relieving hot flashes of menopausal women but do diminish the increased bone resorption that causes postmenopausal bone loss. In pre-menopausal women, soy isoflavones may cause menstrual irregularities. The successful development of soy derivatives as functional foods will require that these complex and diverse effects of different soy components in different clinical settings be...

PMS and Dietary Factors

The abnormally high prolactin secretion of PMS via the ability of certain of its phytochemicals to mimic the action of dopamine by binding to dopamine receptors in the pituitary. Other herbs traditionally used in phytotherapy for PMS contain phyto-oestrogens. These molecules may have oestrogen-like action, either due to the steroidal nature of their active constituents (false unicorn root, Chamaelirium luteum A. Gray) or to the spatial similarity of active groups in their constituents, which allow them to bind to oestrogen receptors. Among the latter group are isoflavonoids and lignans, which appear to have 'adaptogenic' properties They are weakly oestrogenic at low circulating oestrogen concentrations and antioestrogenic at high oestrogen concentrations. Isoflavonoids are present in soya bean and its products and in medicinal herbs such as black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa Nutt.) these show a beneficial effect in reducing symptoms of PMS and the menopause. Lignans are present in high...

Granulosa Stromal Cell Tumors

Water The Silk Granulosa Cell Tumor

Controversy exists as to whether granulosa cells originate from developing gonadal sex cords or from the mesenchyme of the genital ridge. Since granulosa cells proliferate in response to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), some have hypothesized that the elevated follicle-stimulating hormone levels observed during menopause may initiate proliferation of granulosa cells and abnormal growth. This would explain the higher incidence of GCTs in postmenopausal women, but does not account for younger women and prepubertal females who develop these tumors. Recent developments have suggested that a potential progenitor granulosa stem cell exists,43 but the subject warrants more research. Presentation. With the exception of fibromas, GCTs tend to produce hormones and consequently are diagnosed at an early stage secondary to estrogenic effects. Women with these tumors most commonly present with menstrual cycle disruptions or postmenopausal bleeding, and over 90 of...

Virginia Uhley and KL Catherine

The prevalence of obesity has become an epidemic. It is estimated that in the United States, 64.5 of the general population is either overweight, defined by body mass index BMI, body weight (kg) height (m)2 between 25.0 and 29.9 kg m2, or obese (BMI > 30.0 kg m2).1 The major medical complications associated with obesity include metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and certain types of cancer,2 to name a few. Cancers strongly associated with obesity include kidney, esophagus, colon, gallbladder, pancreas, endometrial, ovary, and postmenopausal breast cancer.3,4 hormone-binding globulin production is elevated levels of free estrogen in blood circulation. As a result, the risk for breast cancer is increased. Patients with metabolic syndrome or elevated levels of insulin and IGF-1 also have an increased risk for colon cancer.12,13 Other metabolic abnormalities observed in obesity as part of the metabolic syndrome include high levels of total...

Hypericum p e r f o r

The sun is said to control the solar (sun) plexus in the body. In yogic systems this is a center of protective energy that is ruled by the yellow part of the spectrum. This affinity of St John's wort with the solar plexus extends to the plant's use in treating the digestive and nervous systems. It is also taken for life-cycle conditions, such as bedwetting in the young, menstrual problems, and menopause. The solar plexus governs gut instinct and life's unseen influences - again leading us to protection.

Interrelationships with other systems

The melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) secreted by the central lobe of the pituitary stimulates the production of melanin in the basal cell layer of the skin. The sex hormones (gonadotrophice hormones) influence skin and hair growth during puberty, pregnancy and the menopause.

