Medical Glossary

abortifacient: inducing abortion abscesses: areas with necrotic liquid or pus accumulation aching: causing physical pain or distress acne: a disorder of the skin caused by inflammation of the skin glands and hair follicles acrodynia: a disease of infancy and early childhood marked by pain and swelling in, and pink coloration of, the fingers and toes and by listlessness, irritability, failure to thrive, profuse, perspiration, and sometimes scarlet coloration of the cheeks and tip of the nose adenitis: inflammation of a gland

AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome albuminuria: presence of serum albumin (protein) in the urine aldosteronism: hyperaldosteronism; an abnormality of electrolyte balance caused by excessive secretion of aldosterone alexipharmic: medicine that is intended to counter the effects of poison; an antidote to poison or infection alexiteric: protecting against infection, venom and poison alopecia: hair loss; baldness; absence of hair from skin areas where it is normally present amylase: an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars analgesic: an agent that reduces or eliminates pain anaphylaxis: hypersensitivity resulting from sensitisation following prior contact with the causative agent anasarca: generalised massive oedema angiogenic: an agent that promotes the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels anodyne: an agent that relieves pain anorexia: lack or loss of appetite for food anthelmintic: an agent that destroys or expels parasitic intestinal worms anthrax: a serious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium that forms spores antianaphylactic: an agent that prevents anaphylaxis (exaggerated reaction of an organism to which it has previously become sensitised)

antiangiogenic: preventing the growth of new blood vessels antianxiety: allaying anxiety antiapoptotic: preventing genetically programmed cell death antiarrhythmic: preventing or alleviating irregular heart beats antiatherogenic: an agent that is capable of stopping the formation of fat deposits in blood vessels antibacterial: an agent that destroys or stops the growth of bacteria anticancer: reducing the frequency or rate of uncontrolled cell growth anticarcinogenic: describing an agent that will stop the formation of a cancer anticholinergic: opposing or blocking the physiological action of a neuro-transmitter, acetylcholine, which contract muscles and causing excitatory actions in the central nervous system anticoagulant: acting to prevent clotting of blood anticonvulsant: an agent that prevents or relieves seizures or epileptic attack antidepressant: an agent that stimulates the mood of a patient antidiabetic: an agent that controls high blood sugar antidiarrhoeal: substances used to prevent or treat diarrhoea antidotal: counteracting the effects of a poison antiemetic: an agent that prevents or alleviates nausea and vomiting antifertility: agent that is capable of reducing or adversely affecting fertility antifilarial: an agent that counters nematode (roundworm) of the superfamily Filarioidea antifungal: an agent that destroys or inhibits the growth of fungi antigenotoxic: an agent that is capable of preventing damage to DNA molecules in genes, causing mutations, tumours, etc.

antihyaluronidase: directed or effective against an enzyme (hyaluronidase) that breaks down hyaluronic acid, thus facilitating the spread of fluid through tissues antihypertensive: an agent that controls high blood pressure anti-inflammatory: an agent that counteracts inflammation antileishmanial: directed or effective against leishmania, a parasitic protozoan that causes leishmaniasis antimalarial: an agent that prevents or treat the disease malaria caused by the Plasmodium parasite antimicrobial: destroying or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms antimitotic: pertaining to certain substances capable of stopping cell division (mitosis)

antimutagenic: directed or effective against substances that tends to increase the frequency or extent of mutation antineoplastic: inhibiting or preventing the growth and spread of neoplasms or cancerous cells antinociceptive: relieving pain antiosteoporotic: directed or effective against osteoporosis (characterised by decrease in bone mass with increased porosity and brittleness)

antioxidant: inhibiting oxidation or an agent that does so antioxidative: protect body cells from the damaging effects of oxidation antiplasmodial: directed or effective against the malarial parasites (Plasmodium species)

