abaxial: away from the axis, referring to the surface of an organ that is furthest from the axis in bud actinomorphic: having radially arranged floral segments which are more or less equal in size and shape acuminate: tapering gradually to an extended point acute: terminating in a distinct but not extended point, the converging edges forming an angle of less than 90 degrees adaxial: towards the axis, referring to the surface of an organ that is closest to the axis in bud alternate: borne singly and spaced around and along the axis, applied to leaves or other organs on an axis annual: a plant/tree whose life cycle is only one year articulated: consisting of segments held together by joints axillary: situated at the angle between one part of a plant and another part, e.g., a branch and a leaf basal: arising from or positioned at the base bipinnate: 2-pinnate; twice pinnately divided blade: part of the leaf above the sheath or petiole bract: a leaf-like structure, usually different in form from the normal leaves, associated with the inflorescence bulbous: shaped like a bulb; having an underground storage organ made up of enlarged and fleshy scales wrapped around each other from which flowers and leaves are produced calyx: the outermost part of a flower, usually green capsule: a dry fruit formed from two or more carpels that splits at maturity to release the seeds carpel: the female reproductive organ of a flower chartaceous: papery compound: consisting of two or more anatomically or morphologically equivalent units cordate: heart-shaped in outline coriaceous: leathery corolla: consists of petals or a corolla tube and corolla lobes crenate: with obtuse or rounded teeth which either point forwards or are perpendicular to the margin cuneate: obtriangular, i.e., wedge-shaped cylindrical: tubular- or rod-shaped cyme: an inflorescence in which each flower, in turn, is formed at the tip of a growing axis, further flowers being formed on branches arising below. adj. cymose decussate: having paired organs with successive pairs at right angles to give four rows dehiscent: breaking open at maturity to release the contents dentate: with sharp, spreading, rather coarse teeth standing out from the margin denticulate: finely dentate discoid: resembling a disc drupe: a fleshy or pulpy fruit with the inner portion of the pericarp hard or stony ellipsoid: elliptic in outline and with a length:breadth ratio between 3:2 and 2:1
elliptic: widest at the middle of the blade, with curved margins and pointed apex and base elongate: lengthened; stretched out endocarp: the innermost layer of the fruit wall, derived from the innermost layer of the carpel wall endospermous: possessing the nutritive tissue of a seed, consisting of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids entire: without any incisions or teeth epiphyte: a plant growing on, but not parasitic on, another plant. adj. epiphytic erect: upright; perpendicular evergreen: a plant/tree that has leaves all year round exocarp: the outermost layer of the fruit wall, derived from the outermost layer of the carpel wall. Sometimes called epicarp exstipulate: leaves without stipules filament: the stalk of a stamen below the point of attachment to the anther
-foliolate: used with a number prefix to denote the number of leaflets follicle: a dry fruit, derived from a single carpel and dehiscing along one suture frond: the leaf of a fern or cycad fusiform: spindle-shaped, i.e., is circular in cross-section and tapering at both ends glabrous: without hairs glaucous: blue-green in colour, with a whitish bloom globose: spherical or globular; circular in outline herb: a plant which is non-woody or woody at the base only; some having medicinal properties herbaceous: herb-like; often applied to bracts, bracteoles or floral parts that are green and soft in texture hermaphrodite: self-pollinating plants containing both male and female reproductive organs, namely stamens and ovary respectively imbricate: closely packed and overlapping indehiscent: not opening or splitting to release the contents at maturity inflorescence: the arrangement of flowers in relation to the axis and to each other internode: the part of an axis between two successive nodes, joints or point of attachment of the leaves introduced: not indigenous; not native to the area in which it now occurs lanceolate: lance-shaped, much longer than wide, the widest point below the middle leaflet: one segment of a compound leaf leathery: possess the feel or texture of leather linear: long and narrow, with essentially parallel margins lobe: a usually rounded or pointed projecting part, usually one of two or more, each separated by a gap margin: the edge of the