Aids Cure In Natural

In food and beverages, as functional food, 1 242i in menopause, 2 49 HGH (human growth hormone), defined, 2 144 Hong Kong, organic foods in, 2 115 Hookworm, defined, 1 40 Hoppin' John, 1 11, 12 Hormiga, 2 202, 202 Hormone replacement therapy. See Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) Hormones and cravings, 1 137 defined, 1 31 production, 2 158 regulatory functions, 1 37 Howard Johnson's restaurants, 2 15, 15, 16 HRT (hormone replacement therapy). See Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) Human Genome Project, 2 75 Human growth hormone (HGH), infant nutrition, 1 242t, 2 9, 10 and lead poisoning, 2 24, 26 and menopause, 2 50 and pregnancy, 1 40, 2 145 preschoolers and toddlers, 2 152, 153

Neuroendocrine Effects of Alcohol

The development of female secondary sexual characteristics in men (e.g., gynaecomastia and tes-ticular atrophy) generally only occurs after the development of cirrhosis. In women, the hormonal changes may reduce libido, disrupt menstruation, or even induce premature menopause. Sexual dysfunction is also common in men with reduced libido and impotence. Fertility may also be reduced, with decreased sperm counts and motility.

The Paradox of Rapid Population Growth in Undernourished Populations

British data from the mid-nineteenth century on growth rates, food intake, age-specific fertility, sterility, and ages of menarche and menopause show that females who grew relatively slowly to maturity, completing height growth at ages 20 or 21 years (instead of 16-18 years, as in well-nourished contemporary populations), also differed from well-nourished females in each event of the reproductive span Menarche was later, for example, 15.0-16.0 years compared with 12.8 years adolescent sterility was longer, and the age of peak nubility was later the levels of specific fertility were lower pregnancy wastage was higher the duration of lactational ame-norrhea was longer the birth interval was longer and the age of menopause was earlier, preceded by a more rapid period of perimenopausal decline (Figure 6). Thus, the slower, submaximal growth of women to maturity is subsequently associated with a shortened and less efficient reproductive span. The differences in the rate of physical growth...

Population Groups at Risk of Vitamin K Deficiency

As noted previously, some older people, especially postmenopausal women, seem to be at increased risk of developing marginal vitamin K deficiency, which manifests itself, for instance, by an increased percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) in the circulation. The sequelae of such marginal deficiency, and in particular its implications for bone health, are currently the subject of considerable research effort (Table 2). Several epidemiological cross-sectional studies have noted an association between higher vitamin K intakes and higher bone mineral density or lower fracture risk. One study reported that a subgroup of postmenopausal women who were 'fast losers' of calcium responded to vitamin K supplements by reduced calcium and hydroxyproline excretion. Although vitamins D and K have distinct functions in calcium absorption, and its distribution, deposition, and excretion, there is evidence that synergistic interactions can occur between them, and that both can affect the...

Black Cohosh Cimicifuga Racemosa

Black cohosh is a plant native to North America that has traditionally been used by Native Americans for a number of gynecological conditions. Its modern use has been predominantly for treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. The active ingredients in black cohosh have yet to be identified. The estrogenic isoflavone formononetin was thought to be partially responsible for its actions however, this isoflavone has recently been shown to be entirely absent in some black cohosh products (2). The mechanism of action of black cohosh also remains unknown. Although it was initially thought to activate estrogen receptors, recent studies regarding its estrogenic properties have been conflicting (3,4). A recent review of alternative therapies for menopausal symptoms identified three randomized, controlled clinical trials in favor of black cohosh (5). These studies contained small sample sizes and were of short duration (6 months or less). One trial of black cohosh on hot flashes in...

R 0CHrCh R Nch Cn ihjn

The steroidogenic pathway (see Figure 8.6) from cholesterol to the substrates of aromatase commences in the adrenals with the action of the cytochrome P-450 enzyme, cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (CSCC), producing pregnenolone which is then isomerized by another enzyme to progesterone. Progesterone is converted by 17 a-hydroxy 17,20-lyase (P450 17), another P-450 enzyme, to androstenedione which can be reduced by a dehydrogenase to testosterone. Aromatase is located mainly in fatty tissue in postmenopausal women and mainly in ovarian tissue in premenopausal women. The first line drug for use in the treatment of mammary cancer in postmenopausal women with (ER+) and (ER-) tumours is tamoxifen. This is an oestrogen receptor antagonist which, by competing with oestradiol for the receptor, can reduce the ability of oestradiol to stimulate tumour growth. Tamoxifen has weak oestrogenic activity and compounds ICI 164,384 and ICI 182,780 without this effect are now in clinical trial....

