White poplar populus alba l salicaceae

Notes (White Poplar):

And Jacob took him rods of green poplar, and of the hazel and chestnut tree; and pilled white strakes in them, and made the white appear which was in the rods.

Genesis 30:37 (KJV)

Then Jacob took fresh rods of poplar and almond and plane, and peeled white streaks in them, exposing the white of the rods.

Genesis 30:37 (RSV)

Then Jacob took for his use staffs still moist of the storax tree and of the almond tree and of the plane tree and peeled in them white peeled spots by laying bare white places which were upon the staffs.

Genesis 30:37 (NWT)

Zohary, like Moldenke and Moldenke, concluded that water sprouts of Populus alba are the most likely interpretation of Jacob's poplar rods. The NWT translates it as storax but Zohary rules that out on a phytogeographic basis. Native to Syria and Lebanon; for example, the white poplar thrives along water courses. Whether it is native to northern Israel is questionable. The young buds are covered with a resinous varnish with a balsamic aroma in the spring. Bruised buds produce a fragrant resin that may have been the incense burned by Ephraim in the groves of poplars. Because it casts a dense shade, white poplar has been extensively cultivated in the Holy Land. Bitten by a poisonous snake, Hercules found a mythical antidote in poplar leaves. The tonic bark is used for strangury and blood and skin diseases (BIB).

Photo Salicaceae Medicinal Plant

FIGURE 1.85 White Poplar (Populus alba). Common Names (White Poplar):

Abbey (Eng.; EFS); Abele (Eng.; EFS; USN); Able (Eng.; DEP); Ak Kavak (Tur.; EFS); Álamo Bianco (Por.; EFS); Álamo Blanco (Sp.; EFS; USN); Alberaccio (Malta; KAB); Alberbaum (Ger.; KAB); Alberello (It.; EFS); Aouba (Lan.; KAB); Aspen (Eng.; BUR); Baid (Pun.; DEP); Blanc de Hollande (Fr.; KAB); Chanuni (Pun.; DEP); Chita Bagnu (Pun.; DEP; KAB); Chittabagun (Himalaya; KAB); Chopo (Sp.; EFS); Choupo Branco (Por.; EFS); European White Poplar (Eng.; BUR); Fras (Kas.; Pun.; DEP; KAB); Gattice (It.; EFS); Gin Doro (Japan; USN); Great Aspen (Eng.; HOC); Hakuyo (Japan; USN); Ilba (Cat.; KAB); Ispedar (Jhalawan; KAB); Jangli Frast (Pun.; DEP); Livneh (Heb.; ZOH); Mal (Pun.; DEP); Nyárfarügy (Hun.; EFS); Pai Yang (China; EFS); Peuplier Blanc (Fr.; EFS; USN); Pobo (Sp.; EFS); Popolo Bianco (It.; EFS); Prasti (Pun.; DEP); Prist (Pun.; DEP); Rikkan (Pun.; DEP); Safeda (Pun.; DEP); Sannan (Pun.; DEP); Silber Pappel (Ger.; EFS; USN); Silver-leaf Poplar (Eng.; UPH; USN); Speda (Afg.; DEP); Spedar (Chaman; Quetta; KAB); Spelda (Afg.; DEP); Sperdor (Afg.; DEP); Sufeda (Nasiribad; Sharig; Sibi; KAB); Topol

(Rus.; KAB); Urajiro Hako Yanagi (Japan; USN); Weiss Pappel (Ger.; EFS); White Asp (Eng.; EFS); White Poplar (Eng.; USN); Witte Abeel (Dutch; EFS); Witte Populier (Dutch; EFS); Xin Bai Yang (China; USN); Nscn.

Activities (White Poplar):

Antiperiodic (1; WOI); Antiseptic (f; DAW); Astringent (f; DAW); Bitter (f; DAW); Depurative (f; DEP); Diaphoretic (f; AAH); Diuretic (f; DAW; EFS); Febrifuge (f1; DAW; EFS; ZOH); Insectifuge (1; WOI); Revulsive (f; DAW); Stimulant (f; DAW; EFS); Tonic (f; DEP; EFS; ZOH); Uricosuric (1; WOI).

