Barringtonia racemosa L K Spreng

(Lecythidaceae)

Putat Kampong, Samundrapandu

Barringtonia Racemosa
Barringtonia racemosa fruits Barringtonia racemosa tree

Description: Barringtonia racemosa (L.) K. Spreng is a small tree with large, simple leaves about 20 cm long. Flowers are large with numerous pinkish stamens. The fruit is ellipsoid, green, 8 cm long, and turns red upon maturity.[1,2]

Origin: Native to Africa, temperate and tropical Asia, Australasia and the Pacific.[3]

Phytoconstituents: Nasimalun A and B, barringtonin, Ri-barrigenol, R2-barrigenol, barringtogenol, barringtogenic acid and others.[4-9]

12. Barringtonia racemosa (L.) K. Spreng

Traditional Medicinal Uses: The plant is widely used in the form of a decoction in Sri Lankan traditional medicine.[10] The leaves and bark are used for rat and snake bites, rat poisoning and on boils.[1011] The fruits are used for cough, asthma and diarrhoea.[1112] Kernels of the drupe are mixed with milk to treat bilious diseases and jaundice whereas the seed has been used as an insecticide and tonic.[11] The seeds along with other ingredients are employed in preparations for the treatment of itch, piles and typhoid fever, while the bark is also used for gastric ulcers.[10] Its roots act as a coolant and deobstruent.[11]

Pharmacological Activities: Antinociceptive,[10]Antibacterial,[12] Glucosidase and Amylase Inhibition,[13] Anticancer [14] and Cytotoxic.[15]

Dosage: No information as yet.

Adverse Reactions: No information as yet.

Toxicity: Aqueous extracts (500, 750, 1000 or 1500 mg/kg) of B. racemosa bark in male rats did not produce any unwanted side effects or toxicity or alter fertility, gestational length, peri- and neonatal development and appeared to be non-teratogenic.[10] B. racemosa seed extract was found to be devoid of acute and short-term toxicity to mice, when administered daily, intraperitone-ally for a fortnight up to a dose of 12 mg/kg. The treated mice showed conspicuous toxic symptoms only at 24 mg/kg. The LD50 of male mice for a single i.p. dose is 36 mg/kg.[14]

Contraindications: No information as yet.

Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

13. Bauhinia purpurea L. (Leguminosae)

Butterfly Tree

Bauhinia Purpurea Side Effects
Flower of Bauhinia purpurea Bauhinia purpurea tree

Description: Bauhinia purpurea L. is a deciduous tree. Leaves are simple and stipulate. Blade is butterfly shaped, coriaceous with 9-11 pairs of secondary veins. Flowers are showy, pink and arranged in axillary. The fruits are darkish pods, 1.5 by 15 cm and woody.[1,2]

Origin: Native to India and grown in the Asia-Pacific as ornamental plants.[2]

Phytoconstituents: Bauhiniastatins 1-4, bauhinoxepin C-J, bauhibenzofurin A, bauhispirorin A, bauhinol E and others.[3-9]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: The root is grated with water and is drunk to treat common fever. The flowers are used as 1 axative and leaves applied to sores and boils, and for cough treatment.[10]

13. Bauhinia purpurea L.

Pharmacological Activities: Antibacterial,[911] Antifungal, Antimalarial, Cytotoxic,[9] Anticancer,[8] Anti-inflammatory[912] Antinociceptive, Antipyretic[12] and Thyroid hormone regulating.[13]

Dosage: No information as yet.

Adverse Reactions: No information as yet.

Toxicity: No information as yet.

Contraindications: No information as yet.

Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

14. Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae)

Annatto, Lipstick Tree

Images Bixin Plant
Bixa orellana flower Bixa orellana tree

Description: Bixa orellana L. is a small tree with simple and spiral leaves, 10-20 cm by 6.3-12.5 cm, dark green, ovate, acuminate, truncate at the base and glabrous. Flowers are large, 5 cm in diameter, pinkish or white, arranged in terminal panicles. Fruits are dehiscent, ovoid capsules containing 15-20 trigonous seeds in bright red pulp.[1-3]

Origin: Originate from tropical America. Cultivated Pantropically.[4]

Phytoconstituents: Bixin, valencene, ^-elemene, ^-selinene, copaene, 5-cadinene, spathulenol, y-cadinene, 5-elemene, ledol, a-muurolene, a-cadinol and others.[5-10]

