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Ultimate Guide To Solving Menopausal Symptoms Today

A Guide To Assist Women Going Through Menopause. The Guide Can Reduce And Even Eliminate Menopausal Symptoms. Proven solutions from around the world that can virtually eliminate your menopausal symptoms. You do not have to rely on conventional medicine to get you through menopause. This Ultimate Guide is delivered immediately as a downloadable e-book! You can read in your favorite electronic reader, computer or you can even print it out! Here are some the things we will cover: Solutions that conventional medicine professionals are not telling you about. Factual information that has worked for thousands of others. Easy to understand solutions that you can implement for you and your family. Yes, these solutions will help your whole family! Just imagine Reducing your hot flashes, increasing your energy, eliminating gas, bloating and other stomach issues, losing weight effortlessly, diminishing your joint pain, getting a restful night's sleep, reducing your risk of cancer and other ailments, being positive and upbeat each every day and living a fulfilled, balanced life. Don't you want that?

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Menopausal Symptoms

The natural oestrogen-receptor activity of soy is popularly considered an alternative to controversial HRT for postmenopausal women (Sliva 2005). A recent analysis of 17 trials, however, found mixed results for the effects of soy isoflavone extracts on menopausal symptoms (Nelson et al 2006). Although some data seem to support the efficacy of isoflavones in reducing the incidence and severity of hot flushes, many studies have not found any difference between the isoflavone recipients and the controls. Inadequate data exist to evaluate the effect of isoflavones on bone mass and vaginal dryness (Greenwood et al 2000).

Is hormone replacement therapy HRT good for PD

At menopause, women stop making estrogen, and for years have been prescribed an estrogen made from the urine of pregnant horses (Premarin) and progestin, a synthetic form of the hormone progesterone (Provera). The combination is called Prempro. The treatment was originally given to relieve such symptoms as hot flashes, but later to reduce bone thinning and heart disease. Estrogen alone relieved symptoms but produced a small increase in the risk for cancer of the uterus), so the synthetic progestin was added to lower this risk. But did estrogen or an estrogen-progestin combination really reduce the risk of heart disease Two studies cast doubt on the safety of both estrogen and estrogen-progestin therapies. However, many doctors do not think the results of these studies are a reason to stop HRT.


Menopause is a natural life transition for women and usually occurs between the ages of 45 and 55. Hormonal changes result in a decline of estrogen and some women experience symptoms such as hot flashes, mood swings, and vaginal dryness. These changes may begin 4 to 6 years before the cessation of menstruation. Certain foods contain plant estrogens that are helpful in balancing hormone levels in the body. Phytoestrogens are similar in structure to estrogen and can alleviate and prevent menopausal symptoms. Soybeans, for example, contain natural estrogens called isoflavones that help prevent osteoporosis, heart disease, and estrogen-related cancers such as breast cancer. In a study, soybeans and flaxseed were tested and found to increase estrogenic activity in postmenopausal women when they stopped eating the foods, estrogen cell activity also dropped. One cup of soybeans contains 300 mg isoflavones which equals the estrogenic effect in one Premarin (a synthetic hormone) tablet.

Menopause Problems

Many women in menopause realize that something is happening to their smile line. What is the smile line The gum line or outline of your teeth. If you notice that you are now getting a long-in-the-tooth appearance, it may be due to menopause. If your gums are loose and spongy, then this might be due to a hormonal problem. Your gums may bleed more readily and your tissue will start to recede. The most important thing is to moderate your diet. As the aging process starts and the hormones change, we must work with a healthier diet.

Specific Nutrients Calcium

Decade, there is a steady decline in bone calcium. This is especially marked after menopause in women, when estrogen declines, and often leads to bone loss (osteopenia) to below a threshold that predisposes women in particular to fractures (osteoporosis). Osteoporosis is not just a disease of the elderly, and may occur in much younger patients, especially athletic young women, those with anorexia nervosa, those on steroids and other medications, and in anyone on prolonged bed rest, including astronauts experiencing long periods of weightlessness.

What Is Unique about This Book

The many kinds of hormones that affect fat storage and utilization. This book is one of the first to offer questionnaires to help you realize when your own hormones are working against you. It also discusses how the hormonal changes that occur with menopause and andropause can cause you to become overfat and tells you how exercise and nutrition can help rebalance these hormones.

Medical And Nonmedical Uses

AASs are prescribed by physicians to treat a variety of medical conditions (Bagatell & Bremner, 1996). The most accepted use is for treating boys and men unable to produce normal levels of their own testosterone, a condition known as testosterone deficiency or hypogonadism. AASs are also used to treat a rare skin condition called hereditary angioedema, certain forms of anemia (deficiency of red blood cells), advanced breast cancer, and endometriosis (a painful condition in females in which tissue usually found only in the uterus develops in other body parts). AASs are also combined with female hormones to treat distressing symptoms that can accompany menopause. Experimentally, AASs have been used to treat a condition in which bone loss occurs (osteoporosis), to treat impotency and low sexual desire, and as a male birth control pill. In addition, AASs have been used in the treatment of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) to stimulate appetite, weight gain, strength, and...

Lack of Scientific Evidence for Clinical Efficacy and Safety

Except for the handful of phytomedicines known in the West, the risk-benefit profile of many herbal therapies is not known. Randomized control trials are the gold standard for clinical efficacy and they have been performed only for a handful of commonly used drugs such as gingko, St. John's wort, ginseng, echinacea, saw palmetto, and kava (10). Little is known about the vast majority of the huge body of herbal extracts and formulae registered in the Chinese pharmacopoeia. The importance of well-organized, long-term clinical trials cannot be better illustrated than in the recent issue of hormone replacement therapy and its risks and benefits. Despite the long duration of clinical use of hormone replacement in postmenopausal women, it is only in recent years that certain significant risks have been well recognized and better understood.

Gender Age and Genetics

The two greatest known risk factors for FM appear to be a family history of the disease and being female. In fact, two recent studies have revealed that FM in a first-degree female relative is the greatest predictor of developing FM. No one knows why more women are diagnosed with FM than men. Various studies based on prevalence data show that women are seven to nine times more likely to have fibromyalgia than men and that the female peak age for diagnosis is during the childbearing years. This has led researchers to suspect that either childbirth or menopause might be triggers for some women. However, there are

Carrie Amazing Changes in Her Lipid Profile

Since Carrie had stopped jogging to save her joints and had moved away from the city where her dance classes were located, she had stopped exercising except for walking about four times per week. She had read enough to know that if she continued on her present path, her health would deteriorate when she entered menopause, so she was determined to change her lifestyle, eating habits, and approach to exercise.

Traditional versus Nontraditional Medicine

In spite of the rigorous process of bringing new treatments to cancer patients, and in spite of all the scientific oversight, things do not always run smoothly in traditional medicine. This fact is clear when one looks at medical news in the media for example, you may recall the controversies involving whether relatively healthy postmenopausal women should take hormone replacement therapy and whether it is safe for people in pain to use certain anti-inflammatory medications. While the confusion around these issues is still being sorted out, the reality is that the vigorous testing methods employed in conventional medicine help to ensure that the vast majority of treatments medical doctors prescribe are more helpful than harmful. These therapies, called evidence-based medicine, come from scientifically established best practices. Nonetheless, one advocate of evidence-based medicine, Canadian scientist Brian Haynes, cautions, The advance of knowledge is incremental, with many false...

Prescription Drugs And Cancer

Synthetic Hormones and Steroid Preparations. The natural and synthetic estrogens used for contraception and for postmenopausal hormone replacement have been associated with an increased risk of uterine cancer. As of the late 1990s, these estrogens are usually combined with progestins, which appear to lower this risk. Diethylstil-bestrol (DES), which is used to treat menopausal symptoms and advanced cancers of the breast, may cause vaginal or cervical cancer in women whose mothers took DES during pregnancy. Oxymetholone (Anadrol), a steroid related to testosterone, is reported to increase the risk of liver cancer.

