Description: Morinda citrifolia L. is a tree that grows up to 9 m. Leaves are simple, large, 10-15 cm by 20-30 cm, decussate and stipulate. Blade is broadly elliptic to obovate, glossy, soft and succulent. Flowers are small, sessile, white, 1.5-2 cm across, terminal and axillary. The fruit is succulent, oval, 5-7 cm across, light greyish green and turns yellow upon maturity.[1-5]
Origin: Native to tropical and temperate Asia and Australasia.
Phytoconstituents: Morintrifolins A and B, morindin, morindone, rubiadin, morindadiol, morindicone, morinthone, morindicinone, morindicininone, noniosides E-H, morinaphthalenone and others.[1,4,7-28]
Traditional Medicinal Uses: The whole plant is used to treat aching bones and arthritis. In Malaysia, the heated leaves are applied to the chest and abdomen to treat coughs, nausea, colic and enlarged spleen. In Japanese and Chinese medicine, M. citrifolia is used to treat fever and as a tonic whereas in Indochina, the fruit is prescribed for lumbago, asthma and dysentery. A decoction of the leaves taken orally is effective for the treatment of fever, dysentery and diarrhoea. Poultice of fresh leaves can be used to cure furunculosis. The fruit when consumed together with a little salt is stomachic, aperient, and active on dysentery, uterine haemorrhage, cough, coryza, oedema and neuralgia. The root bark has beneficial effects in hypertension, osteodynia and lumbago. The fruit is also used for throat and gum complaints, dysentery and leucorrhoea while the root is used as a cathartic and febrifuge. The processed fruitjuice is also in great demand for various ailments such as diabetes, high blood pressure, headaches, heart disease, AIDS, cancers, gastric ulcers, mental depression, senility, poor digestion, atherosclerosis and drug addiction.
Pharmacological Activities: Analgesic, Anthelmintic, Antiangiogenic, Antibacterial,[11'30'33] Anticancer/Antineoplastic,[34-37] Antitumour, Antihypertensive,™ Antiviral, Anti-inflammatory, [24-25-38] Antioxidant,[H16-39-44] Antiprotozoal,™ Antidiabetic,™ Sedative/Anxiolytic, Chemopreventive, Insecticidal, Wound healing™ and Hepatoprotective.
Dosage: For treatment of hypertension, osteodynia and lumbago, 10 to 20 g of rootbark is prescribed daily as a decoction or alcoholic maceration of torrefied material.
Adverse Reactions: Sedation, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, hypersensitivity, hyperkalemia may occur.[48' 49]
Toxicity: The lyophilised aqueous extract of M. citrifolia roots did not exhibit any toxic effects but did show a significant, dose-related, central analgesic activity in the writhing and hotplate tests. Chemical analysis and genotoxicity tests revealed that noni juice does not have a genotoxic potential and that genotoxic anthraquinones do not exist in noni juice. However, according to some, anthraquinones are the most likely hepatotoxic components found in M. citrifolia. Hepatitis induced by Noni juice had been reported.[53'54]
Contraindications: Should not be used during pregnancy and lactation. Contraindicated in people with hyperkalemia or with hypersensitivity to
Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.
51. Nelumbo nucífera Gaertn. (Nymphaeaceae)
Sacred Lotus, East Indian Lotus, Oriental Lotus
Description: Nelumbo nucífera Gaertn. is an aquatic plant that grows in shallow waters. Leaves are green, round, 30-60 cm across and with long petiole. Flowers are pink, white or red, 10-30 cm and solitary. Fruits are non-edible and non-fleshy.
Origin: Native to tropical and temperate Asia, Australia and Eastern Europe.
Phytoconstituents: Nuciferin, nornuciferin, nelumboroside A&B, nelum-stemine, dotriacontane, ricinoleic, roemerin, liensinine, neferine, lotusine, liriodenine, asimilobin, pronuciferine and others.[3-8]
Traditional Medicinal Uses: The leaves are used to treat sunstroke, diarrhoea, dysentery, fever, dizziness and vomiting of blood. The plant is used as an antidote for mushroom poisoning and for smallpox. In Ayurveda, the plant is used to treat cholera, diarrhoea, worm infestation, vomiting, exhaustion and intermittent fever. The fruits are used in decoction for agitation, fever, heart and haematemesis while the stamens are used to "purify the heart, permeate the kidneys, strengthen virility, to blacken the hair, for haemoptysis and spermatorrhoea". They are also used to treat premature ejaculation, as astringent for bleeding, excessive bleeding from the uterus, abdominal cramps, bloody discharges, metrorrhagia, non-expulsion of the amniotic sac, and as cooling agent during cholera. The seeds are believed to promote virility, for 1 eucorrhoea and gonorrhoea. Powdered beans are used in treating digestive disorders, particularly diarrhoea. They are also used as a tonic, for enteritis, insomnia, metrorrhagia, neurasthenia, nightmare, spermatorrhoea, splenitis and seminal emissions. The roots are for the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, dyspepsia, ringworm and other skin ailments and as a tonic as well.
Pharmacological Activities: Antianxiety, Antiarrhythmic, Antibacterial, Anticonvulsant, Antidiarrhoeal, Anti-inflammatory, Hepatoprotective, Antioxidant,[817-20] Antiplatelet, Antiproliferative, Antipyretic, Antiviral, Hypoglycaemic, Hypolipidaemic, Immunomodulatory and Insecticidal.
Dosage: A daily dose of 10 to 30 g of the ripe seeds as a decoction or powder is used for the treatment of neurasthenia, spermatorrhoea and metrorrhoea. The pericarps should be removed before using the seeds. Decoctions of 15 to 20 g and 2 to 4 g of dried leaves and seed cores respectively have been used for treating insomnia, haemorrhage and haematemesis. 6 to 12 g of plumules, 5 to 10 g of filaments, or 15 to 30 g of the receptacles in the form of a decoction, are used in the treatment of bloody stools, haematuria, uterine haemorrhage and haematemesis. A daily dose of 5 to 8 g of rhizome or seeds taken by mouth is recommended.
Adverse Reactions: Stamen, receptacle, rhizome node, leaf, and embryo can be safely consumed with proper usage. No known side effects with appropriate therapeutic dosages.
Toxicity: No information as yet.
Contraindications: Seed is contraindicated in constipation and stomach distention.
Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.
52. Nephelium lappaceum L. (Sapindaceae)
Rambutan, Hairy Lychee
Description: Nephelium lappaceum L. is an evergreen tree that can grow up to 10 m tall. Leaves are pinnate, 25-40 cm long, compound with 2-4 pairs of leaflets. Blades are elliptic or obovate, 6-18 cm by 4-7.5 cm, thinly leathery, glabrous, with 7-9 pairs of lateral veins. Flowers are greenish white, fragrant and with no petals. The fruit is hairy, turning from green to red when mature and contains one hard seed.[1-3]
Origin: Native to Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand.
Phytoconstituents: Type II and III cyanolipids, ^-caryophyllene, monoter-pene lactones 1 & 2, paullinic acid and others.[4-7]
Traditional Medicinal Uses: The fruits are used to treat diarrhoea and fever, and also for the treatment of dysentery and dyspepsia. Its seeds are narcotic and the bark is used to treat disease of the tongue while the roots are used for fever.
Pharmacological Activities: Antiviral, Antifungal, Antibacterial, Antioxidant[10-13] and Cytotoxic.[12,13]
Dosage: No information as yet.
Adverse Reactions: No information as yet. Toxicity: No information as yet. Contraindications: No information as yet. Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.
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