Eurycoma longifolia Jack Simaroubaceae Tongkat Ali Alis Umbrella Pasak Bumi

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Eurycoma Longifolia
Eurycoma longifolia fruits Eurycoma longifolia tree

Description: Eurycoma longifolia Jack is a small tree with compound leaves on branches that can grow up to 1 m long. The numerous leaflets are opposite or subopposite, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 5-20 cm by 1.5-6 cm, with smooth margins. Flowers are tiny, reddish, unisexual and are densely arranged. The drupes are ovoid with a distinct ridge, 1-2 cm by 0.5-1.2 cm and they turn dark reddish brown when ripe.[1-3]

Origin: Native to Malesia and Indochina.[4]

Phytoconstituents: Eurycomalactone, eurycomanol, eurycomanone, eury-lactone, eurylene, laurycolactone A and B, longilactone, pasakbumins A to D, eurycomalide A and B, piscidinol A and others.[35-19]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: The plant is used to cure indigestion and lumbago. It is used as a tonic after childbirth, to relieve pains in the bone and for treatment of jaundice, dropsy, cachexia and fever.[3,20] Tongkat Ali is one of the most well known folk medicines for intermittent fever (malaria) in Southeast Asia.[16] Decoction of the leaves is used for washing itches, while the fruits are used in curing dysentery.[3] Its bark is used as a vermifuge.[3] The taproots are used to lower high blood pressure, while the root bark is used for the treatment of fever and diarrhoea.[18] The roots of this plant are used as folk medicine for the treatment of sexual insufficiency, aches, persistent fever, malaria, dysentery, glandular swelling and also as health supplements.[18]

Pharmacological Activities: Antianxiety,[21] Antibacterial,[22] Anti-

cancer,[6-8'17'18'24-26] Antitumour,[2327] Antimalarial/Antiplasmodial,[51318'2328-32] Antischistosomal,[23] Antiulcer,[33] Aphrodisiac[1518'34-38] and Plant growth inhibitor.[39]

Dosage: 1 g daily is recommended to be the maximum dose for supplemental use.[39]

Adverse Reactions: No information as yet.

Toxicity: One animal study found that the LD50 in mice was 1500-2000 mg/kg of the alcohol extract and 3000 mg/kg of the water extract. A subacute toxicity study with the alcohol extract indicated that 600 mg/kg daily was associated with signs of toxicity while 200 mg/kg daily was not, and another study found no toxic effects at 270-350 mg/kg daily but toxic effects were observed at 430 mg/kg daily.[39] Eurycomanone was identified as the most toxic component from its butanol extract.[40]

Contradindications: Should be used with caution and preferably not for extended periods without taking periodic breaks from use when it is used as a supplement. Tongkat Ali should not be taken by methods other than oral administration.[39]

Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

32. Hibiscus mutabilis L. (Malvaceae)

Cotton Rose, Chinese Rose

Eurycoma Longifolia Flowers
Hibiscus mutabilis flower Hibiscus mutabilis tree

Description: Hibiscus mutabilis L. is a small tree that can grow up to 5 m tall. Leaf blades are heart-shaped, broadly ovate to round-ovate or cordate, 5-7-lobed, 10-15 cm in diameter, and papery. Abaxially, they are densely stellate and minutely tomentose; adaxially they are, sparsely stellate and minutely hairytoothed, 8-15 cm wide. Flowers are solitary and with multi-petals, white colour in the morning, changing to pink in the afternoon.[1-3]

Origin: Native to China.[4]

Phytoconstituents: Isoquercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, quercetin, naringenin, tetracosanoic acid, daucosterol, salicylic acid, quercimeritrin, meratrin and others.[5-10]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: The plant is used for fistulae, pustules and tumours.[11] The leaves and flowers are used as an analgesic, to expel phlegm, treat excessive bleeding during menstruation, painful urination, inflammation and snake bites.[3] The leaves and flowers are also used as demulcent, diuretic and treat bacterial infection. They are used to treat boils, particularly on the chin, in the form of a poultice made of powdered dried leaves and flowers mixed with concentrated tea infusion which makes the boils burst earlier and less painfully. They are also used for treating i mpetigo, prurigo, metritis, leucorrhoea, mastitis, nephritis, cystitis, dysuria and infections.[12] The leaf is applied to swellings, crushed and compressed and applied onto abscesses, burns, and ulcers. It is also used as anodyne, alexipharmic, demulcent, expectorant, and refrigerant.[11] The flowers are used for lung ailments, with leaves for burns, inflammation, and snake bite. They are also prescribed for cough, dysuria and menorrhagia.[11]

Pharmacological Activities: Anti-inflammatory.[13]

Dosage: For the treatment of impetigo, prurigo, metritis, leucorrhoea, mastitis, nephritis, cystitis, dysuria and infections, a dose of 5 to 20 g of leaves and flowers is taken daily in the form of a decoction.[12]

Adverse Reactions: No information as yet.

Toxicity: No information as yet.

Contraindications: No information as yet.

Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

33. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae)

Hawaiian Hibiscus, China Rose, Bunga Raya

Ali Umbrella
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower Hibiscus rosa-sinensis shrub

Description: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. is a small evergreen perennial tree that can grow up to 3.6 m tall. It produces flower all year round. The large glossy leaves are ovate, alternate and vary in colour from pale green to dark green, with serrated edges. The flowers have five petals, and their colour varies but are mostly red.[1,2]

Origin: Native to South Eastern Asia and cultivated throughout the world as decorative plants.[3]

Phytoconstituents: Gossypetin, anthocyanin, myristic acid, palmitic acid, ambrettolide, campesterol, methyl sterculate, malvalate and others.[4-6]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: In Suquang, Papua New Guinea, the whole plant juice is applied directly to sores, to treat headaches and irregular periods.[7] In Central Province, the plant is used to treat eye sores whereas in Northern Province and North Solomons Province, it is used to induce labour. In Indonesia, it is used as a purgative, an abortifacient and to regulate men-struation.[7] The juice also provides a soothing effect on mucous membrane that line the respiratory and digestive tracts.[5] The flowers and leaves are used to treat skin diseases, mumps, to relieve fever,[2,4] as well as to be used as emollient, anodyne and laxative.[8] The flower is also used as an astringent,[5] for excessive menstruation, fever and skin diseases. Its roots are used to treat gonorrhoea.[8] In Finschhafen, the roots and leaves are crushed and the juice is drunk to treat diarrhoea.[7]

Pharmacological Activities: Antianxiety,[9] Anticancer,[10] Anticonvulsant,[9] Antifertility,[11-14] Antioxidant,[15] Hepatoprotective,[16] Hypoglycaemic,[1719] Hypolipidaemic[1820] and Wound healing.[21]

Dosage: No information as yet.

Adverse Reactions: No information as yet.

Toxicity: No information as yet.

Contraindications: Not to be taken by small children, and during pregnancy and lactation.[22]

Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

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