Pong Pong Tree Indian Suicide Tree Sea Mango

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Medicinal Plants Indonesia
Cerbera odollam leaves Cerbera odollam tree

Description: Cerbera odollam Gaertn. is a medium-sized tree with smooth and grey bark. Leaves are simple, few, without stipules, 12-16 cm by 3-5 cm, arranged in a spiral. The blade is succulent, dark green, glossy and lanceolate. Flowers are white, large and bisexual with a yellow eye in the throat of the corolla tube and arranged in terminal. Fruits are round, waxy surfaced, large, 5-10 cm across, with fibrous husk covering the single seed. The fruit turns from green to reddish brown upon maturity.[1-4]

Origin: Native to Indian subcontinent, Indochina, Malesia and the Pacific.[5]

Phytoconstituents: Cerberin, cerleaside A, 17a-neriifolin, 17^-neriifolin, thevetin B, acetyl-thevetin B, diacetylneriifolin, cerberoside, odollin and others.[3'6-12]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: In Malaysia, rheumatism is treated with embrocations of the fruits.[11] The seeds are poisonous and have been used to poison rats and dogs.[311] The seeds are also narcotic. In Indonesia, oil obtained from the seeds is rubbed on the body as remedy for colds, scabies, and rheumatism. In the Philippines, oil of the seeds is also used to treat rheu-matism.[11] It is used in Burma as an insecticide or insect repellent when mixed with other oils.[13] The bark, latex and roots are used as purgatives and emetics in India.[31113]

Pharmacological Activities: Antineoplastic[810] and Antipsychotic.[14]

Dosage: No information as yet.

Adverse Reactions: No information as yet.

Toxicity: Seeds are poisonous and have been used to poison rats and dogs.[311] The seeds have a long history as an ordeal poison in Madagascar, due to the highly toxic cardiac glycosides they contain. The kernel contains cerberin, cerberoside and odollin which are toxins.[15] Humans poisoned by oral consumption of half to one seed kernel would result in sinus brady-cardia, wandering pacemaker and second-degree sino-atrial block and nodal rhythm.[1516] Other symptoms include nausea, retching and vomiting.[16] The poisoning may result in hyperkalemia, which can cause death.[17]

Contraindications: No information as yet.

Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

23. Cissus quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae)

Grape Leaf, Veld Grape

Medicinal Plants Pakistan
Flowers of Cissus quadrangularis Cissus quadrangularis plant

Description: Cissus quadrangularis L. is a herbaceous plant with a thick, quadrangular, succulent stem and is constricted at regular intervals. It has long, slender and simple tendrils. Leaves are ovate, entire, crenate-serrate, 3-5 cm by 5-13 cm and glabrous on both sides. Flowers are pink and white, 2 mm long, while the berries contain one or two seeds.[1,2]

Origin: India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Malaysia, East Africa, Sri Lanka and Arabia.[2]

Phytoconstituents: Quadrangularins A-C, ¿-amyrin, ¿-amyrone, resveratrol, piceatannol, pallidol, parthenocissine A and others.[3-7]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: Whole plant is used for urinary schistosomiasis in Mali.[8]

Pharmacological Activities: Antibacterial and Antioxidant,[9] Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory,[10] Antimalarial,[11] Gastroprotective[1216] and Antiosteoporotic.[17]

Dosage: No information as yet.

Adverse Reactions: No information as yet.

Toxicity: No information as yet.

Contraindications: No information as yet.

Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

Coconut Palm, Kelapa

Antimalarial African Tree
Fruits of Cocos nucífera Cocos nucífera trees

Description: Cocos nucifera L. is a tall palm with a ringed stem that can grow up to 30 m tall. Leaves are pinnate, 2-6 m long with numerous pairs of narrow leaflets. Flowers are arranged in large panicles among the leaves with female flowers near the base of the inflorescence. The fruit is symmetrical, ovoid and about 20-30 cm across. Thick fibrous husk encloses the hard shell (endocarp) in which the fleshy pericarp adheres.[1,2]

Origin: Native to the Pacific.1[3]