Indications (White Poplar):

Bone (f; DAW); Caries (f; DAW); Cold (f; DAW); Colic (f; DAW); Complexion (f; DAW); Coryza (1; WOI); Cystosis (f; HOC); Dermatosis (f; DAW; DEP); Dyspepsia (f; AAH); Fever (f; DAW); Flux (f; DAW); Goiter (f; DAW); Hematochezia (f; DAW); Hemorrhage (f; DAW); Herpes (f; DAW); Malaria (1; DAW; WOI); Necrosis (f; HOC); Neuraglia (1; WOI); Night Sweats (f; AAH); Osteosis (f; HOC); Rheumatism (f1; DAW); Sciatica (f; HOC); Splenomegaly (f; DAW); Strangury (f; DAW; DEP).

Dosages (White Poplar):

Inner bark used as a flour substitute in survival breadstuffs (TAN).

• Chinese use leaf decoction for bone necrosis and tooth decay (HOC).

• Somerset British use bark infusion for dyspepsia, fever, and night sweats (AAH).

Natural History (White Poplar):

A rust, Melampsora rostrupii, and a powdery mildew, Uncinula salicis, affect the leaves. Defoliators and borers are reported from the tree (WOI).

Extracts (White Poplar):

Bark contains populnin and salicin, both of which can help eliminate uric acid (WOI).

euphrates poplar (populus euphratica oliv.) ++ salicaceae

Notes (Euphrates Poplar):

He took also of the seed of the land, and planted it in a fruitful field; he placed it by great waters, and set it as a willow tree. And it grew, and became a spreading vine of low stature, whose branches turned toward him, and the roots thereof were under him: so it became a vine, and brought forth branches, and shot forth sprigs.

Ezekiel 17:5-6 (KJV)

Who would confuse a willow with a poplar? This Euphrates poplar has narrower, more willow-like leaves on younger shoots, but broader, poplar-like leaves on older shoots. Zohary notes that the Euphrates poplar grows characteristically on river banks along the Jordan, often coexisting with the wild date along brackish water courses. And like the Moldenkes, Zohary believes that the "willows" (Psalms 137:1-3) on which the Jews hung their harps were, in fact, the Euphrates poplar. Some versions of the Bible even say poplars instead of willow. Early Christian legendry, assuming that Jesus's cross was made of aspen (= poplar), has it that aspen trees everywhere started shuddering

FIGURE 1.86 Euphrates Poplar (Populus euphratica). Source: KAB

when nails were driven into the wood and have trembled ever since. Judas was said to have hanged himself on Populus, but some suggest instead Cercis, or Ficus, or Pistacia (BIB; ZOH).

Common Names (Euphrates Poplar):

Aspen (Eng.; BIB); Bahan (Bom.; Pun.; Pushtu; Sin.; KAB); Bahanr (Las Bela; KAB); Bahun (Shah Bilawul; Sibi; KAB); Ban (Bom.; KAB); Benti (Pun.; KAB); Bhakaim (Heb.; KAB); Bhan (Pun.; Sin. KAB); Bhani (Pun.; KAB); Euphrates Aspen (Eng.; BIB); Euphrates Poplar (Eng.; BIB); Gharab (Arab.; Iraq; ZOH); Hodung (Ladak; KAB); Hotung (Ladak; KAB); Hu Yang (China; USN); Junglibenti (Pun.; KAB); Labhan (Pun.; KAB); Pada (Afg.; Pishin; Quetta; KAB); Padak (Afg.; KAB); Padar (Bal..; KAB); Patk (Jhalawan; Kharan; Sarawan; KAB); Patki (Brahui; KAB);

Poplar (Eng.; BIB; ZOH); Putki Gundava; KAB); Safeda (Sin.; KAB); Safedar (Pun.; KAB); Safsaf (Arab.; Egypt; ZOH); Safsaf el Abiad (Arab.; Egypt; ZOH); Spana (Kohlu; KAB); Sperawan (Pun.; KAB); Spina (Kila Saifulla; Nasirabad; Sibi; KAB); Tzaftzafah (Heb.; ZOH); Nscn.