antiplatelet: inhibiting or stopping the formation of platelet aggregation antiproliferative: inhibiting cell growth antiprotozoal: tending to destroy or inhibit the growth of protozoans antipruritic: preventing or relieving itching antipsychotic: any of the powerful tranquilisers used especially to treat psychosis and believed to act by blocking dopamine nervous receptors antipyretic: reducing fever or an agent that reduces fever antirheumatic: relieving or preventing rheumatism antischistosomal: directed or effective against infection caused by trematode worms (schistosomes) which are parasitic in the blood of humans and other mammals antiseptic: any substance that inhibits the growth and reproduction of microorganisms antispasmodic: an agent that prevents or relieves muscle spasms antithyroidal: opposing thyroid function antitrichomonal: directed or effective against some protozoa (Trichomonas)

antituberculosis: effective in the treatment of tuberculosis, a condition due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antitumour: inhibiting the growth of tumour cells antitussive: effective against cough; an agent that suppresses coughing antiulcer: prevent or cure ulcers or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract antiulcerogenic: directed or effective against development of ulcers antivenom: an agent used in the treatment of poisoning by animal toxins antiviral: acting, effective, or directed against viruses anuria: lack of urine production anxiolytic: relieving anxiety or an agent that relieves anxiety aperient: a mild laxative or gentle purgative aphrodisiac: an agent that stimulates sexual desire apnoea: a condition whereby breathing is stopped apoptotic: a term used to describe the state of programmed cell death appendicitis: inflammation of the appendix arrhythmia: abnormal heart beat arthritis: inflammation of joints ascites: effusion and accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity asthma: a chronic, inflammatory lung disease characterised by recurrent breathing problems usually triggered by allergens astringent: having the property of causing contraction of soft organic tissues for the control of bleeding or secretions atherosclerosis: thickening, hardening and loss of elasticity of the walls of arteries athlete's foot: fungal infections on the feet, often smelly atrophy: a wasting away; reduction in the size of a cell, tissue or organ bacillary: pertaining to the bacteria bacilli or to rod-like structures bechic: pertaining to cough beriberi: a disease due to vitamin B1 deficiency, marked by inflammation of nerves, heart problems and oedema bilious: relating to or containing bile blennorrhoea: any free discharge of mucus, especially from urethra or vagina blisters: a vesicle boils: furuncle; tender, swollen areas of infection that usually form around hair follicles bronchial: pertaining to or affecting one or both windpipe bronchiolitis obliterans: a disease of the lungs where the bronchioles are inflamed and plugged with granulation tissue bronchitis: inflammation of mucous membrane of the windpipe (bronchus) cachexia: general ill health and malnutrition calculus: abnormal hard deposit, usually composed of mineral salts, occurring within the body cancer: a malignant tumour of growth that expands locally by invasion and systemically by metastasis carbuncles: swollen lumps or masses under the skin due to skin infections that often involve a group of hair follicles cardiac: pertaining to the heart cardioprotective: protecting the heart function cardiotonic: an agent that increases tonicity of the heart muscles carminative: an agent that relieves and removes gas from the digestive system cataracts: conditions in which there is a loss or reduction of transparency of the lens of the eye causing progressive loss of clarity and detail of images catarrh: a condition of the mucous membranes characterised by inflammation and mucous cathartic: an active purgative, producing bowel movements and evacuation of the bowels cephalgia: headache chemopreventive: a chemical agent that can help prevent the development of cancer chilblains: inflammation or blister of the hands and feet caused by exposure to cold or moisture cholera: a form of intestinal infection that results in frequent watery stools, cramping abdominal pain and eventual collapse from dehydration cicatrizant: a medicine or application that promotes the healing of a sore or wound, or the formation of a cicatrix, which is a scar left by the formation of new connective tissue over a healing sore or wound coagulant: an agent promoting clotting of blood cold sore: a recurrent, small blister in and around the mouth caused by the herpes simplex virus colic: acute paraxysmal abdominal pain or pertaining to the colon coma: a state of profound unconsciousness from which the patient cannot be aroused, even by powerful stimuli condiment: something used to give a special flavour to food, as mustard, ketchup, salt, or spices congestive heart failure: the heart fails to pump efficiently, resulting in swelling, shortness of breath, weakness, etc.