Uicnih Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy

The UIC NIH Center for Botanical Dietary Supplement Research is a new initiative, designed to employ a multidisciplinary approach in studies involving the clinical safety and efficacy of botanicals. One initial focus will be on herbs used to treat women's health, such as black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) and red clover (Trifolium pratense), which show promise in the relief of symptoms associated with menopause.

Commentary Do the same treatment approaches for overweight and obesity fit diverse patient populations

Whether or not the same weight reduction program will accomplish equivalent weight change in ethnically diverse population groups can be questioned on theoretical grounds. Weight reduction programs address motivations and behaviors strongly influenced by sociocultural factors that vary with ethnicity. 257 496 497 Sociocultural factors may also influence the relative efficacy of behavioral programs in young, middle, and older adulthood men or women or any other patient groups where the motivations and lifestyle factors targeted may vary from those commonly assumed to be in operation. Innate or acquired physiological factors that affect energy metabolism may also influence the relative efficacy of behavioral weight reduction programs. For example, some cross-sectional comparisons have suggested that the relative weight loss achieved for a given degree of calorie restriction will be lower in African-Americans than whites because of a lower resting metabolic rate in African-Americans....

KObesity and Womens Reproductive Health

Menstrual Function and Fertility Obesity in premenopausal women is associated with menstrual irregularity and amenorrhea. 112,116 As part of the Nurses' Health Study, a case control study suggested that the greater the BMI at age 18 years, even at levels lower than those considered obese, the greater the risk of subsequent ovulatory infertility. 117 The most prominent condition associated with abdominal obesity is polycystic ovarian syndrome, 118 a combination of infertility, menstrual disturbances, hirsutism, abdominal hyperandrogenism, and anovulation. This syndrome is strongly associated with hyper-insulinemia and insulin resistance. 119

Detection Of Circulating Nucleic Acids In Plasma Or Serum

Subsequently, patients with cancer were shown to have higher levels of free circulating plasma DNA than those with nonmalignant disease, often > 100ng ml of plasma.11,16-18 Leon et al16 used a radioimmunoassay to study the level of free DNA in the serum of 173 patients with cancer and 55 healthy individuals. The mean DNA concentration was 13ng ml in the healthy controls and 180ng ml in the cancer patients.16 Similar levels were reported for 26 patients with breast cancer, where the mean concentration of DNA in plasma was 211 ng ml but was only 21 ng ml for 92 healthy female controls (p < 0.01) matched closely for age and menopausal status.19

Epidemiology Of Adolescents And Adolescent Rheumatology

The epidemiology of adolescent rheumatology cannot be considered in isolation. It is also important to reflect upon the predictors of adult disease identified during this developmental stage. In a study of 668 premenopausal women aged 18 to 35 years, menarche at age 15, physical inactivity as an adolescent, and low body weight were identified as independent predictors of low bone mass (14). Pain reports in childhood and early adolescence have been reported to be associated with the report of pain in early adulthood, supporting the need for effective pain management during adolescence (15). Of relevance to rheumatologists is the fact that the majority of childhood pain is musculoskeletal in origin (16). Of concern, a cost-of-illness to U.K. Society of Adolescent Chronic Pain discussed later in Chapter 9 has been estimated at approximately 3840 million in one year (17).

Assessment Of Risk And Benefits

Subject selection also raises another issue. While some studies have unfairly singled out specific groups to bear the risks of research other studies have unjustifiably excluded groups of potential subjects. Besides depriving these potential subjects as individuals of the advantages of participation such as access to free medications or drugs that have clinical promise otherwise not available to them, exclusion can pose larger societal problems. If a group of subjects, such as fertile women, is systematically excluded from research, then information regarding the benefits and risks of the drugs tested are not available to those patients. For example, if a drug is only tested in postmenopausal women, even if it is found to be effective, it might not be used in pre-menopausal women because of the lack of data on safety and efficacy. Similarly, drugs for diseases such as hypertension have been shown to have differing efficacy depending on the race of the patient. If the clinical trial...

Transport of Endogenous Lipids

Several LDL subclasses have been identified using gradient gel electrophoresis. Large, less dense LDL particles are commonly found in premenopausal women and men at low risk for CHD, whereas the small, more dense particles have been associated with a significant increased risk for myocardial infarction. The distribution of these particles appears to have a significant genetic component modulated by age and environmental factors.