Phytoconstituents: Trans-zeatin, dihydrozeatin, dihydrozeatin-0-glucoside, meta-topolin riboside, N6-isopentenyladenine, N6-benzylaminopurine and others.[4'5]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: Its fruit juice is used to treat poisoning, cholera and is a diuretic. Fresh coconut juice with rice flour is poulticed onto carbuncles, gangrenous sores and indolent ulcers.[6] Coconut water is also used for fever, urinary complaints and to stop vomiting.[7] Juice of the green, unripe coconut is boiled and drunk to relieve diarrhoea. In Somoa, coconut oil is used as a laxative and to relieve stomach ailments.[8] The decoction of husk fibre has been used in northeastern Brazil traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhoea and arthritis.[9] Coconut water has also been used as short-term intravenous hydration and resuscitation fluid in emergencies.[10] The rootbark is used as an astringent, styptic and in haemorrhages.[6] It is also used for uterine diseases, bronchitis, liver complaints and dysentery.[7]

Pharmacological Activities: Analgesic,[11] Antibacterial,1[912] Antifungal,[13] Antineoplastic^14'151 Antioxidant,[1116] Antiprotozoal,[17] Antiviral,[9] Hypo-glycaemic,[18] Hypolipidaemic,[1920] Hypotensive,[21] Immunomodulatory™ and Antitrichomonal.[23]

Dosage: No information as yet.

Adverse Reactions: A case report of occupational allergic conjunctivitis due to coconut fibre dust has been reported.[24]

Toxicity: No information as yet.

Contraindications: No information as yet.

Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

25. Coix lacryma-jobi L. (Gramineae)

Job's Tears, Adlay

Adlay Plant
Fruits of Coix lacryma-jobi Coix lacryma-jobi plants

Description: Coix lacryma-jobi L. is a small herbaceous plant which grows up to 2.5 m. Leaf sheaths are glabrous and the leaf blades are narrowly lanceolate, 20-50 cm by 1.5-4 cm. The midrib is prominent. Fruit is tear-shaped, 8 mm by 1.1 cm, with glossy berries which turn black upon maturity.[1-3]

Origin: Native to tropical and temperate Asia.[4]

Phytoconstituents: Coixol, coixenolide, a-coixins, y-coixins, syringaresinol, mayuenolide, coixan A-C, coixic acid and others.[5-9]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: A decoction is believed to benefit the blood and breath and used to wash newborns to prevent diseases.[10] The kernels are used to treat lung and chest complaints, rheumatism, dropsy and gonorrhoea.[3] Fruit is used for intestinal or lung cancers and warts. The fruit is also used as a vermifuge and for hypertension. As the seed is diuretic and refrigerant, a decoction is used for appendicitis, arthritis, beriberi, bronchitis, cancer, diarrhoea, dryskin, dysuria, oedema, hydrothorax, inflammation, pleurisy, pneumonia, pulmonary abscesses, rheumatism and tuberculosis.[10,11] Seeds are also used for the treatment of enteritis, persistent diarrhoea in children, urinary lithiasis, rheumatism and acrodynia.[12] An infusion of the seeds is prescribed for bronchitis, pulmonary abscess, pleurisy and hydrothorax.[11] The root is given along with roots of long pepper and other herbs for fever with drying of saliva and intense thirst, for dysentery, diarrhoea and puerperal fever.[13]

Pharmacological Activities: Anti-inflammatory,[1415] Anticancer/ Antineoplastic,[16-21] Antioxidant,[818] Hypoglycaemic,[9'22] Hypolipidaemic[22-24] and Hypotensive.[25]

Dosage: For the treatment of enteritis, persistent diarrhoea in children, oedema, urinary lithiasis, rheumatism and acrodynia, doses of 10 to 30 g daily in the form of powder or decoction are given.[12]

Adverse Reactions: No information as yet.

Toxicity: Embryotoxicity in pregnant rats was observed. Oral administration of 1 g/kg body weight of water extracts caused an increase in foetal resorptions and postimplantation mortality.[26]

Contraindications: No information as yet.

Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

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