Early Effects Of The Diagnosis And Initial Treatment On

There is also consensus regarding a third set of findings from this literature on early effects of diagnosis and treatment with regard to the physical realm. These include menstrual changes and menopause, infertility, sleep problems, lymphedema, pain, problems with physical and recreational activities, and weight gain and reduced energy.15,18,30,32-40 Ganz found nearly identical rates of arm problems 2 and 3 years posttreatment related to the initial surgical procedure (numbness, tightness and pulling in the arm, and intermittent mild pain).30 Other early effects are energy reduction, decreases in physical functioning, and symptom distress as found in our early study of Hodgkin's disease.28 Sexual, urinary, and bowel function changes are specific to prostate cancer.29

QOL in Long Term Survivors of Breast Cancer

Eleven of the 16 studies discussed physical domain QOL outcomes for long-term survivors.2,4,32,41,43,46-51 Generally, survivors report lower physical domain QOL than healthy controls and poorer physical functioning.4,41,43,49 Arm pain, including swelling, loss of sensation, weakness, and stiffness, are common.4,32,48,50,51 Survivors also report fatigue,2,46 with one study finding that younger survivors report the lowest levels of vitality.51 Physical problems associated with treatment induced menopause are also common.2,32 One study shows that physical functioning was predicted by age at diagnosis,48 while another found that older age in general is related to worse physical domain QOL.47 Another study found that physical health was most affected among women who were both diagnosed with lymphoma and treated with chemotherapy.2 Social quality of life Twelve of the 16 studies discussed social domain QOL outcomes for long-term survivors.2,4,32,42,45-51,53...

Reproduction And Pregnancy

Impotence, atrophy of the testes, infertility, and decreased libido are not uncommon complaints in male alcoholics. These observations are thought to be secondary to the direct effects of alcohol on testicular tissue, to an alcohol-associated decrease in sperm motility, and to an alcohol-related decrease in Vitamin A and zinc. Both Vitamin A and zinc are important in maintaining testicular tissue growth. In young females, alcohol abuse is associated with amenorrhea and anovulation in chronic users, with early menopause. There is evidence that vaginal blood flow decreases as the alcohol serum level increases.

Looking Elsewhere for a Doctor How to Know if Its Time

Joan changed doctors many times because she felt that they weren't taking her medical problem seriously. In fact, she says that she saw 22 doctors over 18 months until, at long last, she found a rheumatologist who diagnosed her with FMS and treated her. Joan says that the other doctors had told her that her condition was caused by the four pregnancies she'd had and by the onset of menopause. She says she was angry that the doctors didn't listen to her or believe her, but she's very happy that she's found a good doctor now. Joan is glad that she didn't decide to just settle for one of the other doctors. Follow Joan's example Don't settle.

Prophylactic Surgery in the General Population

Prophylactic surgery for ovarian cancer encompasses several procedures. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with removal of both the fallopian tubes and the ovaries is often advocated for the prevention of ovarian cancer. The procedure may be performed through an open or laparoscopic approach. All peritoneal surfaces should be examined. The procedure should result in the removal of the entire ovary and all but the intramural portion of the fallopian tube. The ovarian vessels should be clamped approximately 2 cm proximal to the ovary to reduce the risk of retained ovarian tissue. All adhesions should be excised. In addition to operative risk, reproductive-age women face surgical menopause after prophylactic oophorectomy. Both bilateral tubal ligation and hysterectomy without removal of the tubes and ovaries have also been shown to reduce the risk of subsequent ovarian cancer. Hysterectomy along with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy has been advocated by some groups to remove the intramural...

Hormonally Mediated Events

Menopause may cause uncomfortable symptoms in many women and can be controlled to a great extent by HRT. Some of these symptoms, hot flashes, fatigue, and bone thinning (leading to osteoporosis) can intensify symptoms and problems related to MS. Osteoporosis has been linked to the treatment of MS with steroids, and this condition may worsen during the peri-menopausal or menopausal state of life.

Screening for Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer in women and is the most common cause of gynecologic cancer mortality. Approximately 1 in 70 women will develop ovarian cancer in their lifetime. Many risk factors have been identified in the carci-nogenesis of ovarian cancer, and patients with varying levels of risk can be further stratified into different groups. Recommendations for ovarian cancer screening vary according to the patient's level of risk. Advancing age, infertility, endometriosis, and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy typically lead to a mildly increased risk of ovarian cancer in individuals compared with that of the general female population (relative risk RR < 3),2-5 whereas inherited mutations in the cancer susceptibility genes such as BRCA1, BRCA2, and mismatch repair genes associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) syndrome lead to much higher RRs of approximately 30 to 45, 6 to 20, and 6 to 9, respectively, compared with RRs of the...

Folliclestimulating hormone

After menopause women still produce FSH, but since they have no follicles or eggs in their ovaries the hormone is simply excreted in their urine. Originally, drug companies used to produce FSH for fertility treatment by extracting the hormone from postmenopausal women's urine. The hormone was purified and turned into powdered form. The quality of this drug varied between batches and there was an element of uncertainty about its purity and

Supplements Are They Necessary Are They Safe

To begin with, the RDAs take no account of individual circumstances. The fact is, nutritional needs vary enormously. Requirements for nutrients can vary according to genetic make-up, sex, age, levels of stress, activity levels, alcohol consumption, pollution, smoking, the use of prescription medications, pregnancy and menopause. The RDAs make no provision for the special requirements individuals may have for nutrients.

Regulation of Metabolism

As discussed below, alterations in homocysteine metabolism also occur after menopause, in diabetes, and in hypothyroidism. These observations suggest that hormones, including estrogen, insulin, thyrox-ine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone, may directly or indirectly affect homocysteine metabolism. As for oxidative stress, the mechanisms by which these hormones affect homocysteine metabolism are poorly understood.

Other Causes of Hyperhomocysteinemia

Homocysteine levels tend to rise in women after the menopause. Hormone replacement therapy reduces homocysteine back to premenopausal levels. Moreover, homocysteine decreases in male to female transsexuals, and increases in female to male transsexuals, primarily related to the estrogen and androgen regimens that such individuals respectively follow. Taken together, these observations strongly suggest an influence of sex hormones on homocysteine metabolism, though the mechanisms are not well understood.

The Metabolic Fitness

Most people think of calcium as something you should take to minimize bone loss with the onset of andropause or menopause, and indeed this is true. But calcium also has many other health benefits, including the ability to aid in fat reduction. An article in the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, which evaluated five clinical studies involving 780 women in their thirties, fifties, and eighties, showed that taking 1,000 mg calcium daily was associated with as much as an 8 kg (17.6 pounds) loss in body weight over four years.

Introduction A Estrogens

Estrogens are steroid hormones that exhibit a broad range of physiological activities. 17 3-Hydroxyestradiol is the female sex hormone active in developing the mammary gland and the uterus, maintaining pregnancy, relieving menopausal symptoms, and preventing cardiovascular and bone diseases (1). An apparent consequence of estrogen is the increase in short-term meno- pausal symptoms including vasomotor hot flashes, urogenital atrophy, and psychological functioning. A hot flash is the classic sign of menopause and the primary clinical symptom experienced by women during this transitional stage (2). Estrogen is beneficial in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (35). The incidence of heart disease among premenopausal women is low compared with men, whereas the incidence among postmenopausal women approaches that of men. The administration of estrogen to postmenopausal women decreases the incidence of heart disease (6). This protective effect of estrogen may partly be attributed to...