Systemic hormones that regulate skeletal growth or function growth hormone oestradiol and vitamin A

While there is no doubt that the decreased levels of oestradiol that follow normal or artificially induced menopause lead to increased bone loss, oes-tradiol's role in skeletal biology remains obscure. The recent discovery of oestradiol receptors in osteoblasts suggests it may have a direct effect on osteoblastic cells.

Gonads and Reproductive System

It has been aptly stated by Harman that ''It is clear that aging results in alterations of endocrine physiology, which in turn appear to contribute to development of the senescent phenotype.'' Aging is associated with a decrease in pituitary hormone secretions. This decline explains, in part, the reduction in gonadal hormone production with aging. Primary aging of the testes and ovaries themselves accounts for the remainder of the changes. As the ovaries have a finite number of eggs, ovulation can only continue through the number of cycles that correspond to the original store of ova. Menopause ensues with the characteristic cessation of estrogenic hormone secretion. In both sexes, gonadal andro-genic hormone production declines with consequent effects on libido.

Bone turnover and agerelated bone loss

Age-related bone loss therefore occurs more rapidly in trabecular bone (which turns over more rapidly) and is increased by factors that promote bone turnover (transient calcium deficiency). Risk factors or disease states associated with either low peak bone mass or increased rates of loss include small body size, nulli-parity, inactivity, early natural menopause, anorexia, thyrotoxicosis, and Cushing's syndrome.

Bone Mass and Nutritional Factors

Throughout life, bone mass changes, with a maximum (peak bone mass) achieved by age 25-30 years and bone loss occurring after the fourth decade. Higher calcium intakes in childhood and early adulthood result in a 3-8 greater bone mass later in life, thereby improving the key factor in the osteoporotic process and the age-associated risk of fractures. In women, there is a perimenopausal increase in the rate of bone loss that persists after menopause following a decline in oestrogen production (Figure 3).

Considering How Fibromyalgia Relates to Womens Ages

FMS doesn't seem to be linked to perimenopause (the onset of menopause, or the cessation of menstruation), although studies need to be done to determine if such a link may exist. However, stress is strongly linked to fibromyal-gia, and many women, especially in their late 40s or 50s, are members of the sandwich generation they're responsible for teenage children as well as caregiving for their aging parents. The stress that comes with this difficult role may trigger fibromyalgia in women who are predisposed to the problem. Older Women and menopause For more on menopause, turn to Menopause For Dummies, 2nd Edition, by Marcia L. Jones, PhD, Theresa Eichenwald, MD, and Nancy W. Hall (Wiley).

Ovarian Cancer Chemoprevention in the General Population

Oral contraceptive use occurs almost exclusively before menopause. The median age of diagnosis of ovarian cancer is 63. If oral contraceptives do not provide long-lasting protection, the benefit of this intervention may not be relevant to the majority of women at risk. Several studies have reported on the durability of the protective effect of oral contraceptives on ovarian cancer risk. Protection against ovarian malignancy continues to be identified for approximately 15 years after discontinuation of oral contraceptive use.5,7,11-13 Bosetti and colleagues14 combined data from six case-control investigations. Compared with never users, oral contraceptive users experienced a significant reduction in ovarian cancer risk odds ratio was equal to 0.66 (95 CI, 0.56-0.79). Risk reduction was similar for women who had discontinued oral contraceptives for less than 10 years compared with those who had stopped for 20 years or more. Oral contraceptive pill use continues to protect against...

Adverse Effects And Reactions Allergies And Toxicities

Health risks or side effects following the proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages have not been recorded (LaGow, 2004). High consumption of u6-polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are found in most types of vegetable oils (including sunflower oil), might increase the likelihood that postmenopausal women may develop breast cancer (Sonestedt et al, 2008). A similar effect was observed on prostate cancer. Other analyses have suggested an inverse association between total polyunsaturated fatty acids and breast cancer risk.