Activities (Euphrates Poplar):

Indications (Euphrates Poplar):

Dosages (Euphrates Poplar):

I have no reports on this one being used for food. The inner bark of other poplar species serves as a flour substitute; a few have sprouts that are eaten as greens and salads; the sap can serve as a source of sugar, possibly fermentable (FAC; TAN).

apricot (prunus armeniaca l.) ++ ROSACEAE

Synonyms:

Armeniaca vulgaris Lamarck fide AH2 Notes (Apricot):

A word fitly spoken is like apples of gold in pictures of silver.

Proverbs 25:11 (KJV)

A word fitly spoken is like apples of gold in a setting of silver.

Proverbs 25:11 (RSV)

As apples of gold in silver carving is a word spoken at the right time for it.

Proverbs 25:11 (NWT)

An apple a day keeps the doctor away. An apricot (without sulfites) a day keeps the undertaker away. In biblical days, Solomon said, "comfort me with apples for I am sick." Could he have meant apricots? Some maintain that Abraham used dried apricot pulp on his journey from Ur (HJP). I do not know whether the apple or apricot, or even possibly the pomegranate, was intended in the above passages. Apple, apricot, and pomegranate, all possible, are good health foods, and all have been proposed as the apple of the Bible. Perhaps all are! Hunzas reportedly live well into old age, free of cancer and cardiopathy. Was it fresh air and glacial pure water, was it apricot, or was it the real apple? One visitor described the Hunza four meals a day as flatbread with fresh or boiled apricots for breakfast, ditto plus vegetables for lunch, apricot soup for dinner, and vegetables and fruit for late dinner (no mention of yogurt) (JNU). Could they have meant apricot pits in the Garden of Eden? Zohary does not even mention Prunus in his discussion of the biblical apple, believing that apples (Malus domestica) had been introduced into the Holy Land by 4000 B.c. As Milton says, "The fruit of that forbidden tree whose mortal taste brought death into the world, and all our woe." The seeds of both (and many other rose relatives) do contain laetrile-like compounds that can cure or kill, depending on dosage. Were it my Garden of Eden, or even my Garden of Solomon, I would have wanted both, and all other edible members of the Prunus and Malus genera. Bitter apricot kernel is highly toxic because of the potential cyanide levels. Expressed oil, known as Persic oil or apricot oil, is used as a pharmaceutical vehicle; it is obtained by the same process as bitter almond oil. Pit shells have been used to prepare activated charcoal, via destructive distillation. Perhaps the tylenol-HCN connection accomplished more to discourage laetrile than did NCI (BIB; ZOH).

Common Names (Apricot):