Benefit 8 Protects Postmenopausal Women from Fat Gain and Loss of Lean Muscle

Lately, there has been a great deal of controversy over the safety of hormone replacement therapy. The major study designed by the Women's Health Initiative was stopped midway because some participants taking HRT developed higher incidences of breast cancer and heart disease.

For Postmenopausal Depression

An increase in the prevalence of depressive symptoms in women undergoing menopause can be related to fluctuating estrogen levels (56). Depression in women seems to increase with a change in hormone levels (57). The seroto-nergic system appears to play a major role in depression, although other neurotransmitters are also involved (2,58,59).

Osteoporosis Prevention

Pharmaceutical HRT is sometimes used for preventing loss of bone following menopause however, a growing number of users are concerned about the increased risk of breast cancer associated with long-term HRT. As such, phyto-oestrogens have been used as an alternative to prevent osteoporosis. Most research has focused on soy isoflavones, although there is some evidence that red clover-derived isoflavones may also be of benefit.

Table 112 Symptoms of Anxiety

Often a number of factors occur simultaneously and contribute to a person's emotional crisis. One of my patients is a woman in her late forties who is raising two teenage children. Several years ago she was diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent a lumpectomy and radiation treatment. More recently, she had a local recurrence of her cancer and opted for a mastectomy followed by reconstructive surgery and then chemotherapy. When I first saw her, there was no single reason for her depression. She was stressed over the teenage rebellion going on in her home. Sleep was difficult because of uncontrolled hot flashes, a result of premature menopause that was induced by the chemotherapy, and

Other Lifestyle Factors

Other lifestyle choices, such as smoking, alcohol abuse, and physical activity, also impact overall bone health. Excessive alcohol intake is a risk factor for low bone mass. This finding may be a consequence of poor dietary quality in chronic alcoholics and may also be related to adverse effects of excessive alcohol intake on osteoblast function. Cigarette smoking also adversely impacts bone health. Smokers may be leaner, and female smokers may experience an earlier menopause and have lower postmenopausal estrogen levels. Smoking may also have adverse effects on bone cells either directly or indirectly through an increase in oxidative stress.

Cardiovascular Disease

There are many potential mechanisms by which soy may improve cardiovascular outcomes, including reduction in total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, lipoprotein a, blood pressure, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, endothelial function, systemic artery compliance, and oxidised LDL (Balk et al 2005). A review by the North American Menopause Society suggests that the most convincing health effects of soy can be attributed to the actions of isoflavones on lipids, with studies finding statistically significant reductions in LDL and triglycerides, as well as increases in HDL (Greenwood et al 2000). It is unclear how soy exerts its beneficial effects on lipid metabolism or Soy 1107

Emotion Mood and Bipolar Disorder in Children

Learned a good deal about gender effects in BD, although important questions remain, particularly about the impact of puberty and menopause on the illness, and about the management of BD during pregnancy and the postpartum. In the young and old, considerably more work needs to be done to understand age differences in the presentation and management of the illness. However, we can take heart from the increased research attention now being devoted to these topics.

Cognitive Function

Supplementation with the same supplement significantly improved recall of pictures, sustained attention, learning rule reversals and planning at 12 weeks without affecting menopausal symptoms, self-rating of mood, bodily symptoms or sleepiness (Duffy et al 2003). A further double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in healthy postmenopausal women aged 55-74 years found that 6 months' supplementation with 110 mg day total isoflavones significantly improved category fluency compared with baseline scores and the placebo group responses at 6 months (Kritz-Silverstein et al 2003). In contrast to these studies a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of 202 healthy postmenopausal women aged 60-75 years found that 25 g day of soy protein containing 99 mg of isoflavones for 12 months did not affect cognitive function, BMD or plasma lipids (Kreijkamp-Kaspers et al 2004).

Biological explanation of breast cancer

Breast cancer usually arises after menopause (age 40+), but it can also arise before menopause in very rare cases. The ovarian-pituitary axis synchronizes the normal breast physiology during the reproductive cycle. The biological reason for it is that the glandular component of the breast gradually degenerates after menopause and the breast is mostly substituted by adipose tissue. Any problem in this process causes the development of breast cancer, whereas by epithelial cells of the breast ducts, uncontrolled growth and survival takes place, and in later stages the characteristics of neo-angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis occurs (Heldermon and Ellis, 2006).

Obesity and Sleep Apnea

There are several correlates of sleep apnea. It is well recognized that it is more prevalent in males, although the difference is less pronounced in population-based studies than in laboratory-based studies. 20 Some studies have suggested that the prevalence of sleep apnea in women increases after menopause. Snoring also correlates with sleep apnea, increasing up to late middle age and decreasing thereafter. 20, 282, 654, 655 The other major correlate of sleep apnea is obesity 20, 653, 654, 656 in both men and women. In general, women have to be significantly more obese than men for the clinical syndrome to be apparent. 657 At present, no published epidemiologic studies

Female reproductive changes with ageing

Declining oestrogen and progesterone levels cause numerous physical changes in women with age. Ovulation usually stops 1-2 years before the menopause. As the ovaries reach the end of their productive cycle, they become unresponsive to gonadotrophic stimulation. With ageing, the ovaries atrophy and become thicker and smaller. After the menopause the uterus shrinks rapidly to half its pre-menstrual weight. The cervix atrophies and no longer produces mucus for lubrication and the endometrium and myometrium become thinner.

Presentday Cultivation And Usage

Sunflower seeds are used for the production of SO, which is a very useful dietary supplement, being enriched in fatty acids and used as an ingredient in many pharmaceutical preparations. Seeds can be sprinkled over cereals, salads, and soups, and mixed with vegetables and snacks. The seeds are diuretic and expectorant, and are now highly valued for the treatment of bronchial, laryngeal and pulmonary infections, coughs, and colds. They are also used to reduce the risk of colon cancer, the severity of hot flushes in women going through menopause, and also diabetic complications. They are also prescribed for snake bite and scorpion sting. Sunflower seed oil is used internally to alleviate constipation, as a lubricant, and is used externally as a massage oil, an oil dressing, and in the treatment of skin lesions, psoriasis, and rheumatism. The oil-cake is a valuable food for cattle and poultry (Bruneton, 1999 The Wealth of India, 2001 LaGow, 2004 Chopra et al., 2006). The oil is used in...

The National Womens Health Information Center

The National Women's Health Information Center is part of the Office on Women's Health (OWH), within the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). OWH's mission is the development and implementation of new programs and initiatives to improve women's health not only in the United States but internationally. The center provides links to sites with herbal information relevant to women's health issues. For example, black cohosh tea has been used in Native American cultures for centuries to alleviate the symptoms associated with menopause.

Enhance your Patient Education with Nhlbi Materials

Multiple Risk Factors Healthy Heart Handbook for Women. Tells women (both with and without heart disease) how to take action to make their hearts healthier. Topics include how to talk to the doctor, blood pressure and blood cholesterol, physical activity, weight loss, hormone replacement therapy, heart attack symptoms, and heart-healthy eating.

Disorders of Galactose Metabolism Clinical Manifestations

Ovarian atrophy appears to be an important manifestation of galactose toxicity, with clinical and biochemical evidence of ovarian dysfunction present in nearly all affected females. The basis of the toxicity has not been defined. The consequences of the gonadal dysfunction range from failure of pubertal development, through primary amenorrhea to secondary amenorrhea or premature menopause (75-76 of affected females). Although gonadal function has been described as early as infancy based on elevations of follicle stimulating hormones

Established Recommended Intakes for Older Persons

The change in recommendations occurs at either age 50 or 70 years. In women over 50 years, the RDA for dietary iron decreases from 18 mg to 8 mgday-1 there is no change in requirement for the 70 year plus age group. This lower value is the recommendation for adult men of all ages. The fact that the menopause allows women to replete iron stores depleted by an adulthood of monthly menstrual blood loss accounts for this lower RDA in older women.