leaf blade mesocarp: the middle layer of the fruit wall derived from the middle layer of the carpel wall mucilaginous: soft, moist, viscous and slimy native: a plant indigenous to the locality oblanceolate: reverse lanceolate, widest above the middle of the blade oblong: rectangular, with nearly parallel margins, about two times as long as wide obovate: reverse ovate, with the broadest part above obtuse: blunt or rounded at the apex, the converging edges separated by an angle greater than 90 degrees opposite: describing leaves or other organs which are at the same level but on opposite sides of the stem ovate: broader part at the end of the base ovoid: egg-shaped; ovate in outline palmate: describing a leaf which is divided into several lobes panicle: a compound raceme; an indeterminate inflorescence in which the flowers are borne on branches of the main axis or on further branches of these. adj. paniculate paripinnate: pinnate with an even number of leaflets and without a terminal leaflet pedicel: the stalk of an individual flower perennial: with a life span extending over more than two growing seasons perianth: the outer floral whorl or whorls of a monocotyledonous flower pericarp: the wall of a fruit developed from the ovary wall. Composed of the exocarp, mesocarp and endocarp petal: free segment of the corolla petiole: the stalk of a leaf pinna: a primary segment of the blade of a compound leaf or frond. pl. pinnae pinnate: with the same arrangement as a feather plumule: the primary bud of an embryo or germinating seed pod: a dry dehiscent fruit containing many seeds prostrate: lying flat on the ground raceme: an unbranched flower spike where the flowers are borne on pedicels rachis: the axis of a pinna in a bipinnate leaf receptacle: the region at the end of a pedicel or on an axis which bears one or more flowers reniform: kidney-shaped in outline rhizome: a creeping stem, usually below ground, consisting of a series of nodes and internodes with adventitious roots rhombic: diamond-shaped, widest at the middle and with straight margins rosette: a tuft of leaves or other organs resembling the arrangement of petals in a rose serrate: toothed so as to resemble a saw; with regular, asymmetric teeth pointing forward sessile: without a stalk shrub: a woody plant usually less than 5 m high and many-branched without a distinct main stem except at ground level simple: not divided, e.g., applied to a leaf not divided into leaflets spathe: a large bract ensheathing an inflorescence or its peduncle spike: an unbranched inflorescence of sessile flowers or spikelets. adj. spicate stamen: one of the male organs of a flower, consisting typically of a stalk (filament) and a pollen-bearing portion (anther)
stellate: star-shaped, usually referring to hairs with radiating branches stipe: a stalk or support such as the petiole of a frond or the stalk of an ovary or fruit stipule: one of a pair of leaf-like, scale-like or bristle-like structures inserted at the base or on the petiole of a leaf or phyllode. adj. stipulate stolon: the creeping stem of a rosetted or tufted plant, giving rise to another plant at its tip strobilus: a cone-like structure formed from sporophylls or sporangiophores. pl. strobili succulent: fleshy, juicy, soft in texture and usually thickened tendril: a slender organ formed from a modified stem, leaf or leaflet which, by coiling around objects, supports a climbing plant terminal: at the apex or distal end tomentose: covered with not very long cottony hairs trigonous: obtusely 3-angled; triangular in cross-section with plane faces truncate: with an abruptly transverse end as if cut off tuber: a stem, usually underground, enlarged as a storage organ and with minute scale-like leaves and buds or "eyes"
umbel: an inflorescence in which the pedicels originate from one point on top of the peduncle and are usually of equal length undulate: with an edge or edges wavy in a vertical plane urceolate: urn-shaped variegate: diverse in colour or marked with irregular patches of different colours vein: the vascular tissue of the leaf verrucose: warty whorl: a ring-like arrangement of similar parts arising from a common point or node
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WHAT IT IS A three-phase plan that has been likened to the low-carbohydrate Atkins program because during the first two weeks, South Beach eliminates most carbs, including bread, pasta, potatoes, fruit and most dairy products. In PHASE 2, healthy carbs, including most fruits, whole grains and dairy products are gradually reintroduced, but processed carbs such as bagels, cookies, cornflakes, regular pasta and rice cakes remain on the list of foods to avoid or eat rarely.