conjunctivitis: inflammation of the conjunctiva, generally associated with discharge constipation: infrequent or difficult evacuation of faeces contraceptive: an agent capable of preventing the formation of a foetus contusion: injury to a part without a break in the skin; a bruise convulsions: spasms, epilepsy coolant: an agent that produces cooling coryza: profuse discharge from the mucous membrane of the nose counter-irritant: an agent producing counter-irritation, so that less pain at a particular site is experienced cramps: a painful spasmodic muscular contraction

Crohn's disease: a chronic inflammatory disease of the digestive tract, particularly the small intestine and colon cystitis: inflammation of the urinary bladder cytotoxic: toxic to cells, preventing their reproduction or growth dehydration: depletion of body fluids delirium: mental state characterised by reduced ability to maintain attention to external stimuli and disorganised thinking demulcent: an agent that soothes and protects the part to which it is applied deobstruent: removes obstructions by ducts or pores of the body depressant: an agent that diminishes any functional activity depurative: purifying the blood or the humours dermatitis: inflammation of the skin dermatosis: any skin disease, especially one not characterised by inflammation diabetes: metabolic disorder resulting in high blood sugar and discharge of large amounts of sugar in the urine.

diaphoretic: an agent that increases perspiration diarrhoea: abnormally frequent discharge of watery stools digitalis: the dried leaf of Digitalis purpurea; used as a tonic for the heart dipsia: thirst discutient: an agent that causes the dispersal or causes something, such as a tumour or any pathologic accumulation, to disappear diuretic: an agent that increases the production of urine dropsy: an abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in cellular tissues or in a body cavity dysentery: infection of the gut caused by a bacterium called shigella, characterised by abdominal pain, diarrhoea with passage of mucus or blood dysmenorrhoea: difficult and painful menstruation dyspepsia: indigestion dyspnoea: difficult or laboured breathing dysrhythmias: an abnormality in an otherwise normal rhythmic pattern dysuria: painful or difficult urination ecchymoses: small haemorrhagic spots in the skin or mucous membrane, forming a non-elevated, rounded or irregular, blue or purplish patch eczema: an inflammatory condition of the skin characterised by redness, itching, scales, crusts or scabs alone or in combination elephantiasis: a disease caused by tumours in lymph node or filarial worms, causing excessive swelling in limbs and genitalis embrocations: alcohol-based treatments rubbed into the skin to relieve pain or which produce reddening of the skin embryotoxicity: any toxicity that affects an embryo emetic: an agent that induces vomiting emmenagogue: a substance that promotes or assists the flow of menstrual fluid emollient: an agent that will soften, soothe and protect the part when applied locally enteritis: inflammation of the intestine, especially the small intestine epigastric: pertaining to the upper and middle region of the abdomen epilepsy: convulsions epistaxis: nosebleed eruptions: lesions on the skin that are usually red, raised, and easily visible erysipelas: is an acute streptococcus bacterial infection marked by deep red inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes. This disease is also known as Saint Anthony's fire erythema: redness of the skin due to congestion of the capillaries excrescences: abnormal outgrowth; a projection of morbid origin expectorant: an agent that promotes the discharge or expulsion of mucus from the respiratory tract febrifuge: an agent that reduces fever fertility: the capacity to conceive or induce conception fibroids: non-cancerous tumours made of muscle cells and tissues that grow in and around the wall of the uterus or womb fibrosis: an abnormal formation of fibrous tissue as a reparative or reactive process, as opposed to the formation of fibrous tissue that is a normal constituent of an organ or tissue filaricidal: an agent that kills filariae, nematodes that as adults are parasites in the blood or tissues of mammals and as larvae usually develop in biting insects fistulae: abnormal connections between an organ, vessel or intestine and another structure, usually due to injury, surgery or result from infection or inflammation flatulence: the presence of excessive gas in the intestinal tract, causing discomfort fluxes: excessive flow or discharge furuncle: infection of a hair follicle furunculosis: the persistent sequential occurrence of furuncles over a period of weeks or months or the simultaneous occurrence of a number of furuncles galactophoritis: inflammation of the milk ducts galactorrhoea: excessive or spontaneous milk flow; persistent secretion of milk irrespective of nursing gangrenous: characterised by the decay of body tissues, which become black and smelly gastritis: inflammation of the stomach gastroenteritis: inflammation of the lining membrane of the stomach and the intestinal tract gastroprotective: protect the stomach gavage: forced feeding, especially through a tube passed into the stomach genotoxic: a toxic agent that damages DNA molecules in genes, causing mutations, tumours, etc.

