Scarlet Wisteria Tree Red Wisteria Daun Turi

Fruit of Sesbania grandiflora Sesbania grandiflora tree

Description: Sesbania grandiflora Pers. is a tree that can grow to 8-10 m in height. The compound leaves are about 30 cm long with 12 to 20 pairs of rounded, narrow, oblong leaflets, 3-4 cm by 1 cm. Flowers are 5-10 cm by 3 cm, in pale pink, red, purple or white. The pods are 25-50 cm, slender, and cylindrical with many light brown to red brown seeds.[1]

Origin: Native to Malesia and cultivated in the tropics.[2]

Phytoconstituents: Grandiflorol, (+)-leucocyanidin, oleanolic acid, lutein, beta-carotene, violaxanthin, neoxanthin, zeaxanthin and others.[3-9]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: In the Philippines, the plant is used for its hypotensive properties.[10] It is used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of liver disorders.[11] The juice of the leaves and flowers are popularly used for nasal catarrh and headache when taken as snuff. Various leaf preparations are used to treat epileptic fits. Applied externally for treatment of leprous eruptions. A poultice of the leaves is used for bruises. The leaf juice is mixed with honey for congenital bronchitis or cold in babies.[12]

Pharmacological Activities: Antibacterial,[13] Anticonvulsant,[14] Antiinflammatory,™ Anxiolytic,[14] Depressant,™ Diuretic,[15] Hepatoprotective,[11] Hypoglycaemic,[16] Hypotensive[15] and Haemolytic.[1718]

Dosage: No information as yet.

Adverse Reactions: No information as yet.

Toxicity: No information as yet.

Contraindications: No information as yet.

Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

69. Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae)

Black Nightshade, Terong Meranti, Poison Berry

Daun Solanum Nigrum
Solanum nigrum flower Solanum nigrum shrub

Description: Solanum nigrum L. is a small herb, up to 1.5 m tall. Leaves are ovate, ovate-oblong, glabrous, hairy, 1-16 cm by 0.25-12 cm. Inflorescence of 2-10 in an extra-axillary cluster, with white or purple corolla and yellow central protrusion. Fruit is globose, black in colour but is green when immature, 0.5 cm in diameter, with many seeds.[1]

Origin: Native to Southwest Asia, Europe, India and Japan.[2]

Phytoconstituents: Solanidine, a-,^-,y-chaconine, desgalactotigonin, a-,^-solamargine, diosgenin, solanadiol, a-,^-,y-solanines, soladulcidine, solanocapsine, a-,^-solansodamine, solasodine, a-solasonine, tigogenin, tomatidenol, uttronins A and B, uttrosides A and B, solanigroside A-H and others.[3-9]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: The stem, leaves and roots are used as a decoction for wounds, tumours and cancerous growths, sores and as an astringent^™ They are also used as a condiment, stimulant, tonic, for treatment of piles, dysentery, abdominal pain, inflammation of bladder, relief of asthma, bronchitis, coughs, eye ailments, itch, psoriasis, skin diseases, eczema, ulcer, relief of cramps, rheumatism, neuralgia and expulsion of excess fluids. The roots are used as an expectorant.[5] The plant has yielded medicines for sore throats, coughs and digestive problems. It has also been used as an agricultural insecticide.™ Europeans in Africa used the plant to treat convulsions. It is used by the Africans for treating headache, ulcers and as a sedative. The whole plant is used for the treatment of dermatitis, inflammation, heavy female discharge, diarrhoea and dysentery.[11] It is also used as a diuretic and febrifuge. Whole plant is decocted for abscesses, cancer of the cervix, inflammation, leucorrhoea and open sores. Young shoots are consumed as virility tonic for men and to treat dysmenorrhoea in females.[3] In Indochina, the leaves are used as purgative and high blood pressure lowering agents while the fruits are used as laxatives.[12]

Pharmacological Activities: Antibacterial,[13] Anticancer/antineoplastic/814™ Antiulcerogenic,[36 37] Antinociceptive,™ Anti-inflammatory,[15] Antioxidant^34™ Antiviral,[38] Depressant,[39] Hepatoprotective,[40-43] Hypolipidaemic,[44] Antimutagenic,[45] Enzyme modulation,™ Larvicidal,[47] Molluscicidal[47-49] and Parasiticidal.[50]

Dosage: 10 drops of extract is taken internally 2 to 3 times a day or 5 to 10 g of tincture may be taken daily for gastric irritation, cramps and whooping cough. For external use as a rinse of moist compress, it is boiled in 1 L water for 10 minutes before usage for psoriasis, haemorrhoids, abscesses, eczema and bruising.[4]

Adverse Reactions: No known side effects with appropriate therapeutic dosage.[4]

Toxicity: Harmful to rats.[51] It is toxic to cattle as it can cause acute nitrate toxicity which leads to death in cattle. In chronic cases, decreased milk yield, abortion, impaired vitamin A and iodine nutrition can occur. The proposed LD50 for nitrate toxicity is 160-224 mg/NO3/kg for cattle.[52] Overdoses can lead to headache, queasiness and vomiting, due to high alkaloid content. Mydriasis may also occur, although rare.[452] Solanine, in doses of 200-400 mg, may cause gastroenterosis, tachycardia, dyspnea, vertigo, sleepiness, lethargy, twitching of the extremities and cramps. It is also teratogenic.™

Contraindications: No information as yet.