Indications Italian Cypress

Convulsion (f VOD) Cough (f BOU PH2 VOD) Diabetes (f BIB) Diarrhea (f1 BOU HHB VOD) Dyspepsia (f BIB) Enterosis (f HJP VOD) Enuresis (f BOU) Fever (f BIB) Flu (f BIB) Gastrosis (f JLH) Hemorrhoid (f1 BOU HHB KAB VOD) Hepatosis (f JLH) Hiccup (f HJP) Infection (f EFS) Inflammation (f HJP) Mastosis (f JLH) Menopause (f VOD) Menorrhagia (f VOD) Myofibroma (f BIB) Neurosis (f VOD) Orchosis (f JLH) Pertussis (f EFS WOI) Polyp (f BIB) Prolapse (f BIB) Pulmonosis (f VOD) Rheumatism (f VOD) Rhinosis (f JLH) Sclerosis (f BIB) Splenosis (f JLH) Swelling (f BIB HJP) Ulcer (f HJP) Uterosis (f VOD) Varicosity (1 HHB) Wart (f BIB) Worm (f HHB VOD) Wound (f HJP).

The Tryptophan Load Test

Tryptophan Degradation Test Estrogens and Apparent Vitamin B6 Nutritional Status Rose (1966a, 1966b) was the first to report apparent vitamin B6 deficiency in women taking combined progestagen-estrogen oral contraceptives. There was increased urinary excretion of xanthurenic acid after a tryptophan load, which was normalized by the administration of relatively high doses of vitamin B6. A great many later reports have confirmed abnormal tryptophan metabolism among women taking the now obsolete high-dose oral contraceptives, and estrogens as menopausal hormone replacement therapy. Although they have been widely interpreted as evidence of estrogen-induced vitamin B6 deficiency or depletion, when other indices of vitamin B6 nutritional status have been measured, they have been unaffected by contraceptive use. This suggests an effect on tryptophan metabolism per se, rather than on vitamin B6 nutritional status.

The Classic Female Fat Pattern

While I would agree with the self-help authors who tell female readers that the key to self-esteem is to love your body, I believe that a woman should find a balance between accepting her body just as it is and paying serious attention to the significant health risks of being overfat. There is nothing life-affirming about having type 2 diabetes, painful and over-stressed joints, and an increased risk of heart disease after menopause. As we have seen, being overfat also increases the risk of certain types of cancers. For example, a recent report published by the National Cancer Institute showed that women with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or greater were twice as likely to develop cervical cancer. Women with the lowest waist-to-hip ratio, indicating a significant accumulation of abdominal fat, Most women believe that it is inevitable that their body fat-to-lean muscle ratio will rise as they age and experience the hormonal changes associated with menopause. In fact, the tables you see...

Malandrinum Homeopathy For Acne Treatment

See also Melilotus officinalis Melilotus arvensis see Melilotus officinalis Melilotus officinalis (Melilotus) 154-55, 299 meninges 178 menopause 48, 258-59 menorrhagia see heavy periods men's health 75, 99 self-help ailments 264-65 serious ailments 200, 202-3 see also individual ailments by name, e.g., balanitis menstrual cramps 90 menstrual problems 256-59

Musculoskeletal System

Bone mineral content declines with age this aging process is known as 'osteopenia.' (It should be distinguished from the related pathological process in which bone architecture is altered, producing 'osteoporosis.') From the peak in the third and fourth decades, a 30 average decline in bone mineral density occurs through the ninth decade. In women, there is well-characterized acceleration of the rate of bone mineral loss immediately following the menopause. Decreasing levels of anabolic hormones may be associated with musculoskeletal atrophy and decrease in function that is observed in older women. This change in skeletal mineralization with aging is not associated with any apparent change in vitamin D nutriture as reflected in circulating levels of the vitamin.

Fat Distribution and Disease Risk

Since fat distribution is correlated with age as well other risk factors for disease, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and menopause in women, it is important to control for the effects of these variables in order to obtain an estimate of the independent effect of central obesity on morbidity. The impact of some of these correlates of fat distribution may be subtle and unlikely to seriously distort relationships between fat patterning and disease. However, age, the ultimate risk factor for disease and death, is sufficiently highly correlated with fat distribution to result in substantial distortion. Similarly, cigarette smoking is related adequately strongly to fat patterning and to various diseases and outcomes to make analyses that do not adjust for smoking difficult to interpret.

Available Self Help Materials and Target Audience

A search of the Web site using the keywords self-help and sleep produced over 40 hits. Included in the top-selling books were No More Sleepless Nights (Hauri, 1996), Can't Sleep, Can't Stay Awake A Woman's Guide to Sleep Disorders (Kryger, 1999), Say Good Night to Insomnia (Jacobs, 1999), and Seven Days to a Perfect Sleep (Gordon, 2003). The majority of available materials come in book form. Audio media (tapes or compact disks) comprise the remaining commercially available titles. The latter products typically consist of audio recordings of relaxation or self-hypnotic exercises. It should be noted that these titles are ones devoted exclusively to the topic of sleep. Many self-help books on other health problems (e.g., chronic pain, depression, menopause) include abbreviated advice for enhancing sleep or combating insomnia.

Prophylactic Surgery in the High Risk Population


Hysterectomy has been advocated as part of prophylactic surgery for several proposed benefits. Since the risk of endometrial carcinoma is no longer present, hormone replacement therapy with unopposed estrogen can be given to control menopausal symptoms. Normally, women with BRCA1 mutations may carry an increased risk of endometrial and fallopian tube cancer. Hysterectomy would address this risk. Finally, BRCA mutation carriers undergoing hysterectomy are not at an increased risk for endometrial cancer if they opt to use the selective estrogen-receptor modulator tamoxifen for chemoprophylaxis of breast cancer. In view of the lack of screening methods for ovarian cancer and the lack of efficacy of current surveillance methods, it is recommended that BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers undergo prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy after age 35 or once childbearing is completed. Gynecologic surgery such as hysterectomy and bilateral tubal ligation, which does not remove...

Internal factors affecting the skin

At the onset of menstruation the skin may erupt due to the adjustment of hormone levels at that time. During pregnancy, pigmentation changes may occur, but usually disappear after birth. During the menopause the activity of the sebaceous glands is reduced and the skin becomes drier.

Sertoli Leydig Cell Tumors Androblastomas

Sertoli Leydig Ovarian Tumor Ultrasound

Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) are rare, accounting for 0.2 of all ovarian tumors. Unlike granulosa-stromal cell tumors, they occur principally in women in the reproductive years with 75 occurring before age 40 and occurring less commonly during menopause or childhood. Similar to theca cells, SLCTs are usually hormonally active and secrete testosterone, thus resulting in androgen excess and potential virilization.

1997 Naafa Cherry Hill Convention Monica

Such recommendations fly in the face of a host of recent studies . . . Wedick et al., The Relationship Between Weight Loss and All-Cause Mortality in Older Men and Women with and Without Diabetes Mellitus The Rancho Bernardo Study, J Am Geriatr Soc 50, 1810-15 (2002) Soames et al., Body Mass Index, Weight Change, and Death in Older Adults The Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program, Am J Epidemiol 156, 132-38 (2002) Newman et al., Weight Change in Old Age and Its Association with Mortality, J Am Geriatr Soc 49, 1309-18 (2001) Singh et al., The Effect of Menopause on the Relation Between Weight Gain and Mortality Among Women, Menopause 8, 314-320 (2001) Milne et al., Protein and Energy Supplementation in Elderly People at Risk from Malnutrition, Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD003288 (2002).

