Crinum asiaticum L Amaryllidaceae Crinum Lily Spider Lily Bawang Tanah

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Leaf blade of Crinum asiaticum Crinum asiaticum plant

Description: Crinum asiaticum L. is a bulbous herb with a flowering stalk in the centre of the plant. The leaves are narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, 0.5-1.5 m long, greenish and have a hairy texture. The flowering stem is about 1-1.2 m. Flowers are white, 6-12 in an umbel. Filaments are reddish. The fruit is irregularly globose, 4-5 cm across, with one or a few large green seeds.[1-4]

Origin: Native to Tropical Asia, introduced in Northern America.[5]

Phytoconstituents: Crinamine, lycoricidine, hamayne, isocraugsodine, palmilycorine, lycoriside, ambelline, crinasiatin, hippadine, bakonine, prato-rimine, crinine, powelline, ungeremine, criasbetaine, crinasiatine, phenanthridone II and others.[6-17]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: In Southeast Asian countries, C. asiaticum has a considerable medicinal reputation as a potent folk medicine in the treatment of injury and inflamed joints.[18] The plant has been used for carbuncles and cancer.[7] In Indonesia, the oiled and heated leaves are useful to treat wounds by poisoned arrows, bites and stings. In Malaysia, poultices of the leaves are applied to swellings, swollen joints, lumbago, pains and in cases of headache and fever. The leaves are also an emollient. In Northwest Solomon Islands, the leaves make a topical treatment for inflammation.[19] In Malaysia, the leaves are used as a rheumatic remedy and to relieve local pain.[18] On Karkar Island and in Simbu, Papua New Guinea, the latex from the leaves is applied to cuts. In India, the leaves are applied to skin diseases and inflammation.[20] The crushed leaves are used to wash piles or mixed with honey and applied to wounds and abscesses.[3] Its seeds are considered purgative and emmenag-ogic.[7] In the Trobriands, Papua New Guinea, the stem fibres are used to stop bleeding and in New Ireland, the milky sap from the stem is used for stone-fish wounds.[20] The bulb is an emetic and counter-irritant. In Papua New Guinea, juice obtained from bulb is ingested regularly for 2 months to treat gonorrhoea. In the Philippines, the bulbs are crushed and applied as an oint-ment.[19] Juice from the fresh bulbs, taken several times per month induces vomiting. It is also instilled in the ear to treat otitis.[21] The root is also an emetic, diaphoretic and nauseant when fresh.[22] In a Finschhafen area village, Papua New Guinea, the cut root is cooked in a banana leaf, then cooled and placed on an aching tooth. Roots are used in New Caledonia, Indonesia, and Malaysia in a poultice for wounds, ulcers and swellings.[20]

Pharmacological Activities: Analgesic and Antibacterial,[19] Antiinflammatory/18 Antiviral,[18,23] Anticancer/13,24 Antitumour,[15] Mast cells degranulation,[10] Antimitotic and Membrane stabilising.[8]

Dosage: No information as yet.

Adverse Reactions: No information as yet.

Toxicity: No information as yet.

Contraindications: No information as yet.

Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

27. Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. (Gramineae)

Lemon grass

Herbal Plant For Gonorrhoea
Cymbopogon citratus plants

Description: Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. is a grass composed of dense leafy clumps that grows up to 1.8 m tall. Leaf sheath is tubular and acts as a pseudostem, 12-25 cm long, thickening towards the base and 1-2 cm in diameter. Leaf blades are sessile, simple, green, linear, glabrous, 60-90 cm by 1-2 cm, and possess parallel venation. Inflorescence is a raceme.[1-3]

Origin: Native to South Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia.[3]

Phytoconstituents: Citral, citronellal, cymbogonol, a-terpineol, citronellic acid, a-camphorene, geranial, isoorientin, isoscoparin and others.[1,48]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: The plant is used to treat digestive problems and relieve cramping pains.[4] A decoction of the plant is used by the Chinese to treat coughs, colds and blood in sputum.[2,9] The entire plant is used to treat bacterial infection and possesses fever-reducing and stomachic properties.[5] In many Asian countries, leaves in water provide a bath to reduce swelling, to remove body odour, improve blood circulation, treat cuts, wounds, bladder problems and leprosy.[9] Its oil is used as an insect repellent, for aerosols, deodorants, floor polishes and household detergents.[4,5] The oil is carminative for cholera, and is prescribed for dyspepsia, vomiting, fever, and headache,[10] and used externally to treat eczema.[5] Its roots are taken to induce sweating, increase flow of urine,[9] treat coryza and influenzal

Pharmacological Activities: Analgesic,[11,12] Anthelmintic,[13] Antibacterial^14-18 Antifungal,[16,19-25] Anticancer/Antineoplastic,[26,27] Antimalarial,™ Antioxidant,[8,29,30] Antiplatelet,[31] Hepatoprotective,[32] Hypoglycaemic,[33] Sedative,[34] Vasorelaxant,[35] Antimutagenic,[36] Insecticidal[37] and Radioprotective.[38]

Dosage: A dose of 10 to 20 g of roots is used for treating coryza, influenza and fever. It is also prescribed for dyspepsia and vomiting and as a carminative, by using 3 to 4 drops of the essential oil diluted in water.[5]

Adverse Reactions: Application of thick ointments with the volatile oil on the skin has led to rare incidence of allergy.[39]

Toxicity: Alveolitis occurred as a result of inhalation of the volatile oil.[39] It is also reported to be cytotoxic and genotoxic.[40]

Contraindications: Should not be used during pregnancy.[41]

Drug-Herb interactions: No information as yet.