glottal: pertaining to the vocal apparatus of the larynx, consisting of the true vocal cords and the opening between them glucosidase: an enzyme of the hydrolase class that breaks down a glucoside gonorrhoea: infectious sexual disease due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae gout: a metabolic disease that is a form of acute arthritis, marked by inflammation of the joints and great pain gravel: calculi occurring in small particles haemaglutination: agglutination of red blood cells haematemesis: the vomiting of blood haematometra: an accumulation of blood in the uterus haematuria: the finding of blood in the urine haemiplegia: paralysis of one side of the body haemolytic: lysis of red blood cells liberating haemoglobin in the plasma haemoptysis: coughing up of blood from the airways haemorrhage: profuse bleeding from the blood vessels haemorrhoids: piles haemostatic: stop bleeding heartburn: painful, burning feeling in the chest caused by stomach acid flowing back into the esophagus hepatitis: inflammation of the liver, usually due to viruses or toxins hepatoprotective: protecting the liver functions hepatotoxic: an agent that is toxic to liver cells herpes: inflammation of the skin or mucuous membrane with clusters of deep seated vesicles; a family of viruses that infect humans: herpes simplex causes lip and genital sores; herpes zoster causes shingles hiccups: sharp inspiratory sound with spasm of the glottis and diaphragm

HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the virus that causes AIDS

hydragogue: producing watery discharge, especially from the bowels or a cathartic that causes watery purgation hydrocele: swelling of and fluid on the testicles hydrothorax: a collection of serous fluid within the pleural cavity hypercholesterolaemic: high level of cholesterol in the blood hyperemesis: excessive vomiting hyperkalemia: high concentration of potassium in the blood hypertension: high blood pressure hypocholesterolaemic: an abnormal deficiency of cholesterol in the blood hypoglycaemic: producing a decrease in the blood sugar level hypolipidaemic: producing or resulting from a decrease in the level of lipids in the blood hypotension: low blood pressure hypotensive: marked by low blood pressure immunoglobulin: a protein of animal origin with known antibody activity immunomodulatory: having the ability to modify the immune response or function of the immune system immunostimulatory: the ability to stimulate the immune response immunosuppressive: being able to reduce the immune response impetigo: a highly contagious skin infection caused by bacteria, usually occurring around the nose and mouth; commonly occurring in children infertility: diminution or absence of ability to produce offspring inflammation: localised protective reaction of tissue to irritation, injury, infection, chemicals, electricity, heat, cold or microorganisms. Characterised by pain, redness, swelling and possible loss of function influenza: the flu; an infectious viral respiratory disease characterised by chills, fever, prostration, headache, muscle aches, sore throat, and a dry cough inotropic: affecting the force or energy of muscular contractions insanity: a legal term for mental illness, roughly equivalent to psychosis and implying inability to be responsible for one's acts insomnia: inability to sleep intoxication: poisoning jaundice: yellowish discoloration of the whites of the eyes, skin and mucous membranes caused by deposition of bile salts in these tissues keratitis: inflammation of the cornea lactogogue: a substance which stimulates the flow of milk lameness: a state of being incapable of normal locomotion larvicidal: larvae killing (especially of parasites)