Being Prepared The Side Ef fects o f Treatm ent

Before talking about specifics of each therapy, let's address some concerns that are common to all forms of cervical cancer treatment, namely their impact on you as a woman in terms of sexuality, childbearing, and menopause. Treatment may also bring about menopause if you have not already begun it. Surgery may include removing your ovaries if you are close to menopause or there is concern that the cancer may have spread to them. Radiation can also lead to menopause because your ovaries will be irradiated (although if you require radiation, your physician can, in certain situations, perform an oophoropexy in which the ovaries are moved out of the pelvis and into the abdomen. This places them outside of the area to be irradiated and allows the patient to maintain ovarian function and can allow for collection of eggs at a later date for in vitro fertilization). Menopause is different for each woman. Symptoms can include hot flashes, vaginal dryness, decreased libido (interest in sex),...

Acidum Nitricum For Heartburn

See also Polygala senega senile dementia & dementia 72, 266-67 Sepia officinalis (Sepia) 112, 306 hair loss 242-43 heavy periods 258-59 menopause 258-59 sulphuratum rubrum sulfuret of lime see Hepar sulphuris calcareum Sulphur (Sulfur) 99, 308 dandruff 242-43 heartburn 234-35 diaper rash 246-47 measles 252-53 menopause 258-59 mild eczema 240-41 skin problems in elderly people 268-69 vaginal thrush 260-61 Sulphur iod. sulfur iodide 308

Changes in Calcium Metabolism during the Life Span

Menopause begins a period of bone loss that extends until the end of life. It is the major contributor to higher rates of osteoporotic fractures in older women. The decrease in serum estrogen concentrations at menopause is associated with accelerated bone loss, especially from the spine, for the next 5 years, during which approximately 15 of skeletal calcium is lost. The calcium loss by women in early menopause cannot be prevented unless estrogen therapy is provided. Calcium supplements alone are not very helpful in preventing postmeno-pausal bone loss. Upon estrogen treatment, bone resorption is reduced and the intestinal calcium absorption and renal reabsorption of calcium are both increased. Similarly, amenorrheic women have reduced intestinal calcium absorption, high urinary calcium excretion, and lower rates of bone formation (compared to eumenorrheic women). In both men and women, there is a substantial decline in intestinal absorption of calcium in later life.

Coronary Artery Disease CAD

Menopause phase in a woman's life during which ovulation and menstruation ends and one in five in the United States, dies from heart disease each year. In the United States, CAD has declined more rapidly in whites than in blacks. CAD affects women ten years later than men, mostly due to the protective production of estrogen. After menopause, a woman is two times more susceptible to heart disease than women who have not reached menopause.

Bipolar Disorder across the Reproductive Life Cycle

Pregnancy, the postpartum period, and menopause are each stages of the reproductive life cycle that may impact bipolar illness. Some have suggested that pregnancy may be a time in which women with BD experience a relief from their mood symptoms. However, this opinion has not been conclusively supported by the available evidence. Most notably, Blehar et al. 7 closely examined the timing of pregnancy and emotional problems in 51 women with BD type I, and found that 19 51 (37 ) reported mood episodes during their pregnancy, and 7 51 (14 ) reported mood episodes during both pregnancy and the postpartum period. During their pregnancy, 7 51 (14 ) of the women reported a manic episode, and 3 51 (6 ) were hospitalized. Although preliminary, these results suggest that pregnancy may not be protective in terms of mood episodes in women with BD. Menopause. The effect of menopause on the course of BD has not received much research attention, and what has been reported has been...

Medication generictrade Alprazolam Xanax

Her sleep problems were due to working swing shifts and also wondered if maybe she was experiencing early menopause. Her primary provider diagnosed her correctly with FM. They spent the next year working on cognitive behavioral strategies, exercise programs, physical therapy, and sleep hygiene. She gave up working swing shifts, even though that meant a slight reduction in pay. Her sleep and pain improved about 30 percent, but she was still unable to fall asleep or sleep for more than two hours despite trying the three FDA medications approved for FM and a plethora of over-the-counter sleep aids, including Benadryl and melatonin. She could not tolerate Zolpidem due to nightmares and sleepwalking. Her mother, who also has FM, told Vicki that she had been taking a low-dose of Clonazepam for nearly thirty years without dose escalation or tolerance. Vicki reported this to her provider who agreed to have her try Clonazepam. One year later Vicki's sleep is 75 percent improved and she remains...

Indications Milk Thistle

HHB) Fibrosis (1 CGH) Food Allergies (1 WAM) Gallstones (1 HHB MAB SKY HC020444-262 NP9(2) 6) Gastrosis (f APA) Hematuria (f HC020444-262 NP9(2) 6) Hemoptysis (f BIB) Hemorrhage (f KAB MCK) Hemorrhoid (f BIB HHB MAB WOI) Hepatosis (f12 KOM PH2 SHT WAM) Hepatosis A (1 BGB) High Blood Pressure (1 MCK HC020444-262) High Cholesterol (1 MAB) High Triglycerides (1 CGH X15177299) Hydrophobia (f BIB GMH) Hypereme-sis (f1 NP9(2) 6) Hypotonia (f HH3) Infection (f HHB) Inflammation (f1 APA HC020444-262 X15617879) Intoxication (1 FAD) Insulin Resistance (1 SYN) Itch (1 MAB) Jaundice (f2 BIB HH3 MAB PH2 PNC WAM) Leukemia (f1 HC020444-262 NP9(2) 6) Leukorrhea (f BIB) Malaria (f1 BIB HHB PHR PH2 HC020444-262) Menopause (f HHB) Metastasis (1 X15224346) Metrorrhagia (f HHB) Migraine (f HH3) MS (f ACT9 251) MS (1 HC020444-262) Mushroom Poisoning (2 FAD SHT) Myalgia (1 HC020444-262) Nausea (f1 MAB Cyto-protective (1 NP9(2) 6) Nephrosis (f12 BGB NP9(2) 6) Neurosis (f ACT9 251) Obesity (1 PNC) Oligolactea...

Select the points according to a given medical diagnosis and consider them as having a pseudopharmacological activity

In the patient in Figure 10.5 the main symptom prompting consultation with the acupuncturist was tiresome hot flushes in menopause. Secondary symptoms were neck stiffness, constipation and hemorrhoids. Seven tender points were identified with PPT (Fig. 10.5A). The selection of points in the first session was directed particularly on the areas commonly related to a climacteric syndrome the antitragus and the fossa ovalis. Two points were selected on the antitragus one within the genital or gonadotropinic area of Nogier, corresponding to the Chinese forehead area (AT1 e), the second on the lower part of the antitragus within the area of dysthymia and depression, corresponding to the French hypothalamus and Chinese temple (AT2 nie). One tender point was selected on the fossa triangularis, within the area

Gender Differences In The Consequences Of Substance Abuse

Women's reproductive function increases alcohol- and drug-related health risks to themselves and to their unborn children. Alcohol and drug abuse are associated with numerous disorders of the female reproductive system, including breast cancer, amenorrhea, failure to ovulate, atrophy of the ovaries, miscarriage, and early menopause. Men also experience reproductive and sexual difficulties as a result of alcohol and drug abuse, including impotence, low testosterone levels, testicular atrophy, breast enlargement, and diminished sexual interest.

PMS and Dietary Factors

The abnormally high prolactin secretion of PMS via the ability of certain of its phytochemicals to mimic the action of dopamine by binding to dopamine receptors in the pituitary. Other herbs traditionally used in phytotherapy for PMS contain phyto-oestrogens. These molecules may have oestrogen-like action, either due to the steroidal nature of their active constituents (false unicorn root, Chamaelirium luteum A. Gray) or to the spatial similarity of active groups in their constituents, which allow them to bind to oestrogen receptors. Among the latter group are isoflavonoids and lignans, which appear to have 'adaptogenic' properties They are weakly oestrogenic at low circulating oestrogen concentrations and antioestrogenic at high oestrogen concentrations. Isoflavonoids are present in soya bean and its products and in medicinal herbs such as black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa Nutt.) these show a beneficial effect in reducing symptoms of PMS and the menopause. Lignans are present in high...