14. Bixa orellana L.

Traditional Medicinal Uses: The leaves have been used to treat snakebites and jaundice and the seed is considered a good cure for gonorrhoea.[11] The bark of the root is used to treat fever and as an aperient.[11] In Cambodia, the leaves are a popular febrifuge while in Indonesia, water in which the leaves are rubbed is poured over the head of children with fever. In Malaysia, the leaves are used in a postpartum medicine and in the Philippines the leaves are pounded in coconut oil and heated, then applied to the abdomen to relieve tympanites. Pastes of the fresh leaves are rubefacient and used in dysentery. In Vietnam, lotions or baths of leaves are used during fever. Its unripe fruits are emollient in leprosy.[3] Alcoholic extracts of seed coat are taenifuge and laxative.[3] Decoctions of barks are used for catarrh. Infusions of seeds are used to treat asthma and excessive nasopharynx mucus production.[3] Traditionally, it is also used as a gargle for sore throats and oral hygiene.[12] In Trinidad and Tobago, the leaves and roots are used for hypertension, diabetes and jaundice.[13] Leaves and seed pods are used as a female aphrodisiac.[14]

Pharmacological Activities: Antibacterial,[121518] Anticancer,[19] Anticonvulsant,[16] Antidiarrhoeal,[16] Anti-inflammatory,[1920] Antioxidant,[316] Antiplatelet,™ Hypoglycaemic,[322] Immunostimulatory,[3] Sedative,[16] Antigenotoxic and Antimutagenic,[23] Antifungal, Antileishmanial[24] and Radioprotective.®

Dosage: Approximately 9 seed pods are boiled in 3 cups of water for 10 mins and drunk as a diuretic before each meal. 10 g powdered seed/40 ml oil for topical pastes.[25] As a female aphrodisiac, 3 leaves in 0.5 L of water and red paste of seed pods.[14]

Adverse Reactions: Urticaria and angiooedema are possible adverse reactions with annatto dye. A patient developed these symptoms and hypotension within 20 min of ingestion of annatto containing fibres.[3]

Toxicity: Toxic to dogs dosed with 60 mg/kg trans-bixin.[26] However, annatto containing 5% bixin was non-genotoxic and non-carcinogenic to rat livers even at the highest concentration tested at 1000 ppm (4.23 bixin/kg body weight/day).[27] Annatto given through gavage to Wistar rats on days 6-15 of pregnancy showed no adverse effect on the mothers and foetus.[28]

Contraindications: Trans-bixin is hyperglycaemic and should not be ingested by patients with diabetes mellitus.[25]

Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

15. Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Guttiferae) Indian Laurel, Penaga Laut, Borneo Mahogany

Barringtonia Racemosa Spreng
Flowers of Calophyllum inophyllum Calophyllum inophyllum tree

Description: Calophyllum inophyllum L. is a large tree with broad, glossy, leathery, elliptic-oblong leaf blades, 8-16 cm by 4-8 cm, and with numerous parallel side veins. The tree bears sweetly scented white flowers in erect racemes. Fruits are globose, 2 cm across and are green in colour.[1,2]

Origin: It is found in Africa, tropical and temperate Asia, Australasia and the Pacific.[3]

Phytoconstituents: Inophynone, canophyllol, canophyllic acid, calophyl-lolide, inophyllolide, inophyllum B, C, P, and E, jacareubin, (+)-calanolide A, inocalophyllins A and B, calophinone, calophyllumin C, inophyllin A and others.[4-28]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: The whole plant is used as a crude drug for curing rheumatism and skin affections in South India.[14] Its juice is a purgative and the seed oil is specific for rheumatism and various skin diseases (i.e., scabies, ringworm and dermatosis). The bark is used for internal haemorrhage and as an astringent.[29] In Buso, Papua New Guinea, the milky latex from the leaves is diluted with water and the solution is applied to irritated eyes.[30] The gum is emetic and purgative.[29]

15. Calophyllum inophyllum L.

Pharmacological Activities: Antibacterial,131'321 Anticancer/Antineoplastic,[19] Anti-inflammatory,[33] Antiplatelet^34,351 Antipsychotic^331 Antiviral,[1518'36-38] Photoprotective,[39] Molluscicidal[40] and Piscicidal.[5]

Dosage: No information as yet.

Adverse Reactions: No information as yet.

