Kaempferia galanga L Zingiberaceae

Galangal, Sand Ginger, Kencur

Kaempferia galanga herbs

Description: Kaempferia galanga L. is a small herb with short underground stems. Leaves are usually in pairs, oval, glabrous, pointed, 6-15 cm long, and spread out above ground with prominent veins. Flowers are in short stalked spikes. The corolla is white or pinkish, with violet spotted lip.[1]

Origin: Native to tropical Asia.[2]

Phytoconstituents: Ethyl cinnamate, 1,8-cineole, ¿-3-carene, a-pinene, camphene, borneol, cyene, a-terpineol, a-gurjunene, germacrenes, cadinenes, caryophyllenes and others.[3-8]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: The whole plant is used as a postpartum protective medicine, treatment for stomachache, diarrhoea, dysentery, treatment for rheumatism, swellings, fever, coughs, asthma and as a tonic/lotion.[8] In Malaya, the leaves and rhizomes are chewed to stop cough. In Indonesia, it is used for abdominal pain, for swelling and muscular rheumatism. In the Philippines, the rhizome is used for boils, chills, dyspepsia, headache and malaria. The Indians also use the rhizomes as lotions, poultices for fever, rheumatism, sore eyes, sore throat and swellings.[3] The rhizomes are stimulant, used to treat toothache, chest pains and constipation.[9] They are also used as carminative, prophylactic, stomachic, for dandruff and scabs. A decoction of the rhizome is used for cholera, contusion, dyspepsia, headache, lameness, lumbago, and malaria. It is also roasted and applied to rheumatism and tumours.[3] To facilitate delivery during birth, it is mixed with the juice of Curcuma montana, C. aromatica and ginger rhizomes and consumed.[10]

Pharmacological Activities: Antibacterial,[1112] Antifungal,1[13] Antihypertensive^1^ Anti-inflammatory,[8] Antineoplastic,[1518] Antioxidant,[19] Antiprotozoal,™ Depressant,[21] Immunomodulatory,™ Vasorelaxant,™ Antiallergy,[23] Insect repellent,™251 Insecticidal[25-28] and Wound healing.™

Dosage: Oral doses range from 3 to 6 g of the rhizome per day, administered in the form of decoction, powder or pill for the treatment of pectoral and abdominal pains, headache, toothache and cold.[30]

Adverse Reactions: No information as yet.

Toxicity: The ethanolic extract injected intraperitoneally in increasing doses of 25, 100, 250 and 800 mg/kg body weight resulted in a decrease in motor activity, respiratory rate, loss of screen grip and analgesia in rats. A dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight was observed to be lethal. Acute and subacute oral toxicity test of Kaempferia galanga produced neither mortality nor significant differences in the body and organ weights between controls and treated rats.[21]

Contraindications: No information as yet. Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

42. Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae)

Description: Lantana camara L. is a small shrub with long, weak branches. Leaves are opposite, ovate, 5-12 cm long with a pungent scent. Flowers are in dense spikes, with salver-shaped corolla, 1-1.2 cm long, orange, red, pink or variegated. Fruit is bluish, globose and 4 mm in diameter.[1]

Origin: Native to Mexico and Southern America.[2]

Phytoconstituents: Lantadene A and B, lantanic acid, lantanilic acid, ictero-genin, lantanose A & B, lamiridoside, geniposide, ¿-guaiene, camarinic acid and others.[3-14]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: The whole plant is used as a bath for scabies and leprosy.[3,15] The entire plant is also a carminative, diaphoretic, vulnerary, used for fistulae, pustules, tumours, treating malaria, rheumatism, tetanus and spasms.[3] In Budiope county, Uganda, the leaves are used for treating malaria.[16] The root and leaves are decocted to treat fever, mumps, neurodermatitis and traumatic injuries.[3,16]

Pharmacological Activities: Anthelmintic,[717] Antimutagenic,[13] Antibacterial,[13'18-21] Anticancer/Antineoplastic,[2223] Antifertility,[24] Anti-inflammatory,[25] Antimicrobial,[26-28] Antimotility,[29] Antioxidant,[30] Antithrombotic,[31] Antiviral,[32] Antifilarial,[33] Insect repellent,[3435] Insecticidal,[36-39] Larvicidal,[40] Molluscicidal[1041] and Spermatotoxic.[42]

Dosage: No information as yet.

Adverse Reactions: No information as yet.

Toxicity: Ingestion of green berries had been reported to cause human fatalities.[43] L. camara is harmful to animals[44-58] and causes teratogenicity in rats.[59]

Contraindications: No information as yet. Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

43. Lonicera japónica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae)

Japanese Honeysuckle, Jin Yin Hua

Lonicera japonica shrub Lonicera japonica leaves

Description: Lonicera japonica Thunb. is a climbing shrub having tomen-tose young leaves and stems. Leaves are simple, opposite and exstipulate. Blade is elliptic, 3-8 cm by 2-3 cm, truncate at base, obtuse and chartaceous. Flowers are axillary, white, and turns yellow upon maturity. Fruits are globose and black.[1]

Origin: A native of East Asia, widely cultivated and naturalised throughout the world.[2]

Phytoconstituents: Linalool, luteolin, geraniol, aromadendrene, eugenol, loniceroside A, B, C, L-phenylalaninosecologanin, (Z)-aldosecologanin, (E)-aldosecologanin and others.[3-8]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: In China, the flowers are used for influenza, boils and carbuncle.[3] In Malaysia, decoctions of dried flowers are used for cooling, flu, fever, headache, and boils. Distilled flowers are used to produce a medicine for treating postprandial stomachaches.[3] Flower tea is prescribed to treat fever, sore throat, mouth sores, headache, conjunctivitis, keratitis, corneal ulcers, breast infections, muscle and joint pain, stomach problems, diarrhoea, and painful urination.[9] They are used in the treatment of arthritis and inflammation.[10] Flower buds are used in infusions for cutaneous infections, scabies, as diuretic and treat bacterial infection. Decoction is used for bacterial dysentery, cold, enteritis, infected boils, laryngitis, lymphadentitis, rheumatism and sores. The flowers and stems are regarded as cooling and are used to treat aching bones and boils. Other uses include intestinal inflammation, stomach ulcers, painful haemorrhoids, sore throats and intoxication.[3]

Pharmacological Activities: Antibacterial/11'15 Anticancer/Antineoplastic/12-15 Antifungal,1[16] Antihypertensive/15 Anti-inflammatory,[918-25 Antioxidant,[7] Antiplatelet/25 Antiviral/25 Hepatoprotective[28] and Antiatherogenic/25

Dosage: In China, 10-60 g of dried floral buds are used for decoction. A combination of 10 g of honeysuckle, 10 g of forsythia, a little mint and bamboo leaf is a prescription for a bad cold from a drugstore in China.[30] About 9-15 g dried flowers has been used in decoction, pills, powder or poultice of the powder.[31] The recommended daily dose is 4 to 8 g of flowers or 10 to 20 g of stems and leaves in the form of a decoction, infusion, extract or alcoholic maceration for the treatment of boils, impetigo, urticaria, allergic rhinitis, fever, malaria, erythema, measles, diarrhoea, dysentery, syphilis, rheumatism and lichen tropicus.[32] For carbuncles, boils, erysipelas, acute dysentery, pharyngitis, upper respiratory infection and epidemic febrile diseases, 6-15 g of dried flowers are used.[33]

Adverse Reactions: Linear, itchy, raised blisters on the skin may occur on contact.[34]

Toxicity: No sign of acute and subacute toxicity was observed/35 Contraindications: No information as yet. Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

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