Granulosa Stromal Cell Tumors

Controversy exists as to whether granulosa cells originate from developing gonadal sex cords or from the mesenchyme of the genital ridge. Since granulosa cells proliferate in response to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), some have hypothesized that the elevated follicle-stimulating hormone levels observed during menopause may initiate proliferation of granulosa cells and abnormal growth. This would explain the higher incidence of GCTs in postmenopausal women, but does not account for younger women and prepubertal females who develop these tumors. Recent developments have suggested that a potential progenitor granulosa stem cell exists,43 but the subject warrants more research.

Hypericum p e r f o r

The sun is said to control the solar (sun) plexus in the body. In yogic systems this is a center of protective energy that is ruled by the yellow part of the spectrum. This affinity of St John's wort with the solar plexus extends to the plant's use in treating the digestive and nervous systems. It is also taken for life-cycle conditions, such as bedwetting in the young, menstrual problems, and menopause. The solar plexus governs gut instinct and life's unseen influences - again leading us to protection.

Interrelationships with other systems

The melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) secreted by the central lobe of the pituitary stimulates the production of melanin in the basal cell layer of the skin. The sex hormones (gonadotrophice hormones) influence skin and hair growth during puberty, pregnancy and the menopause.

Aids Cure In Natural

In food and beverages, as functional food, 1 242i in menopause, 2 49 HGH (human growth hormone), defined, 2 144 Hong Kong, organic foods in, 2 115 Hookworm, defined, 1 40 Hoppin' John, 1 11, 12 Hormiga, 2 202, 202 Hormone replacement therapy. See Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) Hormones and cravings, 1 137 defined, 1 31 production, 2 158 regulatory functions, 1 37 Howard Johnson's restaurants, 2 15, 15, 16 HRT (hormone replacement therapy). See Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) Human Genome Project, 2 75 Human growth hormone (HGH), infant nutrition, 1 242t, 2 9, 10 and lead poisoning, 2 24, 26 and menopause, 2 50 and pregnancy, 1 40, 2 145 preschoolers and toddlers, 2 152, 153

Neuroendocrine Effects of Alcohol

The development of female secondary sexual characteristics in men (e.g., gynaecomastia and tes-ticular atrophy) generally only occurs after the development of cirrhosis. In women, the hormonal changes may reduce libido, disrupt menstruation, or even induce premature menopause. Sexual dysfunction is also common in men with reduced libido and impotence. Fertility may also be reduced, with decreased sperm counts and motility.

The Paradox of Rapid Population Growth in Undernourished Populations

British data from the mid-nineteenth century on growth rates, food intake, age-specific fertility, sterility, and ages of menarche and menopause show that females who grew relatively slowly to maturity, completing height growth at ages 20 or 21 years (instead of 16-18 years, as in well-nourished contemporary populations), also differed from well-nourished females in each event of the reproductive span Menarche was later, for example, 15.0-16.0 years compared with 12.8 years adolescent sterility was longer, and the age of peak nubility was later the levels of specific fertility were lower pregnancy wastage was higher the duration of lactational ame-norrhea was longer the birth interval was longer and the age of menopause was earlier, preceded by a more rapid period of perimenopausal decline (Figure 6). Thus, the slower, submaximal growth of women to maturity is subsequently associated with a shortened and less efficient reproductive span. The differences in the rate of physical growth...

Black Cohosh Cimicifuga Racemosa

Black cohosh is a plant native to North America that has traditionally been used by Native Americans for a number of gynecological conditions. Its modern use has been predominantly for treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. The active ingredients in black cohosh have yet to be identified. The estrogenic isoflavone formononetin was thought to be partially responsible for its actions however, this isoflavone has recently been shown to be entirely absent in some black cohosh products (2). The mechanism of action of black cohosh also remains unknown. Although it was initially thought to activate estrogen receptors, recent studies regarding its estrogenic properties have been conflicting (3,4). A recent review of alternative therapies for menopausal symptoms identified three randomized, controlled clinical trials in favor of black cohosh (5). These studies contained small sample sizes and were of short duration (6 months or less). One trial of black cohosh on hot flashes in...

Uicnih Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy

The UIC NIH Center for Botanical Dietary Supplement Research is a new initiative, designed to employ a multidisciplinary approach in studies involving the clinical safety and efficacy of botanicals. One initial focus will be on herbs used to treat women's health, such as black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) and red clover (Trifolium pratense), which show promise in the relief of symptoms associated with menopause.

Systemic hormones that regulate skeletal growth or function growth hormone oestradiol and vitamin A

While there is no doubt that the decreased levels of oestradiol that follow normal or artificially induced menopause lead to increased bone loss, oes-tradiol's role in skeletal biology remains obscure. The recent discovery of oestradiol receptors in osteoblasts suggests it may have a direct effect on osteoblastic cells.

Gonads and Reproductive System

It has been aptly stated by Harman that ''It is clear that aging results in alterations of endocrine physiology, which in turn appear to contribute to development of the senescent phenotype.'' Aging is associated with a decrease in pituitary hormone secretions. This decline explains, in part, the reduction in gonadal hormone production with aging. Primary aging of the testes and ovaries themselves accounts for the remainder of the changes. As the ovaries have a finite number of eggs, ovulation can only continue through the number of cycles that correspond to the original store of ova. Menopause ensues with the characteristic cessation of estrogenic hormone secretion. In both sexes, gonadal andro-genic hormone production declines with consequent effects on libido.

Bone turnover and agerelated bone loss

Age-related bone loss therefore occurs more rapidly in trabecular bone (which turns over more rapidly) and is increased by factors that promote bone turnover (transient calcium deficiency). Risk factors or disease states associated with either low peak bone mass or increased rates of loss include small body size, nulli-parity, inactivity, early natural menopause, anorexia, thyrotoxicosis, and Cushing's syndrome.

Bone Mass and Nutritional Factors

Throughout life, bone mass changes, with a maximum (peak bone mass) achieved by age 25-30 years and bone loss occurring after the fourth decade. Higher calcium intakes in childhood and early adulthood result in a 3-8 greater bone mass later in life, thereby improving the key factor in the osteoporotic process and the age-associated risk of fractures. In women, there is a perimenopausal increase in the rate of bone loss that persists after menopause following a decline in oestrogen production (Figure 3).

Considering How Fibromyalgia Relates to Womens Ages

FMS doesn't seem to be linked to perimenopause (the onset of menopause, or the cessation of menstruation), although studies need to be done to determine if such a link may exist. However, stress is strongly linked to fibromyal-gia, and many women, especially in their late 40s or 50s, are members of the sandwich generation they're responsible for teenage children as well as caregiving for their aging parents. The stress that comes with this difficult role may trigger fibromyalgia in women who are predisposed to the problem. Older Women and menopause For more on menopause, turn to Menopause For Dummies, 2nd Edition, by Marcia L. Jones, PhD, Theresa Eichenwald, MD, and Nancy W. Hall (Wiley).

Ovarian Cancer Chemoprevention in the General Population

Oral contraceptive use occurs almost exclusively before menopause. The median age of diagnosis of ovarian cancer is 63. If oral contraceptives do not provide long-lasting protection, the benefit of this intervention may not be relevant to the majority of women at risk. Several studies have reported on the durability of the protective effect of oral contraceptives on ovarian cancer risk. Protection against ovarian malignancy continues to be identified for approximately 15 years after discontinuation of oral contraceptive use.5,7,11-13 Bosetti and colleagues14 combined data from six case-control investigations. Compared with never users, oral contraceptive users experienced a significant reduction in ovarian cancer risk odds ratio was equal to 0.66 (95 CI, 0.56-0.79). Risk reduction was similar for women who had discontinued oral contraceptives for less than 10 years compared with those who had stopped for 20 years or more. Oral contraceptive pill use continues to protect against...