Drug-herb Interactions: No information as yet.

70. Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) Honduras Mahogany, Broad-leaved Mahogany

A fruiting Swietenia macrophylla tree Seeds and fruits of Swietenia macrophylla

Description: Swietenia macrophylla King is an evergreen tree, up to 3035 m tall. Bark is grey and smooth when young, turning dark brown, ridged and flaky when old. Leaves are up to 35-50 cm long, alternate, glabrous with 4-6 pairs of leaflets. Each leaflet is 9-18 cm long. Flowers are small and white; and the fruit is dehiscent, usually 5-lobed capsule, erect, 12-15 cm long, grayish brown, smooth or minutely verrucose. The seed is woody, glossy and possesses wing-like structure at the base that aids its dispersion by wind.[1]

Origin: Native to South America, cultivated in the Asia-Pacific and the Pacific for its quality wood.[1]

Phytoconstituents: Swietenine, swietenolide, andirobin, khayasin T, swie-temahonins E-G, swietenine acetate, swietenolide tiglate and others.[2-7]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: The seeds of Swietenia macrophylla are traditionally used in several indigenous systems of medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as hypertension, diabetes and malaria.[9] The local folks of Malaysia believe that the seeds are capable of "curing" hypertension and diabetes. The seeds are usually consumed raw by chewing.[8] A decoction of seeds of Swietenia macrophylla is reported to treat malaria in Indonesia.[9] Among the Amazonian Bolivian ethnic groups, the seeds are traditionally used to induce abortion by drinking a decoction of the seeds and to heal wounds and various ailments of the skin via external application of the mashed seeds.[10]

Pharmacological Activities: Antimalarial,[11] Antihypertensive^ and Antidiarrhoeal.[12]

Dosage: No information as yet.

Adverse Reactions: No information as yet.

Toxicity: Uterine haemorrhage.[13]

Contraindications: No information as yet.

Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

71. Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae)

Indian Almond, Katapang

Fruits of Terminalia catappa Terminalia catappa tree

Description: Terminalia catappa L. is a tall tree, up to 25 m tall. Branches are horizontally whorled, giving it a pagoda shape. Leaves are shiny, obovate, 10-25 cm long, tapering to a short thick petiole. Leaves are yellow that turn red before shedding. Flowers are small and white. Fruits have smooth outer coat, 3-6 cm long, flattened edges, with a pointed end. Pericarp is fibrous and fleshy.[1-3]

Origin: Native to tropical and temperate Asia, Australasia, the Pacific and Madagascar.[4]

Phytoconstituents: Catappanin A, chebulagic acid, 1-desgalloylleugeniin, geraniin, granatin B, punicalagin, punicalin, tercatain, terflavins A & B, tergallagin, euginic acid and others.[2,5-13]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: Terminalia catappa has been used to treat dysentery in a number of Southeast Asian countries. In Indonesia, the leaves are used as a dressing for swollen rheumatic joints while in the Philippines, they are used to expel worms.[2] In Karkar Island, New Guinea, juice from the squeezed leaves is applied to sores and the sap from the white stem pith is squeezed and drunk to relieve cough. In Nasingalatu, Papua New Guinea, the flower is crushed, mixed with water and drunk to induce sterility. In New Britain, the old yellow leaves are crushed in water and drunk to sooth sore throat. In Bougainville, the leaves are heated and placed on pimples and the bark is applied to sores. In Tonga, the juice from pounded leaves and bark is applied to mouth sore. In Irian Jaya, the leaves are applied to wounds and burns while in Somoa, it is used to cure cough and sore throat.[14] The fruits are used after childbirth to strengthen the back. An enema made from the crushed fruit mixed with Trigonella foenum-graecum, animal fat and warm water is administered to the new mother after childbirth.[15] The leaves are used for the treatment of scabies and skin diseases while the juice is used to treat headache and colic.[1314] The bark is used as a diuretic, cardiotonic and for dysentery.[16] The leaves of this plant have also been used as a folk medicine for treating hepatitis in India and Philippines.[5]

Pharmacological Activities: Antimicrobial,[1719] Anticancer/ Antineoplastic,[2021] Anti-inflammatory,[522] Hypoglycaemic,[8] Anti-oxidant,[6'10'n'23'24] Hepatoprotective,[711'25-29] Antiviral,[30] Chemopreventive,[31] Aphrodisiac[32] and Antimutagenic.[33]

Dosage: 2 tablespoons of a decoction (few leaves in 200 ml water) is given every 2 hours to stop diarrhoea.[34]

Adverse Reactions: No information as yet.

Toxicity: Preliminary oral LD50 doses of petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extracts of T. catappa in mice were found to be 343, 195, and 210 mg/kg respectively.™ Rats fed on T. catappa diet maintained their body weight but suffered from stomach, small intestine and pancreas hypertrophies as well as spleen atrophy.[35] Larger doses enhanced liver damage.[36]

Contraindications: No information as yet.

Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

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