Description: Nerium oleander L. is a small shrub up to 2 m high. Leaves are very narrowly elliptic, 5-21 by 1-3.5 cm, dark green, without stipules, leathery and arranged in whorls of three. Flowers are showy and fragrant. Sepals are narrowly triangular to narrowly ovate, 3-10 mm. Corolla is purplish red, pink, white, salmon, or yellow. Fruits consist of cylindrical follicles, 12-23 cm. Seeds are oblong, coma, about 0.9-1.2 cm.[1,2]
Origin: Native to southern Europe, and widely cultivated and naturalised in Asia, Europe and North America.
Phytoconstituents: Oleandroside, kaneroside, neriaside, nerigoside, neriu-moside, neridiginoside, nerizoside, neritaloside, proceragenin, neridienone A, cardenolides N-1 to N-4 and others.[3-11]
Traditional Medicinal Uses: The plant is used in Ayurveda to treat scabies, eye disease and haemorrhoids. It is used to treat parasitic infection in Calabria (Southern Italy). Leaf decoction is used to treat diabetes in southeastern Morocco. Bark, leaf, flower are used medicinally as a cardiotonic and diuretic.
Pharmacological Activities: Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory,[8'915] Antibacterial, Anticancer/Antineoplastic,[8917-22] Antifungal, Depressant, Antimitotic,Insecticidal, Larvicidal, Muscle stimula-tory[29-30] and inhibits Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation.
Dosage: No information as yet.
Toxicity: Toxic to humans[33-39] and animals.[40-48] The plant contains numerous toxic compounds, many of which can be deadly to people.[33-39] Ingestion can cause both gastrointestinal and cardiac effects and also affect the central nervous system.[33-39]
Contraindications: Should not be used during pregnancy and lactation, in children and in persons with hypersensitivity to oleander. Should not be taken internally.
Drug-Herb Interactions: Fatal digitalis toxicity can occur with concurrent usage of cardiac glycosides such as digoxin and digitoxin. Concurrent use of quinidine, calcium salts, saluretics, laxatives or glucocorticids increases efficacy as well as side effects.
54. Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawl. (Liliaceae) Dwarf Lilyturf, Mondo Grass, Mai Men Dong
Description: Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawl. is an evergreen, stemless, rhizomatous herb. Leaves are sessile, long, 10-50 cm by 2-4 mm, linear, grass-like, 3-7 veined, and have pointed tips. Flowers are either solitary or paired.[1,2]
Origin: Native to Japan and Korea.
Phytoconstituents: Ophiopogonin D and E, ophiopogonin C' and D', bor-nanol, ophiopogonanone A, C, E and F, ophiopojaponin D and others.[3-9]
Traditional Medicinal Uses: The roots are used to cool the body system, as a tonic, purgative, thirst quencher, treatment for sore throat, cough and fever.  In China, the roots are also used to treat bronchitis, cold, dysuria, haemoptysis, laryngitis, restlessness, thirst, tuberculosis, stress, as an aphrodisiac, promoting fertility and memory, also as a sialogogue, to treat cancer and frequently included in polyherbal prescriptions for diabetes mellitus. The Indochinese uses the rhizomes to treat fever and inflammation, as a febrifuge, galactagogue, and also for intestinal, kidney and liver ailments.
Pharmacological Activities: Antiarrhythmic, Anti-inflammatory, Antithrombotic, Immunomodulatory, Immunostimulatory, Cardioprotective[19'20] and Chemoprotective.
Dosage: The daily dose of tuberous roots of 6 to 20 g in the form of a decoction, pills or syrup consumed as an expectorant or antitussive.
Adverse Reactions: No information as yet.
Toxicity: LD50 value of O. japonicus in mice was more than 2 g/kg intraperitoneally.
Contraindications: No information as yet. Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.
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