Description: Mangifera indica L. is a fruit tree which grows up to 8 m high. Bark is grey and fissured. Leaves are simple, 12-30 cm by 4-9 cm, narrowly elliptic, pointed, and slightly leathery with wavy edges. Flowers are very small, greenish-yellow or white, fragrant and arranged in panicles. The fruit is kidney-shaped and the yellow to orange flesh is edible. Seed is elongated, fibrous and flattened.
Origin: Native to India and Indochina.
Phytoconstituents: Mangiferin, ambolic acid, ambonic acid, arabinan, mangiferonic acid, quercitin, violaxanthin and others.[3-7]
Traditional Medicinal Uses: The leaves are used in the form of ashes for burns and scalds; chewed to strengthen the gums, while the burning leaf smoke is inhaled for hiccups and other throat ailments. They are also used for skin ailments, asthma and cough. Paste of leaves is applied to warts and used as styptic ointments. The leaves are also used in the treatment of malaria in Budiope county, Uganda. The fruits are used to treat pain in abdomen, diarrhoea, and to quench thirst (with Aegle and salt). Pulp of the fruit is used in China to promote blood circulation, the fruit rind as tonic in Burma and dried slices of young fruits are used for septicaemia in Palau. Its seeds are used for stubborn colds, coughs, diarrhoea, vermifuge and menor-rhagia. They are also used for asthma. In the Philippines, raw seeds are used to expel worms and the roasted ones are for diarrhoea. The bark is used for the treatment of fever or sunstroke, cholera, rheumatism, sty in eye, ulcerated tongue (with roots of Ichnocarpus and bark of Zizyphus rugosa), haemiplegia, diarrhoea (with bark of Streblus asper, roots of Oroxylum indi-cum and Helianthus annuus), dysentery (with bark of Streblus and Spondias pinnata), poisoning, uterine haemorrhage and jaundice.
Pharmacological Activities: Analgesic, Anthelmintic, Antibacterial,[12-14] Anticonvulsant^15 Antidiarrhoeal, Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory, Anticancer,[20-23] Antioxidant,[24-38] Antiviral,[39-40] Gastroprotective, Hepatoprotective, Antiprotozoal, Hypoglycaemic,[45-47] Hypolipidae-mic, Immunomodulatory, Larvicidal and Radioprotective^51'52
Dosage: As an anthelmintic, it is recommended to take 20-30 g of powdered seed.
Adverse Reactions: Anaphylactic reaction following ingestion of fruit.
Toxicity: Intraperitoneal LD50 (50% ethanolic extract) is > 1000 mg/kg in mice.
Contraindications: No information as yet.
Drug-Herb Interactions: Modulation of P450 isozymes.
45. Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae)
Description: Manihot esculenta Crantz is an erect woody shrub that can grow up to 5 m tall. Leaf blades are palmately 3-9-lobed, 5-20 cm. Lobes are oblanceolate to narrowly elliptic, entire, 8-18 cm by 1.5-4 cm. Root tubers beneath the ground yield tapioca, which is fleshy, starchy and edible.[1,2]
Origin: Native to Brazil, cultivated throughout the tropics.
Phytoconstituents: Linamarin, esculentoic acid A and B, esculentin, esculin, scopoletin, scopolin, oxalic acid, saponins and others.[3-8]
Traditional Medicinal Uses: Rhizome is made into a poultice and applied to sores.
Pharmacological Activities: Antifungal, Antineoplastic, Hepatoprotective, Hypercholesterolaemic, Antithyroidal, Neurotoxic and Superoxide dismutase inhibition.
Dosage: No information as yet.
Adverse Reactions: Several minor acute intoxications were seen, with complaints of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and headache following a meal of cassava.
Toxicity: Hydrocyanic acid — oral, human LD50 570 ^g/kg; Oxalic acid — oral, human LD50 700 mg/kg; Saponin — oral, mouse LD50 3000 mg/kg; Tryptophane — oral, rat TD50 1100 mg/kg. Bitter cassava juice can cause death due to cyanide poisoning. Haemorrhage, necrosis, fibrosis and atrophy of the acinar tissue and fibrosis of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas occurred in dogs fed on cassava. Epidemic spastic paraparesis (konzo) is known to be due to long-term intake of cassava (M. esculenta).[W] Tropical ataxic neuropathy, a polyneuropathy with sensorineural hearing loss and optic atrophy can also result from intake of cassava in humans.
Contraindications: No information as yet.
Drug-Herb Interactions: Co-administration of cassava rich diet and alcohol is found to reduce the alcohol induced toxicity in rats.
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