Ixora chinensis Lam Rubiaceae Chinese Ixora

Ixora chinensis flowers Ixora chinensis shrub

Description: Ixora chinensis Lam. is a small, dense shrub that can grow up to 2 m tall. Leaves are short-stalked, obovate-oblong, waxy, 6-10 cm long. Flowers are densely arranged, with 4 petals in bright red.[1]

Origin: This common garden flower is native to China and Thailand.[1]

Phytoconstituents: Ixoric acid, ixoroside, ixoside, geniposidic acid and others.[2-4]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: It is used for hypertension.[5] The whole plant is used to treat rheumatism, abscesses, bruises, and wounds. It is also used as an anodyne, and resolvent. It is beneficial to bone marrow and pregnant uterus as well.[6,7]

Pharmacological Activities: No information as yet. Dosage: No information as yet.

Adverse Reactions: No information as yet. Toxicity: No information as yet. Contraindications: No information as yet. Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

39. Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) Barbados Nut, Physic-nut

Jatropha curcas leaf Jatropha curcas shrub

Description: Jatropha curcas L. is a woody shrub, 2-5 m tall. Stems are smooth and leaves are ovate, 5-15 cm long, green and glabrous. The blade is thin and 5-lobed-cordate. The flowers are 6 mm by 7 mm, hermaphrodite, and with fragrance. Fruit is 3-lobed fleshy capsule of about 2.5 cm in length, containing black seeds.[1,2]

Origin: Native to Mexico,[2] widely cultivated and naturalised in New and Old World Tropics.[3]

Phytoconstituents: Curcain, curcasin, curcacycline A, jatropholone A and B, heudelotinone, nobiletin, jatrocurin, curcin, curcusone B and others.[4-14]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: The leaves are used to treat scabies, parasites and as a rubefacient for paralysis and rheumatism.[15] The fruit is used for dropsy and anasarca.[16] The seed oil is emetic, laxative, purgative and for skin ailments.[4] The latex is applied to bee and wasp stings, to dress ulcers, sores and inflamed tongues. It is also used as a haemostatic agent,[15] and to treat whitlow, carbuncle and sores in mouth.[16] The roots are used in the form of a decoction as mouthwash for bleeding gums and toothache.[15]

Pharmacological Activities: Antidiabetic,[17] Anti-inflammatory,[18] Anticancer,[131419] Antiprotozoal,[20] Antiviral,[21,22] Coagulant,[23] Aborti-facient,[24] Haemolytic,[25] Lipolytic,[26] Insecticidal,[27-29] Molluscicidal[30] and Wound healing.[31]

Dosage: Two seeds have been used as a purgative.[32] Adverse Reactions: No information as yet.

Toxicity: Human poisoning may lead to amnesia, convulsions, delirium, diarrhoea, nausea, vertigo, visual disturbances, acute abdominal pain, nausea, depression and collapse may also occur.[32] Intake of 4-5 seeds may cause death. It is toxic to rats, chicks and human.[32-40]

Contraindications: No information as yet.

Drug-Herb Interactions: May have interactions with other drugs that are metabolised by cytochrome P450 enzymes.[20]

[Authors' Note: Jatropha curcas is also cultivated as a source of biofuel.]

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