Salix glauca Anderss.; Salix octandra Del. fide DEP Notes (Willow):
Zohary mentions that the biblical Hebrew word refers both to this and other species of Salix in Israel (five species). He notes that this is a honey plant, a tannin source, used for wicker work (ZOH). I refer readers to the better-known S. alba and S. babylonica for fuller accounts. Poplars and willows belong to the same family, and are fast-growing weed trees especially when growing near water. Zohary suggests that if the willows of the Bible were native to the Holy Land, they would have been Salix acmophylla or Salix alba, which hybridize readily. I suggest that romantics like me like the idea of the weeping willow, Salix babylonica, in their biblical garden. These three may be keyed as follows:
• Branches erect or ascending; leaves less than 10 times as long as broad:
• — Stamens, 4 to 5; capsule pedicels circa 1.5 mm long; branches reddish: S. acmophylla
• — Stamens, 2; capsules sessile; branches yellow-green to brown: S. alba
• Branches pendulous; leaves more than 10 times as long as broad: S. babylonica
Zohary notes that, in general, Salix alba is found in cooler areas, S. acmophylla in hotter areas. Common Names (Willow):
Aravah (Heb.; ZOH); Bada (Hindu; Pun.; DEP; NAD; SKJ); Bed (Pun.; SKJ); Bedh (Afg.; DEP); Bisu (Pun.; DEP); Budha (Bom.; Sin. DEP; NAD; SKJ); Gadphains (Up.; SKJ). Ncsn.
• Asian Indians suggest the bark for fever (SKL).
• Leaves lopped for fodder.
white willow (salix alba l.) ++ salicaceae
Notes (White Willow):
And they shall spring up as among the grass, as willows by the water courses.
Isaiah 44:4 (KJV)
They shall spring up like grass amid waters, like willows by flowing streams.
Isaiah 44:4 (RSV)
And they will certainly spring up among the green grass, like poplars by the water ditches streams.
Isaiah 44:4 (NWT)
Along the Jordan River, willows frequent the fresher waters, and Euphrates poplars the more brackish waters. Willows are handsome, fast-growing trees, useful for holding banks against flooding. The wood can be used for fuel, and some willows have been recommended as energy sources. Slender willow twigs, or withes, are used in wicker work. Willow branches were used by the Jews in some of their religious rites and ceremonies. Willows were among four species the Hebrews were commanded to take at the Feast of the Tabernacles. The bark may contain as much as 13% tannin. Honey plants (BIB; FP1; ZOH). Regarded as antiperiodic, antiseptic, astringent, tonic, and vermifuge, the white willow is used in folk remedies for calluses, corns, debility, diarrhea, dysentery, dysmenorrhea, dyspepsia, fever, gout, hemotysis, malaria, rheumatism, tumors, and warts. Lebanese recognize the aspirin-like quality of the bark decoction, using it for colds, grippe, and pain, and a strong decoction for venereal disease. Even "transplanted" to America, the Lebanese used the bark of the American species for colds, flu, headache, pains, and rheumatism, even amplifying my generic belief that "all willows are the same in his medicine" (BIB; HJP).
Common Names (White Willow):
Ak Sogut (Tur.; EFS); Aravah (Heb.; ZOH); Aubier (Fr.; HH3); Bai Liu (Pin.; AH2); Bai Liu Gen (Pin.; AH2); Bai Liu Ye (Pin.; AH2); Beasa (Kas.; MKK); Bedisiah (Afg.; DEP; KAB); Bis (India; Pun.; EFS; NAD); Bushan (Pun.; KAB); Changma (Pun.; DEP); Dotterweide (Ger.; KAB); European Willow (Eng.; EFS); Falber (Ger.; HH3); Huid Piil (Den.; KAB); Huntindon Willow (Eng.; KAB); Hvit Pihl (Swe.; KAB); Isbidar (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Itea (Greek; KAB); Iva (Rus.; KAB); Khar-wala (Trans-Indus; DEP; KAB); Khilaf (Arab.; BOU); Knotwilg (Dutch; EFS); Madnu (Pun.; WOI); Malchang (Pun.; SKJ); Osier Blanc (Fr.; BOU; EFS); 'Oud el Maa (Arab.; BOU); Pertiche Bianco (It.; EFS); Piletroi (Den.; EFS); Plon Blanc (Fr.; KAB); Safsaf Abiad (Arab.; BOU); Safsaf Abyad (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Salce (Sp.; EFS); Salce Blanco (Sp.; KAB); Salcie (Rom.; KAB); Sal-cio (It.; KAB); Salguiero (Por.; KAB); Salguiero Branco (Por.; EFS); Salicastro (It.; HHB); Salice Bianco (It.; EFS); Salice Comune (It.; HH3); Salice da Pertiche (It.; HH3); Salico da Safsaf (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Sauce Blanco (Sp.; EFS); Saudre (Fr.; HH3); Saula (Cat.; KAB); Saule Argente (Fr.; HHB); Saule Blanc (Fr.; BOU; EFS; HH3); Saule Comun (Fr.; HHB); Sausse (Fr.; HH3); Schietwilg (Dutch; EFS); Schotwilg (Dutch; EFS); Silber Weide (Ger.; EFS; HH3); Swallow-Tailed Willow (Eng.; BOU); Talezzast Amellal (Ber.; BOU); Vivir (Kas.; KAB); Vrba (Bosnia; JLH); Vuir (Kas.; NAD); Weide (Ger.; EFS); Weiss Weide (Ger.; DEP; EFS; HH3); White Willow (Eng.; AH2; CR2); Witte Wilg (Dutch; EFS; KAB); Zafzafa (Malta; KAB).