Reproductive Factors

Nulliparity is a known risk factor for ovarian cancer. Women who have ever been pregnant have a 30 to 60 reduction in ovarian cancer risk compared with nullipa-rous women.10 Ovarian cancer risk is inversely related to parity (OR 0.59 for four or more pregnancies compared with nulliparous women).11 No significant association between ovarian cancer risk and young age at menarche has been seen in recent studies. However late menopause may be associated with a trend toward higher risk for ovarian cancer risk.11,12 Data from earlier epidemiologic studies did not show a clear association between hormone replacement therapy and ovarian cancer.23 However, more recent studies suggest an association between long duration of use of unopposed estrogen and ovarian cancer.24-26 The Women's Health Initiative Randomized Trial provided additional support regarding the effects of estrogen and progesterone on risks of ovarian cancer. The hazard ratio (HR) for invasive ovarian cancer in women assigned to...


Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. Ninety-eight percent is found in the bones, 1 in teeth, and 1 in other tissues. When the body is at rest, calcium is pulled out of the bones to be used elsewhere, establishing the importance of daily adequate intake of the mineral and of exercise. Calcium helps regulate nerve transmissions and along with magnesium, is important for cardiovascular health. If muscles do not have enough calcium, they cannot contract or if contracted, do not relax, which results in cramps. The mineral is good for relaxation and improves the quality of sleep. During the hormonal shifts of menopause, the dominance of the parathyroid hormone causes calcium to be removed from bone resulting in osteoporosis.


It Is suggested that the effects of A. racemosa may be due to dopaminergic activity, because black cohosh extract BNO 1055 displayed dopaminergic activity with a D(2)-receptor assay (Jarry et al 2003). Considering that dopaminergic drugs reduce some symptoms (e.g. hot flushes) associated with menopause, this theory is feasible however, further studies are required to explain why black cohosh is devoid of the typical side-effects associated with dopaminergic drugs (Borelli & Ernst 2002).

Functional Problems

Surgical long-term and late effects usually result from damage to, or removal of, tissue and organs in the course of cancer surgery. Much of the time the effects are expected (e.g., menopausal symptoms following hysterectomy for ovarian cancer), while in other cases they are unintended (e.g., dumping syndrome after a partial gastrectomy). For example, surgery may leave the head and neck cancer patient without a voice or the ability to swallow, or may have resulted in the loss of a limb for a sarcoma patient. Physical, occupational, and speech therapists are among the mul-tidisciplinary specialists that can greatly help cancer survivors with these disabilities optimize their function and activity.


In contrast to many other fields of traditional medicine (e.g., acupuncture), the use of herbal supplements fits nicely into the Western paradigm of scientific study. Public use of such supplements has uncovered the need for the design, funding, and performance of methodologically sound clinical trials. Through initiatives from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine many popular herbs are being investigated. Clinical trials examining black cohosh for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, echinacea for the prevention and treatment of the common cold, and ginkgo biloba for the prevention of dementia are a few of the studies currently underway. Hopefully, results from such trials will help guide patients and clinicians toward judicious use of herbal supplements.

Systemic Therapy

Patient characteristics associated with cardiac long-term and late effects are older age and preexisting cardiac disease. Premature menopause from cancer Chemotherapy, particularly alkylating agents like cyclophosphamide, can induce infertility and, in women, premature menopause, with its attendant problems of hot flashes, mood swings, vaginal dryness, and urinary incontinence. Cyclophosphamide is commonly used in breast cancer, but management of the menopausal symptoms is complicated by the fact that hormone replacement therapy is considered contraindi-cated in patients with a history of breast cancer. Consequently, other treatments must be used for hot flashes, such as antidepressants.52 This example illustrates the importance of both recognizing the symptoms related to ovarian failure in a cancer patient in which it would be otherwise unexpected, and having knowledge of the oncologic considerations of the therapies being chosen. Bone health can be impaired in many ways. Premature...

Age and fertility

A baby girl is born with her lifetime's supply of eggs. As she ages, so do her eggs. Theoretically reproduction is possible from menarche (the first period she has) until menopause (when her periods stop). But her chance of having a baby drops 3 to 5 per cent per year after she reaches the age of 30 and the rate of decline is even faster after she hits 40.


The principal cause of osteoporosis seems to be the loss of estrogen and androgen secretion with increasing age. It was noted in Section 3.3.5 that osteoblasts have both estrogen and androgen receptors. Although the mechanism of action of the sex steroids is not clear, it seems likely that they act by reducing the osteoclastogenesis resulting from osteoblast activation. They may also antagonize the release of osteoblast-derived resorption factors following calcitriol and parathyroid hormone action. Thus, loss of estrogen at menopause and loss of testosterone with increasing age in men result in loss of some of the normal modulation of bone resorption stimulated by calcitriol. Osteoporosis isprobably an inevitable consequence of aging. The peakbone mass is achieved between the ages of 20 to 30 thereafter, there is a progressive loss of bone, becoming more marked postmenopausally. The condition is considerably less severe in women who enter menopause with greater bone mass, which is...

Dong quai

Historical note Dong quai is an aromatic herb commonly used in TCM. Its reputation is second to that of ginseng and is regarded as a 'female' remedy, or women's ginseng. Used in combination with other herbs, dong quai is used to treat numerous menstrual disorders and menopausal symptoms, as well as abdominal pain, migraine headache, rheumatism and anaemia (Murray 1995). Dong quai (Angelica sinensis) is closely related to the European Angelica archangelica, a common garden herb and the flavouring in Benedictine and Chartreuse liqueurs.

Spasms tremors

Symptoms Muscle spasms, tremors, and weakness in the limbs. Spasms may be triggered by the slightest touch, and may be accompanied by fainting or convulsions. These symptoms may be linked to alcoholism, fever, multiple sclerosis, petit mal epilepsy, or even brain damage following a stroke. Symptoms better For fresh air for expelling natural discharges for movement for cold drinks. Symptoms worse For heat for sleep for touch on the left side for the menopause for alcohol or hot drinks.

Involve Your Family

Your loved ones may be puzzled by your failing memory and may not connect it with the same demyelinating process that has you walking with a cane and going to the bathroom every half hour. Family members and friends need to be educated concerning the realities of cognitive dysfunction and MS. Without accurate information, those around you may attribute your cognitive changes to stress, depression, age, menopause, stubbornness, laziness, or any of a myriad of other mistaken notions.

Mechanisms of Action

In contrast, nulliparity, early menarche, and late menopause all result in an increased number of ovulatory cycles and are linked to an increased risk of ovarian malignancy. Alternatively, exposure to progestins may lead to apoptosis in aberrant epithelial cells. Rodriguez and colleagues4 exposed macaques to combination oral contraceptive pills, to the estrogen component of oral contraceptive pills only, to the progestin component of oral contraceptive pills, or to no hormones. The ovarian epithelium of macaques exposed to the oral contraceptive pill or to the progestin component demonstrated only a statistically significant increase in the proportion of apoptotic cells. This apoptotic pathway can lead to ovarian cancer prevention. Therefore, based on their ability to suppress ovulation and their progestin-dominant formulation, oral contraceptive pills offer an attractive candidate for chemoprevention.


For women, breast and reproductive cancers can be caused by high levels of estrogen in the blood. Estrogen stimulates cell reproduction. Contributing to estrogen in the body are birth control pills and hormone replacement at menopause. Meat, poultry, and dairy foods may contain traces from animals that have been given the hormone for growth and pesticides and industrial pollutants contain what are called xenoestrogens or foreign estrogens.