Abricoquer (Cat.; KAB); Abricotier (Fr.; EFS; KAB); Abrikoosboom (Dutch; EFS; KAB); Abrikos (Den.; EFS); Abrikosovoi Dyerevo (Rus.; KAB); Albaricoque (Mex.; KAB); Albaricoquero (Sp.; KAB; VAD); Albercocco (It.; KAB); Albercooque (Sp.; EFS); Alberge (Sp.; EFS); Albergero (Sp.; EFS); Albicocco (Malta; KAB); Albricoquiero (Por.; EFS); Alperciero (Por.; EFS); Alperchiero (Por.; EFS); Alukashmiri (Pun.; KAB); Anzu (Japan; TAN); Apricot (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; CR2; KAB); Aprikose (Ger.; HHB); Aprikosenbaum (Ger.; KAB); Binkook Tuffa Armina (Arab.; India; EFS; NAD); Binkuk (Arab.; KAB); Cais (Rom.; KAB); Cherkish (Kas.; KAB); Chhappuh (Heb.; KAB); Chilu (Hindi; KAB); Chinaru (India; EFS; NAD); Chinaru (India; NAD); Chinese Bitter Almond (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2); Chola (Kum.; KAB); Chuari (Hindi; DEP; WOI); Chuaru (Kum.; NAD); Chuli (Bhoti; Ladak; Pun.; DEP; KAB; WOI); Chulu (India; NAD); Ciruela (Sp.; EFS); Damasco (Por.; Sp.; KAB; USN); Damasquiero (Mad.; Por.; EFS; JAD); Damasquino (Sp.; USN); Galdam (Tibet; DEP; KAB); Gardali (Pun.; NAD); Gurdalu (Kas.; DEP); Gurdlu (Pun.; MPI; NAD; SKJ); Hanh (Ic.; KAB); Hari (Hazara; Pun.; DEP; KAB; WOI); Hing (China; TAN); Hsing (China; EFS; KAB); Iser (Kas.; NAD); Jaldaru (Sutlej; NAD); Jardal (Kon.; KAB); Jardalu (Hindi; Pushtu; NAD); Kayisi (Tur.; EB54:155); Kayisi Agaci (Tur.; EFS); Kham Bu (Tibet; NPM); Khista (Pushtu; DEP); Khor-pani (Newari; NPM); Khubani (Hindi; Pushtu; Urdu; KAB; NAD; WOI); Khurpani (Nepal; NPM); Ku Xing Ren (Pin.; AH2); Kushm Aru (Kum.; DEP); Kushmiaru (Hindi; WOI); Mandata (Pun.; Pushtu; DEP; KAB); Marille (Ger.; HHB; USN); Meliaco (It.; EFS); Mishmis (Iran; NAD); Mish-mish (Arab.; Iran; Syria; DEP; HJP); Moon of the Faithful (Eng.; DEP); Mushmush (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Pak Hang (Malaya; KAB); Pating (Bhote; DEP); Salkunamu (Korea; TAN); Sargabarackfa (Hun.; KAB); Sari (Pun.; WOI); Shiran (Pun.; NAD); Siberian Apricot (Eng.; USN); T'ien Mei (China; EFS); Tuffa Urmena (Arab.; DEP); Urumaana (Sanskrit; MPI); Xing (Pin.; AH2); Xing Ren (Pin.; DAA); Zardalu (Afg.; Iran; Kohlu; Quetta; Sharig; KAB).

Activities (Apricot):

Analgesic (1; X15744067); Anthelmintic (f; CRC; KAB); Antidote (f; CRC; DAA); Antiinflammatory (1; X15744067); Antioxidant (1; X15723750); Antiprostaglandin (1; X15744067); Antispasmodic (f; CRC; EFS); Antithyroid (1; AKT); Antitumor (f; APA), Antitussive (f; CRC); Aphrodisiac (f; CRC; EFS); COX-2 Inhibitor (1; X15744067); Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor (1; X15744067); Cya-nogenic (f; CRC); Demulcent (f1; CRC; VAD); Emetic (f; KAB); Emollient (f; CRC; VAD); Expectorant (f; BIB; CRC); Hemostat (f; BIB); iNOS Inhibitor (1; X15744067); Laxative (f1; HJP; NAD; VAD); NO Inhibitor (1; X15744067); Pectoral (f; CRC; EFS); Peristaltic (1; VAD); Poison (f1; CRC); Refrigerant (f; NAD); Sedative (f; CRC); Tonic (f; CRC); Vermifuge (f; CRC); Vulnerary (f; CRC).

Indications (Apricot):

Aging (f1; VAD); Anemia (f; CRC; EFS); Asthma (f; APA; CRC; DAA); Bleeding (f; BIB; CRC); Bronchosis (f12; APA; CRC; DAA); Cancer (f1; APA; CAN; JLH); Catarrh (f; CRC; DAA); Childbirth (f; CRC); Cold (f; CRC; DAA); Congestion (f; APA), Conjunctivosis (f; CRC); Constipation (f; APA; CRC); Cough (f; APA; CRC); Deafness (f; KAB); Dermatosis (1; VAD); Diarrhea (f; KAB); Earache (f; KAB); Fever (f; CRC; KAB); Heart (f; CRC); Hemorrhoid (f; KAB); Hepatosis (f; KAB); Ichthyosis (f1; VAD); Infertility (f; BIB; CRC); Inflammation (f1; CRC; X15744067); Itch