28. Dolichos lablab L. (Leguminosae)

Lablab Bean, Hyacinth Bean

Dolichos Leaf With Stipules
Dolichos lablab leaves Dolichos lablab flowers and beans

Description: Dolichos lablab L. is a woody climbing herb which can reach a length of 5 m. Leaves are pinnate and generally 3-foliolate. Leaflets are acute, entire, 6-12 cm by 5-9 cm. Flowers are white or purplish pink. Fruits are green pods, 6 cm long by 2 cm wide, flattened, contain 4-5 seeds and turn light brown when mature.[1-4]

Origin: Native to Africa.[5]

Phytoconstituents: Dolichin, arabinogalactan 1 & 2, lablabosides A-F, phytin, pantothenic acid, saponin I, putrescine, spermidine, spermine and others.[36-14]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: The plant is decocted for alcoholic intoxication, cholera, diarrhoea, globefish poisoning, gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea and nausea.[15] Its seeds are used to stimulate gastric activities, as antidote against poisoning, to treat colic, cholera, diarrhoea, rheumatism and sunstroke.[4,16] The juice from the fruit pods are used for inflamed ears and throats. The fruit is also astringent, digestive, stomachic and used to expel worms. The seeds are reportedly alexiteric, aphrodisiac, febrifuge, stomachic and used for menopause and spasms.[15] The flowers are used to treat dysentery, inflammation of uterus and to increase menstrual flow.[415] They are also used for leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, and summer heat disorders, as they have alexiteric and carminative properties.[15]

Pharmacological Activities: Antifungal,[617] Antiviral[6] and Haemag-glutinating activities.[18-20]

Dosage: The reported dose of the seeds is 8 to 16 g daily in the form of powder or a decoction for the treatment of nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, enteritis, abdominal pains and alcoholism.[21]

Adverse Reactions: No information as yet.

Toxicity: No information as yet.

Contraindications: No information as yet.

Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

29. Elephantopus scaber L. (Compositae)

Elephant's Foot, Tutup Bumi, Tapak Sulaiman

Lantern Flies Pennsylvania 2019
Elephantopus scaber flowers Elephantopus scaber herbs

Description: Elephantopus scaber L. is a tropical herb that can grow up to 30-60 cm tall. Leaves are simple, without stipules and when fully developed, form a rosette on the ground. Blades are obovate or oblong obtuse, hairy, large, 5-10 cm by 1.2-3 cm. The petioles are short, hairy, often crowded at the base of stem. Flowers are small and whitish pink.[1-3]

Origin: Native to Africa, tropical and temperate Asia and Australasia.[4]

Phytoconstituents: Molephantin, crepiside E, deoxyelephantopin, stigmas-terol, stigmasteryl, scabertopin, lupeol and others.[5-9]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: In Vietnam, the plant is considered diuretic and administered at parturition.[10] A decoction of whole plant is bechic, used to treat pulmonary disease and scabies. In India, it is used as a tonic, laxative, analgesic, aphrodisiac and to treat inflammation. In the Philippines, the plant is febrifuge, diuretic and emollient.[10] In Malaysia, it is used as a preventive medicine after childbirth, to expel intestinal worms, for coughs and venereal diseases. In Chinese medicine, it is used to cure "dumpheat", which includes indigestion, swollen legs and loss of appetite.[1] In Indonesia, the plant is prescribed when there is a yellowish discharge from the vagina.[1] The plant is also considered as diuretic, emollient, used for relief of anuria and blennorrhoea, remedy for l eucorrhoea and anaemia, to treat fever, inflammation and as a disinfectant.[6] The whole plant is decocted for abscesses, cold, dysentery, oedema, gastroenteritis, gonorrhoea, influenza, pharyngitis and snakebite.[11] In Burma, a decoction of the stem and leaves is used in cases of menstrual disorders.[10] The roots are used for fever in children, on pimples, wounds of cattle, as an abortifacient, for urinary complaints, amoebic dysentery and other digestive problems.[12]

Pharmacological Activities: Antibacterial,[13] Anticancer/Antineoplastic,[1415] Anti-inflammatory,[16] Antiviral[17] and Hepatoprotective.[1819]

Dosage: No information as yet.

Adverse Reactions: No information as yet.

Toxicity: Molephantin isolated from plant demonstrated cytotoxic activity.[5] Contraindications: No information as yet. Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

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    Is crinum asiaticum poisonous?
    5 years ago

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