Currently, an effective screening test for ovarian cancer is not available. Chemoprevention for ovarian cancer with oral contraceptive pills appears to be beneficial in both the general population and in women with a high risk of ovarian cancer. Prophylactic oophorectomy has only a modest impact on reducing ovarian cancer rates in the general population. In contrast, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in the high-risk group significantly decreases the risk of developing an ovarian malignancy. For patients who are unfortunately found to have occult cancers at the time of this surgery, this procedure most likely represents intervention at an earlier stage than would be expected. Although prophylactic surgery may be effective in the high-risk group, it does result in surgical menopause. Improvements in screening and chemoprevention would be welcomed.


I suggest a daily intake of 30 percent lean protein. Good sources of protein are chicken breasts, all types of fish, beef with a low fat content (in moderation), soy products, and whey products. Protein is a stabilizing food that assists in insulin management, the building of lean muscle, and immune function. For men, ingesting adequate amounts of protein daily helps stop the decrease in testosterone levels that they experience as they age. An article in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism states, Diets low in protein lead to increases in sex hormone-binding globulin in older men, potentially reducing the availability of testosterone and causing loss of muscle mass, red cell mass and bone density. Getting adequate protein also helps avoid or slow bone loss in women, especially after menopause.


When you exercise regularly, you begin to improve the condition of your heart and lungs. Exercise releases toxins from your body and improves your stamina. It increases your blood circulation and your joint mobility. It also alleviates premenstrual stress or stress experienced during menopause. It strengthens your bones by increasing their mineral content therefore, it helps in reducing osteoporosis and enhances the bone level in your mouth. The bone in your mouth surrounds the roots of your teeth, giving the teeth support. So if you exercise regularly, you will reduce gum disease and increase the circulation that is needed for healthy gum tissue.


A woman's drinking pattern may be influenced by the mood changes associated with the phases of the menstrual cycle, and her blood alcohol level actually measures higher during the premenstrual period for any given amount of alcohol. This may make it difficult for a woman to predict the effects of her drinking. Oral contraceptives interact with cigarette smoking in contributing to coronary heart disease in women. Cigarette smoking is also correlated with an earlier onset of menopause. In her role as childbearer, a woman's substance use may have harmful effects on the FETUS and newborn. These effects may be related to her lifestyle, such as poor nutrition and poor prenatal care, or to the toxic effects of the drugs themselves resulting in fetal growth retardation, at-birth neonatal abstinence syndrome (withdrawal), and neurobehavioral abnormalities in the child.

Indications Myrrh

(f PH2) Dandruff (1 JAR12 83) Decubitis (f BGB BOW) Dermatosis (1 APA MAD PH2 WI3) Diabetes (f1 JNP64 1460 X12506289) Diarrhea (f MAD JNP64 1460) Dicrocoeliasis (12 X15287191) Diptheria (f NAD) Dropsy (f BIB) Dysentery (f MAD) Dyslactea (f DEP) Dysmenorrhea (f1 BGB NAD PH2) Dyspepsia (f APA DEP FEL GHA NAD) Dysuria (f MAD) Earache (f BIB) Edema (1 X9582001) Enterosis (f DEP PH2) Epilepsy (f DEP) Erysipelas (f MAD) Fascioliasis (12 X5125536) Fever (f BIB DEP GHA MAD) Fracture (f GHA) Freckle (f MAD) Fungus (1 JNP64 1460) Furunculosis (1 CAN PH2) Gangrene (f FEL) Gas (f APA DEP MAD) Gastrosis (f FEL PH2 PNC JNP64 1460) Gingivosis (f1 APA DEP FEL PNC SKY) Gleet (f FEL) Gonorrhea (f FEL) Halitosis (f FEL) Hemorrhoids (f APA BGB BIB GHA) Hepatosis (f1 MAD X15125513) Hoarseness (f APA) Hypothyroidism (1 WAF) Impotence (f GHA) Infection (f12 DEP PH2 JNP64 1460) Infertility (f MAD) Inflammation (f1 BGB DEP GHA PH2 WI3) Itch (f1 WI3) Laryngitis (f FEL) Leprosy (f APA) Leukorrhea (f FEL MAD)...

Prognostic factors19

Obese patients do better than lean ones. It seems that the obese, hyperlipidemic women, with evidence of unopposed estrogen exposure like anovulatory uterine bleeding, infertility, late menopause, and hyperplasia of ovarian stroma tend to have more differentiated endometrial carcinoma with better prognosis. Recommendations for Women at Increased Risk There is no indication that screening for endometrial cancer should be recommended for women at increased risk for endometrial cancer because of history of unopposed estrogen therapy, late menopause, tamoxifen therapy, nulliparity, infertility or failure to ovulate, obesity, diabetes, or hypertension.(39)

Louise S

Sugar coating the truth is the last thing that we need. The majority of the time, whatever the future may hold, we will probably end up having to wear it on our bodies whether it's amputation, problems with our teeth, infertility, premature menopause, or in some cases, breasts not forming on a young adult woman. These are not things that will go away if our parents don't tell us about them, and we need plenty of time to decide how we will cope with these things when they come. My mother was very straightforward with me and that helped me to understand what I had to do to survive.

Rapid Cycling

In a further attempt to understand sex differences in rapid cycling, Wehr et al 17 evaluated whether the menstrual cycle or menopause had any effect on rapid cycling. Among 47 women with rapid cycling, only five (11 ) experienced mood cycles which were similar in duration to their menstrual cycle. Three of these subjects were followed prospectively. In two, the similarity between mood and menstrual cycles was not sustained, and the third subject continued to cycle during pregnancy. In 23 47 (49 ) subjects, the rapid-cycling course of illness began or continued during menopause. Overall, these preliminary results do not support the notion that rapid cycling in women is related to hormonal fluctuations.

Menstrual Problems

Endometriosis develops when cells from the lining of the uterus migrate outside the uterus. These cells still respond to the monthly hormonal cycles and release blood during menses. However, the blood has nowhere to go and so the area becomes inflamed and painful. Uterine fibroids are benign muscle tumors produced when estrogen activity is high as they depend on estrogen for growth. They appear in pre-menopausal women and shrink at menopause and in the absence of estrogen replacement therapy. They do not turn malignant. Birth control pills add to estrogen levels in the body. Symptoms of uterine fibroids include a feeling of fullness, frequent urination, and heavy and cramping menstruation.

Red clover

Historical note Red clover has been used for a long time as an animal fodder as well as a human medicine. Traditionally, it is considered an alternative remedy with good cleansing properties useful in the treatment of skin diseases such as psoriasis, eczema and rashes. A strong infusion was used to ease whooping cough and other spasmodic coughs due to measles, bronchitis and laryngitis. It was recommended for 'ulcers of every kind, and deep, ragged-edged, and otherwise badly-conditioned burns. It possesses a peculiar soothing property, proves an efficient detergent, and promotes a healthful granulation'. Combined with other herbs, red clover was recommended for syphilis, scrofula, chronic rheumatism, glandular and various skin affections (Felter & Lloyd 1 983). Interestingly, red clover was not traditionally used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms.


MENOPAUSE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOSOMATIC SYMPTOMS Another study investigated a fixed combination of isopropanolic black cohosh (Remifemin standardised to 1 mg triterpene glycosides) and ethanolic SJW (standardised to 0.25 mg total hypericin) in 301 women with menopausal symptoms with pronounced psychological symptoms (Uebelhack et al 2006). The double-blind, randomised study found that 16 weeks of herbal treatment produced a significant 50 reduction in the Menopause Rating Scale score compared to 20 with placebo and a significant 42 reduction in the HDS score compared to only 13 in the placebo group.