(f; APA); Laryngitis (f; CRC); Meningitis (f1; HHB); Mucosis (f1; VAD); Ophthalmia (f; BIB); Oto-sis (f; KAB); Pachymeningitis (f1; HHB); Pain (1; X15744067); Puerperium (f; BIB); Rheumatism (f; CRC); Snakebites (f; APA), Sore (f; APA; JLH); Sore Throat (f; BIB; CRC); Soroche (f; BIB; NAD); Spasm (f; CRC); Swelling (f; CRC; JLH); Thirst (f; CRC); Toothache (f; APA); Trichomoniasis (2; APA); Tumor (f; APA; CRC; JLH); Ulcer (f; JLH); Vaginosis (2; APA); Vulvosis (2; APA); Worm (f; DAA); Wound (f; DAA); Xeroderma (f1; VAD).

Dosages (Apricot):

Ripe fruits widely eaten, fresh, preserved, or converted to juice, brandy, liqueurs; unripe fruits made into preserves and syrups; seeds, especially the bitter seeds, more medicinal, but eaten, like those of the almond and peach; bitter kernels used in macaroons called Ameretti di Saronno and liqueurs called Amaretto di Saronno; seed oil sometimes extracted. Kernels produce a sweet edible oil sometimes used as substitute for almond oil. Chinese almonds are the seed kernels of several sweet varieties of apricot, used for almond cookies, eaten salted and blanched, or made into gruel or flour. Afghans also use the seeds as almonds (FAC; TAN; EB54:155).

• Afghans use dried fruits as laxative and refrigerant in fevers (DEP; KAB).

• Chinese use fruits for asthma, bronchosis, cancer, cardiopathy, cold, cough, insomnia, worms, wounds, seeds for asthma, bronchosis, catarrh, cough, considering roots antidotal to seeds (DAA).

• Koreans use the expectorant kernel to treat dry throat (BIB).

• Malayans used dried fruits to quench thirst and allay fever (KAB).

• Tibetans apply fruits, after chewing them, in ophthalmia (DEP).

• Unani use the tonic seed for deafness, earache, hepatitis, piles, and worms, the fruit for diarrhea, fever, and thirst (KAB).

Downsides (Apricot):

Class 3 (AHP). Also known as bitter almond. One of the products apricot seed components break down into in the human body is highly toxic prussic acid. Fifty to sixty kernels of apricot seed can kill adults; 7 to ten kernels can be fatal in children. My CRC handbook says that a "double kernel is said to be enough to kill a man" (CRC). I think that is overkill. Headache and nausea occurred in some patients being treated for chronic bronchosis with a paste of apricot seed and sugar. Possible adverse interaction when taken with astragalus, skullcap, or kudzu root (TMA, 1996). Do not use, says APA, probably referring to the cyanogenic seed. Newall, Anderson, and Phillipson (1996) warn that the cyanogenetic glycosides in the seed can cause cyanide poisoning. Because of cyanide toxicity, apricot use in pregnancy and lactation should be avoided. Kernels may cause contact dermatosis. Avoid in pregnancy; ingestion of cyanogenic substances may be teratogenic. More than 20 deaths have been reported from laetrile and apricot kernel ingestion (CAN). Symptoms of acute intoxication include convulsions, dizziness, drowsiness, dyspnea, headache, hypotension, nausea, paralysis, coma, and then death. Death may occur from 1 to 15 minutes after ingestion. Antidotes for cyanide poisoning include aminophenol, cobalt edetate, hydroxocobalamin, nitrite, and thiosulphate. Symptoms of chronic intoxication (from HCN, cyanogenic foods, or drugs such as laetrile) include ataxia, blindness, cretinism, goiter, hypertonia, increased blood thiocyanate, lesions of the optic nerve, mental retardation, and thyroid cancer. Demyelinating lesions and other neuromyopathies may occur secondary to chronic cyanide exposure, including long-term laetrile therapy. Agranulocytosis has also been attributed to long-term laetrile therapy. Laetrile spelled with a capital "L" signifies a synthetic patented in 1961 but never sold in the United States. Spelled with a small "l," laetrile is, for lay purposes, synonymous with amygdalin. After making this distinction, APA spells it with a small "l" except, of course, at the beginning of a sentence where they say, "Laetrile consists of 6% cyanide (prussic or hydrocyanic acid), a highly poisonous substance that can kill by depriving the brain of oxygen." Then they unleash a hyperbolic error I presume, "the laetrile content of apricot pits varies from as much as 8% in some apricot varieties to twenty times that amount in wild varieties." Krebs marketed laetrile with a small "l" as vitamin B-17 (AHA).