Toxicity: The unrefined oil is toxic.[41] There was a significant difference in the plasma cholesterol levels of the rats fed with C. inophyllum oil when compared with the control. Mild, focal to severe and widespread lesions were found in the kidneys, hearts and livers of rats fed with

C. inophyllum seed oil.[42]

Contraindications: No information as yet. Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

(Annonaceae)

Kenanga, Ylang-Ylang

Flowers of Cananga odorata Cananga odorata shrub

Description: Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Th. is a shrub which grows to a height of 4 m. Its bark is grey and smooth. Leaves are simple, alternate, exstipulate, oblong to broadly elliptic, large, 3-6.5 cm across, 8.5-29 cm long, with distinct venation pattern. Flowers are fragrant, in clusters on older branches. Fruit turns black on maturity and has many seeds in two rows.[1-3]

Origin: Originates from Indochina, Malesia and tropical Australia.[4]

Phytoconstituents: Acetogenin, aporphine, liriodenine, canangone, a-humulene, ^-cubebene, germacrene D, cananodine, y-eudesmol and others.[3,5-7]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: It is used for asthma, malaria, fever, cholera, typhoid, scabies, dermatitis, ulcer and wounds.[8] The seeds are used for stomach complaints with fever and in Indonesia, the bark is used for scabies.[3] In Malaysia, a paste of fresh flowers is applied to the chest for asthma and to treat malaria. In Solomon islands, a paste of fresh flowers is applied to boils while in India, the essential oil from the flowers makes an external remedy for cephalgia, ophthalmia and gout.[3,9]

Pharmacological Activities: Antibacterial,[1011] Antifungal,[1112] Antihyper-tensive,[313] Antioxidant,[10] Antineoplastic^'12'14'151 and Antiprotozoal.[1216]

Dosage: No information as yet.

Adverse Reactions: No information as yet.

Toxicity: A 50% ethanolic root bark extract administered orally to male albino rats at the dose of 1 g/kg body weight/day for 60 days resulted in decreased epididymal sperm motility and sperm count, and morphological abnormalities in the sperms.[17] However, it is non-toxic at the current level of intake as a food ingredient (0.0001 mg/kg/day). Although sometimes Ylang-Ylang oil has been reported to cause dermal sensitisation reactions in animals and humans, it is unclear what constituent(s) within the essential oil comprise the offending agent.[18]

Contraindications: No information as yet.

Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

17. Capsicum annuum L. (Solanaceae)

Chilli, Red Pepper

Barringtonia Racemosa Spreng
Capsicum annuum fruits Capsicum annuum plant

Description: Capsicum annuum L. is a small herb that can grow up to 1 m tall. Leaves are oblong-ovate, ovate, or ovate-lanceolate, 4-13 cm by 1.5-4 cm with entire margin. Flowers are small, white or tinged purple. Fruits are mostly red, but can be green, orange, yellow and can grow up to 15 cm. Seeds are pale yellow, discoid or reniform and 3-5 mm.[1-5]

Origin: Native to Mexico and South America, widely cultivated throughout the world.[5]

Phytoconstituents: Capsaicin, capsicosides E-G, capsianosides 1-4, capsia-nosides VIII, IX, X, XIII, XV and XVI, solanidine, solanine, solasdine, scopoletin and others.[6-15]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: The leaves are used to treat toothache. The fruits are used to stimulate gastric activities and increase blood circulation.[4] It is also a stimulant, carminative, and used locally for neuralgia and for rheu-matism.[15] Uterine pain associated with childbirth is treated with soup

17. Capsicum annuum L.

containing the fruit.[16] The Commision E approved Capsicum annuum for painful muscle spasms in areas of shoulder, arm and spines. Preparations are used to treat arthritis, neuralgia, lumbago and chilblains.[17]

Pharmacological Activities: Antibacterial,[1819] Antifungal,[2021] Anticancer,[2223] Antioxidant,[1024-26] Antiprotozoal,™ Hypocholesterolaemic/ Hypolipidemic,[1928] Immunomodulatory,[29] Antimutagenic[3031] and

Pesticidal.[32]

Dosage: Liquid extract is prepared by percolating 100 gm of the plant extract with 60 mg of ethanol, to be used as an antirheumatic. External daily dose of semi solid preparations containing maximum of 50 mg of capsaicin in 100 gm neutral base is also used as an antirheumatic and applied to the affected area not more than 3 or 4 times daily.[33]