Greydanus And Patel 2005

Report on the Global Consultation on Child and Adolescent Health and Development. March 12-13, 2002. Stockholm, Sweden. WHO Geneva, Switzerland, 2002. Creatsas GC. Adolescent Pregnancy in Europe. Int J Fertil Menopausal Stud 1995 40(Suppl. 2) 80-4.

Prophylactic Surgery in the General Population

Prophylactic surgery for ovarian cancer encompasses several procedures. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with removal of both the fallopian tubes and the ovaries is often advocated for the prevention of ovarian cancer. The procedure may be performed through an open or laparoscopic approach. All peritoneal surfaces should be examined. The procedure should result in the removal of the entire ovary and all but the intramural portion of the fallopian tube. The ovarian vessels should be clamped approximately 2 cm proximal to the ovary to reduce the risk of retained ovarian tissue. All adhesions should be excised. In addition to operative risk, reproductive-age women face surgical menopause after prophylactic oophorectomy. Both bilateral tubal ligation and hysterectomy without removal of the tubes and ovaries have also been shown to reduce the risk of subsequent ovarian cancer. Hysterectomy along with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy has been advocated by some groups to remove the intramural...

What Is Unique about This Book

The many kinds of hormones that affect fat storage and utilization. This book is one of the first to offer questionnaires to help you realize when your own hormones are working against you. It also discusses how the hormonal changes that occur with menopause and andropause can cause you to become overfat and tells you how exercise and nutrition can help rebalance these hormones.

DCoronary Heart Disease

Recent studies have shown that the risks of nonfatal myocardial infarction and CHD death increase with increasing levels of BMI. Risks are lowest in men and women with BMIs of 22 or less and increase with even modest elevations of BMI. In the Nurses' Health Study, which controlled for age, smoking, parental history of CHD, menopausal status, and hormone use, rel

Homeopathic medicine

Aurum met. is associated with the kind of despair that might lead to suicide while Causticum is indicated for a feeling of loss of control. China is prescribed for low spirits following menstruation or associated with neuralgic pain and Lachesis is given for premenstrual or menopausal depression. Nat. mur. is used for depression associated with the suppression of grief. Other remedies prescribed constitutionally include Arsen. alb., Calc. carb., Graphites, Lycopodium, Nat. carb., Platina, Pulsatilla, Sepia, Sulphur, and Thuja.

Folliclestimulating hormone

After menopause women still produce FSH, but since they have no follicles or eggs in their ovaries the hormone is simply excreted in their urine. Originally, drug companies used to produce FSH for fertility treatment by extracting the hormone from postmenopausal women's urine. The hormone was purified and turned into powdered form. The quality of this drug varied between batches and there was an element of uncertainty about its purity and

Genetic Predisposition

To contain the costs to the population, chemoprevention or prophylactic surgery for ovarian cancer may be directed at high-risk groups. In the United States, a woman on average has a 1.4 lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer. In contrast, the risk increases to 4 to 5 with one first-degree relative with ovarian cancer. With two first-degree relatives, the lifetime risk further increases to 7 . Approximately 10 of ovarian malignancies appear to be hereditary. Genetic predisposition should be suspected in a woman with a diagnosis of premenopausal breast cancer, with ovarian cancer in a family member at any age, and with cancers in multiple family members of two to four generations. Two hereditary syndromes are described.

Micronutrient Deficiency

In older adults reduced cutaneous synthesis and enteric absorption of vitamin D increases the risk of vitamin D deficiency. Reduced renal responsiveness to parathormone is an added risk factor. At least 500IUday 1 of vitamin D are required to prevent significant osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Institutionalized patients with reduced exposure to sunlight are at higher risk of vitamin D deficiency due to reduced cutaneous synthesis. The role of calcium supplementation in the prevention of osteoporosis is also well accepted. Additional evidence suggests that inadequate dietary calcium consumption may play a role in the genesis of colorectal cancer and hypertension.

Carrie Amazing Changes in Her Lipid Profile

Since Carrie had stopped jogging to save her joints and had moved away from the city where her dance classes were located, she had stopped exercising except for walking about four times per week. She had read enough to know that if she continued on her present path, her health would deteriorate when she entered menopause, so she was determined to change her lifestyle, eating habits, and approach to exercise.

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