laryngitis: inflammation of the lining of the larynx causing hoarseness laxative: having a tendency to loosen or relax, specifically in relieving constipation or an agent that relieves constipation leishmaniasis: infection with Leishmania, a parasitic protozoa leprosy: a chronic mycobacterial disease caused Mycobacterium leprae, characterised by skin lesions and necrosis lethargy: a condition of indifference or drowsiness leucoderma: partial or total loss of skin pigmentation, often occurring in patches. Also called vitiligo.

leucodermic: an agent that can cause partial or total loss of skin pigmentation, often occurring in patches. Also called vitiligo leucorrhoea: a gynecologic disorder resulting in abnormal, thick, whitish, non-bloody discharge from the genital tract (uterus of vagina)

leukemia: a progressive, maglinant disease of the blood-forming organs, marked by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow lipolytic: an agent that breaks down fats lumbago: pain in the lumbar or loin region lymphadenopathy: enlargement of lymph nodes usually associated with inflammation or infection malaria: a febrile disease caused by infection with Plasmodial parasites, causing periodic attacks of chills, fever and sweating mange: a skin disease of domestic animals or pets due to mites mastitis: inflammation of the breast measles: acute highly infectious viral human disease caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus, characterised by cough, fever, small red lesions each with whitish centre, formed in the mouth in early stages of the measles melancholic: a depressed and unhappy emotional state with abnormal inhibition of mental and bodily activity menorrhagia: excessive or prolonged menstruation metritis: inflammation of the uterus metrorrhagia: uterine bleeding; usually abnormal amount, occurring at completely irregular intervals, the period of flow sometimes being prolonged molluscicidal: effective for destroying molluscs mumps: infectious disease caused by a paramyxovirus, marked by fever and inflammation of parotid gland and swelling of the neck and throat mydriasis: pupil dilation myocardial: referring to the middle and the thickest layer of the heart wall, composed of cardiac muscles narcotic: a drug or agent which in moderate doses depresses the central nervous system, relieving pain and producing sleep but in large doses, produces unconsciousness, stupor, coma and possibly death nausea: an unpleasant sensation vaguely referred to the epigastrium and abdomen, with a tendency to vomit necrosis: the morphological changes indicative of cell death neonatal: pertaining to the first four weeks after birth nephritis: inflammation of the kidneys nephropathy: disease of the kidneys nephroprotective: an agent that protects or prevents damage to the kidney cells nephrotoxic: toxic to kidney cells neuralgia: pain occurring in the area served by a sensory nerve neurasthenia: nervous debility dependent upon impairment in the functions of the spinal cord neurodermatitis: a general term for a dermatosis presumed to be caused by itching due to emotional causes neuroleptics: effects on cognition and behavior of antipsychotic drugs, which produce a state of apathy, lack of initiative and limited range of emotion neuroprotective: an agent that protects or prevents damage to the nerves neurotoxic: toxic to the nerves or nervous tissue neurotoxicity: the quality of exerting a destructive or poisonous effect on nerves nits: the eggs or youngs of a parasitic insect, such as a lice nodal rhythm: a type of heart rhythm disorder; the cardiac rhythm that results when the heart is controlled by the atrioventricular node in which the impulse arises in the atrioventricular node, ascends to the atria, and descends to the ventricles more or less simultaneously non-teratogenic: referring to substance which will not cause malformations of an embryo or fetus oedema: the presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces of the body oesophagitis: inflammation of the esophagus oliguria: diminished urine secretion in relation to fluid intake ophthalmia: severe inflammation of the eye osteoclasis: surgical fracture or refracture of bones osteodynia: ostealgia; pain in the bones otitis: inflammation of the ear oxytocic: an agent that promotes rapid labour by stimulating contractions of the uterus oxyuriasis: infection with Enterobius vermicularis (in humans) or with other worms pacemaker: a device that regulates the rhythm of the heart beat palsy: paralysis panacea: a remedy for all diseases parasiticidal: destructive to the parasites parturition: the act or process of giving birth to a child periodontitis: inflammation of the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth pertussis: whooping cough pharyngitis: inflammation of the pharynx (throat)