Adverse Reactions: Internally, it may cause gastrointestinal cramping, pain, and diarrhoea. Topically, it may cause painful irritation of mucous membrane.[34]

Toxicity: Oral LD50 values for capsaicin are 161.2 mg/kg (rats) and 118.8 mg/kg (mice), with haemorrhage of the gastric fundus observed in some of the animals that died. However, capsaicin is considered to be safe and effective as an external analgesic counterirritant.[35] Rabbits fed with C. annuum powder at 5 mg/kg per day in the diet daily for 12 months showed damaged liver and spleen. A rabbit skin irritation test of C. annuum fruit extract at 0.1% to 1.0% produced no irritation but caused neoplastic changes in the liver and intestinal tumours were observed in rats fed red chili powder at 80 mg/kg per day for 30 days.[35] High doses administered over extended period of time can cause chronic gastritis, kidney damage, liver damage and neurotoxic effects.[33]

Contraindications: Should not be used during pregnancy and lactation, in people with hypersensitivity and in children. Should not be used on open wounds or abrasions, or near the eyes.[34]

Drug-Herb Interactions: Reported with concomitant administration with aspirin and salicylic compounds.[3336] Decrease the actions of «-adrenergic blockers, clonidine (anti-hypertensive) and methyldopa (antihypertensive). Hypertensive crisis with monoamine oxidase inhibitors.[34]

18. Cassia fistula L. (Leguminosae) Golden Shower Tree, Indian Laburnum, Purging Cassia

Barringtonia Racemosa Spreng
Cassia fistula fruits and flowers Cassia fistula tree

Description: Cassia fistula L. is a large tree, which grows to 10 m tall. Leaves are alternate, pinnate, 3-8 pairs of leaflets, broadly ovate and pointed. Flowers are dense, bright yellow and about 4-5 cm across. Fruit pods are long, 30-60 cm, cylindrical, brown in colour and contains many seed.[1-3]

Origin: Native to India and Sri Lanka.[2,4]

Phytoconstituents: Fistucacidin, chrysophanic acid, chrysophanol, clitorin, sennosides A and B, chrysophanein and others.[2,4-9]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: The whole plant is used for anthrax, burns, cancer, constipation, convulsions, delirium, diarrhoea, dysentery, dysuria, epilepsy, fever, influenza, gravel, haematuria, pimples, syphilis, tumours and worms.[4,10] The leaf is used for skin diseases (juice), healing ulcers, for ringworm and irritation of skin (juice of young leaves), facial paralysis and rheumatism (paste).[10] The raw black pulp found between the seeds is a

18. Cassia fistula L.

popular remedy for constipation.[3,4] It is also used as a cathartic, for rheumatism and snakebite (pulp), treats bacterial infections (pulp mixed with leaves of Cassia angustifolia), liver complaints, heart disease, reduce fever, as abor-tifacient, demulcent and is useful in liver, throat, eye diseases, convulsions and sores. The seed is an emetic, carminative, appetiser, and is used for constipation, jaundice, cancer on face and syphilis.[10] The roots act as a purgative while the rootbark is used for cleansing wounds.[4] The root is also used as an astringent, tonic, febrifuge, for skin diseases, leprosy, tuberculous glands, syphilis and epilepsy.[10]

Pharmacological Activities: Antimicrobial,[1114] Anticholinergic,[15] Antifertility,[16] Anti-inflammatory,[17] Antineoplastic,[18] Antioxidant,[19-22] Depressant,[23] Hepatoprotective,[24-26] Hypocholesterolaemic,[27] Anti-leishmanial,[28] Larvicidal[29] and Wound healing.[3031]

Dosage: No information as yet.

Adverse Reactions: No information as yet.

Toxicity: In cases of overdose or prolonged administration, loss of electrolytes, especially potassium ions, aldosteronism, albuminuria, haematuria, inhibition of intestinal motility and muscle weakness may occur. Rarely, cardiac arrhythmia, nephropathy, oedema, and accelerated osteoclasis may arise.[32]

Contraindications: Contraindicated with acute inflammatory diseases of intestine and appendicitis. Should not be used during pregnancy and while nursing. Should not be used in children under 12 years of age.[32]

Drug-Herb Interactions: Interaction with anthranoid laxatives.[33] Enhancement of effects of cardioactive steroids may occur. Effects of antiar-rhythmics may also be affected.[32]

19. Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don

(Apocynaceae)