Activities (White Willow):
Analgesic (f12; HJP; KOM; PIP; PH2; WAM; PR15:344); Anaphrodisiac (f; MAD); Antiaggregant (1; VAD); Antihidrotic (f; CAN); Antiinflammatory (f12; KOM; PH2; PIP; WAM); Antiperiodic (f1; DEP; EFS); Antiprostaglandin (1; BGB); Antipyretic (f12; KOM; NAD; PIP; PH2; WAM); Antirheumatic (f12; PR15:344; CAN; EFS; FAD); Antiseptic (f1; CAN; DEP; EFS); Antispasmodic (f1; BOU; VAD); Astringent (f1; APA; EFS; FAD; PED; PH2; VAD); Bitter (1; FAD; PED); Cardioprotective (1; VAD); Contraceptive (f; MAD); Febrifuge (f1; FNF); Keratolytic (1; FNF); Sedative (f1; MAD; VAD); Tonic (f; BIB; DEM); Vulnerary (f; BOU).
Alopecia (f; DEM); Ankylosing Spondylitis (1; CAN); Arthrosis (f12; PR15:344; APA; FAD; MAD; SKY); Bleeding (f; BUR); Bursitis (1; SKY); Callus (f; BIB; JLH); Cancer (f; BIB; FAD; JLH); Candidiasis (f; BIB); Cardiopathy (1; FAD); Cataracts (1; FAD); Catarrh (1; CAN); Cold (f1; APA; VAD); Colic (f; MAD); Corn (f1; BIB; FAD; MAD); Cramp (f1; VAD); Debility (f; BIB; BUR); Dermatosis (1; FAD; MAD); Diabetes (f; MAD); Diarrhea (f1; APA; BIB; BUR; DEM; FAD; MAD); Dysentery (f; BIB; BUR); Dyskinesia (f; VAD); Dysmenorrhea (f; BIB; MAD; VAD); Dyspepsia (f; BIB; FEL; MAD); Dyspnea (f; DEM); Earache (1; MAD; PED); Encephalosis (f; MAD); Enterosis (f1; DEM; VAD); Fever (f1; APA; DEM; FAD; MAD; NAD; PH2; PIP); Flu (f1; BIB; FNF; VAD); Fungus (1; CEB); Gastrosis (f1; VAD); Gout (1; APA; MAD; PNC); Headache (f1; BGB; PH2; PIP; VAD; WAM); Hemoptysis (f; BIB; MAD; WOI); Hoarseness (f; DEM); Infection (f1; APA; CAN; DEP; EFS); Inflammation (f1; APA; PH2); Influenza (f1; CAN); Insomnia (f1; MAD; VAD); Malaria (f1; BIB; BUR; DEP; FEL; NAD); Myalgia (f1; APA; CAN); Neuralgia (f; MAD; VAD); Neurasthenia (f; MAD); Obesity (f; APA); Osteoarthrosis (2; SKY; PR15:344); Pain (f12; HJP; PHR; PH2; PNC; WAM; PR15:344); Pertussis (f; MAD); Poison Ivy (1; FAD); Rheumatism (f12; FAD; PHR; PH2; PIP; VAD); Scrofula (f; MAD); Sore (f; BIB; FAD; FEL; MAD); Sprains (1; APA); Stomachache
(1; VAD); Tendonitis (1; BGB); Thrombosis (1; VAD); Thrush (f; BIB); Toothache (f1; BGB; JAD); Ulcus cruris (f; MAD); Vaginosis (f; BIB); Wart (1; FNF; JLH); Worm (f; MAD).
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