photoprotective: protecting against harmful effects of lights (UV-irradiation)

phototoxicity: toxic effect triggered by exposure to light piles: haemorrhoids piscicidal: a substance that kills fish pleurisy: inflammation of the serous membrane investing the lungs and lining the walls of the thoracic cavity pneumonia: inflammation of the lungs due to a bacterial or viral infection, which causes fever, shortness of breath, and the coughing up of phlegm pollakiuria: abnormally frequent urination postpartum: occurring after childbirth, with reference to the mother prolapse: the falling down, or downward displacement, of a part or viscus prophylactic: an agent that prevents or protects against a disease or condition prurigo: any of several itchy skin eruptions in which the characteristic lesion is dome-shaped with a small transient vesicle on top, followed by crusting or lichenification psoriasis: a chronic skin disease characterised by inflammation of the skin and formation of red patches puerperal: pertaining to a woman who has just given birth to a child or to the period or state of confinement after childbirth purgative: an agent that will cause evacuation of the intestinal contents pustule: a small, circumscribed elevation of the skin containing pus radioprotective: serving to protect or aiding in protecting against the harmful effects of radiation rectocele: hernial protrusion of part of the rectum into the vagina refrigerant: an agent that produces coolness or reduces fever, allays thirst and gives a sensation of coolness to the system.

resolvent: promoting resolution or the dissipation of a pathologic growth retching: strong involuntary effort to vomit

Reye's syndrome: a rare disorder in children and teenagers while recovering from childhood infections, such as chicken pox, flu, and other viral infections. Reye's syndrome include nausea, severe vomiting, fever, lethargy, stupor, restlessness, and possibly delirium. Also caused by taking aspirin in children less than 16 years old rheumatism: general term for acute and chronic conditions characterised by inflammation (arthritis, tendonitis and bursitis), soreness and stiffness of muscles, and pain in joints rhinitis: inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane ringworm: any of a number of contagious skin diseases caused by certain parasitic fungi and characterised by the formation of ring-shaped eruptive patches rubefacient: an agent that produces a mild irritation, reddening of the skin, and local vasodilation increasing the blood supply to the area of application.

saluretics: agents that promotes urinary excretion of sodium and chloride ions scabies: a contagious skin disease characterised by itching, inflammation, hair loss and secondary bacterial infection.

schistosomiasis: infection with Schistosoma (blood flukes) which causes infection in man by penetrating the skin of people coming in contact with infected waters sclerosis: an induration or hardening, especially from inflammation and in diseases of the interstitial tissues scrofula: primary tuberculosis of the cervical lymph nodes; the inflamed structures being subject to a cheesy degeneration scurvy: disease characterised by spongy bleeding gums, loosening of teeth, and mucous membranes that is caused by lack of Vitamin C