Madagascar Periwinkle, Rose Periwinkle

Garden Tea Party
Catharanthus roseus flower Catharanthus roseus shrub

Description: Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don is a herb, up to 80 cm tall. Stem is woody, slightly branched and all parts contain white milky latex. Leaves are simple, dark green, glossy, obovate-elliptic, 4-5 cm by 2-3 cm with prominent lateral veins on the abaxial surface. Flowers are bisexual, white, purple, pink, red or white with a red or pink centre. Fruits consist of pairs of greenish succulent follicles, 2-3 cm long and contain small oblong seeds.[1,2]

Origin: Native to Madagascar. Cultivated or naturalised in all tropical countries.[2,3]

Phytoconstituents: Vinblastine, vincristine, leurosine, akuammicine, carosine, catharanthine, catharicine, catharine, catharosine, cathovaline, catharanthiole, vindoline, vindolinine, vincaleucoblastine, secologanin, mau-ritianin, rosicine and others.[4-11]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: The plant is used as a remedy for diarrhoea, malaria, diabetes, astringent, diaphoretic, bechic, emmenagogue, menstrual pain, hypertension, insomnia and depurative after parturition in Indochina,

19. Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don

the Philippines, Jamaica, West Indies, South Africa, Southeast Asia, India and Queensland.[2'5-71213] The plant is also used for cold, cough, fever and bron-chitis.[14] In Malaysia, the crushed leaves are applied to scalds, burns, sores, mumps, swollen neck, tonsillitis and insect bites.[13] In Puerto Rico and Cuba, the flowers are decocted and used as an eyewash.[12]

Pharmacological Activities: Anticancer/Antineoplastic,[5121519] Antioxidant,™ Antiangiogenic,[21] Chemopreventive,[22] Hypoglycaemic[23-28] and Wound healing.[29,30]

Dosage: Leaves are useful in treating oliguria, haematuria, diabetes mellitus, and menstrual disorders in a daily dose of 4 to 8 g as a decoction or liquid extract.[7] A decoction of 30 g of the plant is taken for diabetes, dysentery, enteritis, menstrual pains, hypertension, insomnia and cancer in Malaysia.[13] For the treatment of cold and sore throat, tea is made from 9 pink flowers in 1 pint of water and sipped throughout the day.[31] Dilute infusions of roots are used to treat diabetes.[32]

Adverse Reactions: Catharanthus roseus pollen can trigger IgE-mediated respiratory allergy in the people living in close proximity.[33]

Toxicity: No information as yet.

Contraindications: No information as yet.

Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

[Authors' Note: Clinically, vinblastine and vincristine are administered by intravenous injection as solutions of their sulphate salts.[34]]

20. Celosía argentea L. (Amaranthaceae) Feather Cockscomb, Red Spinach

Barringtonia Racemosa Spreng
Flowers of Celosia argentea Celosia argentea plant

Description: Celosia argentea L. is an annual tropical herb, up to 1 m tall. Stems are cylindrical and the aerial part is branched. Leaves are simple, small, spirally arranged, about 5-8 cm by 1-3 cm, alternate and exstipulate. The blade is lanceolate and ovate. The apex is acuminate. It bears several pinkish or white flowers which are minute. The fruits are globose and seeds are black.[1-5]

Origin: Native to India.[6]

Phytoconstituents: Celosian, nicotinic acid, celogenamide A, celogentin A-D, H, J and K, moroidin and others.[3,5,7-11]

Traditional Medicinal Uses: C. argentea is used internally for haemato-logical and gynaecologic disorders and externally to treat inflammation and as a disinfectant. The whole plant is used to treat dysentery and dysuria, and used externally as poultices for broken bones.[5] The plant is used for eye

20. Celosia argentea L.

and liver ailments in Yunnan, China[12] and also for the treatment of mouth sores and blood diseases and used as an aphrodisiac.[13] The petioles are used to treat sores, wounds, boils and swellings/4,15 The seeds are used for the treatment of conjunctivitis and hypertension. In China, the seeds are used for haemorrhage, menorrhagia and opthalmia.[5,12,14] In Indonesia, the flowering tops are used for bleeding lungs whereas in Malaysia, the red flowering tops are prepared as decoctions which are given in cases of white discharges, excessive menstruations, haematuria, dysentery, proteinuria, bleeding piles and bleeding nose.[5]

Pharmacological Activities: Antibacterial/15] Antimitotic/19 Antineoplastic/15 Diuretic,[5] Hypoglycaemic,[18] Hepatoprotective,[11,19] Immunomodulatory/5,17,25 Cytoprotective[21] and Wound healing.[22]

Dosage: No information as yet.