sedative: tending to calm, moderate, or transquilise nervousness or excitement or an agent that does so senility: the physical and mental deterioration associated with old age septicaemia: blood poisoning sialogogue: an agent that stimulates the flow of saliva sinus bradycardia: a normal but slow heart rhythm sinusitis: inflammation of a sinus smallpox: an acute infectious disease due to poxvirus, marked by sustained high fever and the appearance of skin eruptions and pustules, leaving small, depressed, depigmented scars sores: any lesion of the skin or mucous membranes spasm: a sudden, violent, involuntary muscular contraction spastic paraparesis: partial paralysis of the lower extremities due to muscular stiffness and spasms spermatogenesis: formation and development of sperms spermatorrhoea: involuntary escape of semen, without orgasm spermatotoxic: an agent that is toxic to spermatozoa splenitis: inflammation of the spleen splenosis: Implantation and subsequent growth of splenic tissue within the abdomen as a result of disruption of the spleen sprue: a chronic form of malabsorption syndrome stammering: a disorder of speech behavious marked by involuntary pauses in speech stasis: stoppage of flow, as of blood or other body fluid stimulant: an agent that excites the functional activity of an organ or system stomachic: an agent that stimulates the appetite and gastric secretion strabismus: squint sty: a circumscribed abscess caused by bacterial infection of the glands on the edge of the eyelid styptic: astrigent or arresting haemorrhage by means of an astringent quality sudorific: an agent that promotes sweating; diaphoretic sunstroke: a condition caused by excessive exposure to the sun, marked by high skin temperature, convulsions and coma suppository: an easily fusible medicated mass to be introduced into a body orifice syphilis: a contagious sexual disease caused by Treponema pallidum, characterised by local formation of ulcerous skin eruptions and systemic infection tachycardia: increased heart beat tachypnea: very rapid respiration taeniasis: infection with tapeworms taenifuge: an agent that expels tapeworms teratogenic: an agent that that causes physical defects in the developing embryo tetanus: an acute, sometimes fatal, disease of the central nervous system; caused by the toxin of the tetanus bacterium thrush: candidiasis of the oral mucous membranes, fungal infection by Candida albicans with formation of whitish spots tonic: producing and restoring normal tone or characterised by continuous tension tonsillitis: inflammation of the tonsils trachoma: a contagious disease of the conjunctiva and cornea, producing photophobia, pain, and lacrimation, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis tuberculosis: any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals due to species of Mycobacterium and marked by formation of tubercles and caseous necrosis in tissues of any organs, usually the lung tumour: an abnormal growth of tissue resulting from uncontrolled multiplication of cells and serving no physiological function tympanites: abnormal distention due to the presence of gas or air in the intestine or the peritoneal cavity typhoid: acute infectious disease caused by Salmonella typhii and characterised by fever, severe physical and mental depression, diarrhoea and headache tyrosinase: an oxidising enzyme, occurring in plant and animal tissues, that catalyses the aerobic oxidation of tyrosine into melanin and other pigments ulcerative colitis: a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon or colon and rectum, characterised by abdominal pain and diarrhoea, often mixed with blood and mucus urinary calcification: the deposit of calcium salts in the tissues of the urinary tract urinary lithiasis: the formation of urinary stones urodynia: pain in urination urticaria: an allergic disorder marked by raised patches of skin causing itchy swellings of the skin uteral: relating to uterus uterine haemorrhage: bleeding in the uterus uterotonic: increasing the tone of uterine muscle vaginismus: painful spasm of the vagina, hence often resulting in unsuccessful penetration varices: enlarged tortuous vein, artery or lymphatic vessel. adj. varicose vasodilation: dilation of blood vessels vasorelaxant: an agent that relaxes the blood vessels venereal: due to or propagated by sexual intercourse vermifuge: an agent that causes the expulsion of intestinal worms verruca: a wart or one of the wart-like elevations on the endocardium in various types of endocarditis virility: the condition or quality of being virile vitiligo: a condition in which destruction of melanocytes in small or large circumscribed areas results in patches of depigmentation often having a hyperpigmented border, and often enlarging slowly vulnerary: a remedy useful in healing wounds wandering pacemaker: an atrial arrhythmia that occurs when the natural cardiac pacemaker site shifts between the sino-atrial node, the atria and/or the atrioventricular node warts: abnormal growths on the skin due to viral infection caused by human papillomavirus whitlow: an infection of the fingers caused by herpes simplex virus whooping cough: a bacterial infection especially of the children caused by bacterium Bordetella pertussis marked by convulsive spasmodic coughs

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