Adverse Reactions: No information as yet.

Toxicity: No information as yet.

Contraindications: Leaves should not be eaten by menstruating women.[23] Drug-Herb Interactions: No information as yet.

21. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (Umbelliferae)

Indian Pennywort, Asiatic Pennywort

Centella Asiatica Herb Tagalog
Top view of Centella asiatica herb

Description: Centella asiatica (L.) Urban is a creeping, perennial herb with long slender horizontal stolons, characterised by long internodes. Leaves are green, fan-shaped or round-reniform, 1-4 cm by 1-7 cm with a crenate or dentate margin. Flowers are umbels with white or light purple-to-pink petals and bear small oval fruit.[1,2]

Origin: Native to India, found in tropical America, Africa, West Pakistan, China, Japan and the Pacific.1[3]

Phytoconstituents: Asiaticoside, asiatic acid, brahmic acid, brahmo-side, centellic acid, centellose, indocentelloside, madecassic acid, madecassoside, thankuniside, vellarin, bayogenin, centellin, asiaticin, and centellicin.[4-15]

21. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban

Traditional Medicinal Uses: The plant is used in cooling drinks when boiled, for diarrhoea, diuretic, gravel, leprosy treatment, stones, wound healing and as a tonic.[24] It is also part of a mixture to treat colic in Indonesia.[16] The Chinese uses it to improve appetite, aid digestion, treat sores and ulcers. In India, it is used to treat skin, nervous system and blood diseases.[2717] The plant is used to treat fever and rheumatism, as a detoxicant, sedative and peripheral vasodilator.[718] The plant is reported as treatment for cancer, circulatory stimulant, hypotensive, stimulant, tonic, cicatrizant (leaf), used for the treatment of haematuria, gonorrhoea, peptic ulcer and sore throat.[5] It is also used for tuberculosis, headache (decoction), dysentery (decoction with other ingredients), boils and tumours (paste applied), leucoderma, anaemia, urinary discharges, bronchitis, insanity, leprosy (decoction), mental deficiency, dysentery (juice or paste on empty stomach for 2-3 days), cough (decoction with ginger and black pepper), cooling (paste with pepper and salt), tonic (juice with palm jaggery given to women after childbirth), elephantiasis, enlarged spleen (ointment from leaves), cures stuttering or stammering, diuretic, small pox and as a local stimulant.[19] External application in the form of poultices is prescribed for contusions, closed fractures, sprain and furunculosis.™

Pharmacological Activities: Antibacterial,[20] Antidepressant,™ Antiemetic,[22] Antineoplastic,[823-26] Antioxidant,[27-32] Antithrombotic,[33] Anxiolytic,™35 Gastroprotective,[936] Immunomodulatory,™38 Anti-genotoxic,[39] Nerve-regenerative,[40] Radioprotective™42 and Wound healing.™4^

Dosage: Approximately 0.6 g dry weight of whole plant taken three times a day (condition not indicated).1[45] Larger amounts of fresh leaves are sometimes eaten as vegetable and dietary supplement.[45] 60 mg of C. asiatica extract given daily for varicose veins.[46] 30 or 60 mg of Total Triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica (TTFCA) three times a day for improving venous hypertension.™ Titrated extract of C. asiatica given 60 or 120 mg daily for chronic venous insufficiency.™ For the treatment of fever, measles, haemate-mesis, epistaxis, diarrhoea, dysentery, constipation, leucorrhoea, jaundice, dysuria, furunculosis, dysmenorrhoea, varices, daily dose of 30 to 40 g of fresh plant in the form of extracted juice or decoction is taken.[18]

Adverse Reactions: Allergic contact dermatitis.™ Sedation, increased blood glucose and cholesterol levels.[50]

Toxicity: Hepatotoxic.[51]

Contraindications: Should not be used during pregnancy and lactation and not to be given to children.[50]

Drug-Herb Interactions: Reported with ephedrine, theophylline, atropine and codeine.[52] Decrease effectiveness of antidiabetic and antilipidemic drugs.[50]

[Authors' Note: Topical creams containing the active component asiatico-side is available commercially for wound healing.]

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