Extracts (Apricot):

Among 37 varieties, total carotenoid content ranged from 15 to 165 mg kg (edible portion); beta-carotene led, followed by beta-cryptoxanthin and gamma-carotene, with less phytoene, phytofluene, gamma-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein (X16076120). I am not surprised by the antioxidant capacities reported by Scalzo et al. (2005) for wild strawberry, six varieties of cultivated strawberry, and five varieties of apple and with apricot and peach grafts. Wild strawberries >> cultivated strawberries >> kiwifruit = apples = apricots = peaches. This tells me that the American wild strawberry, as I would have predicted, was better than the cultivated strawberry, apple, or apricot (X15723750). A retrospective analysis of laetrile in cancer patients showed slight activity. A subsequent clinical trial concluded that laetrile was ineffective in cancer treatment. Claims for laetrile were based on three different theories. Theory (1) claimed that cancerous cells contained copious beta-glucosidases, which release HCN from laetrile via hydrolysis. Normal cells were reportedly unaffected because they contained low concentrations of beta-glucosidases and high concentrations of rhodanese, which converts HCN to the less toxic thiocyanate. Later, however, it was shown that both cancerous and normal cells contain only trace amounts of beta-glucosidases, and similar amounts of rhodanese. Also, it was thought that amygdalin was not absorbed intact from the gastrointestinal tract (CAN). Theory (2) proposed that after ingestion, amygdalin was hydrolyzed to mandelonitrile, transported intact to the liver, and converted to a beta-glucuronide complex, which was then carried to the cancerous cells, hydrolyzed by beta-glucuronidases to release mandeloni-trile and then HCN. This was believed an untenable theory. Theory (3), calling laetrile vitamin B-17, proposed that cancer results from B-17 deficiency. It postulated that chronic administration of laetrile would prevent cancer. No evidence was adduced to substantiate this hypothesis. Furthermore, it was even claimed that patients taking laetrile reduced their life expectancy, both through a lack of proper medical care and chronic cyanide poisoning. To reduce potential risks to the general public, amygdalin was made a prescription-only medicine in 1984 (CAN).

almond (prunus dulcis (mill.) d.a. webb) ++ rosaceae

Synonyms:

Amygdalus communis L.; Amygdalus dulcis Mill.; Prunus amygdalus Stock Notes (Almond):

And their father Israel said unto them, If it must be so now, do this; take of the best fruits in the land in your vessels, and carry down the man a present, a little balm, and a little honey, spices, and myrrh, nuts, and almonds.

Genesis 43:11 (KJV)

Then their father Israel said to them, "If it must be so, then do this: take some of the choice fruits of the land in your bags, and carry down to the man a present, a little balm and a little honey, gum, myrrh, pistachio nuts, and almonds.

Genesis 43:11 (RSV)

So Israel their father said to them, "If, then, that is the case, do this: Take the finest products of the land in your receptacles, and carry them down to the man as a gift, a little balsam, and a little honey, labdanum and resinous bark, pistachio nuts, and almonds.

Genesis 43:11 (NWT)

Historically, some have argued that almond did not grow naturally in Egypt, because Jacob's sons took almonds to Joseph. (We often take almonds on trips although they are available at either end of our trip.) Zohary states, "Flowering almonds are not found in the Sinai today," (ZOH) but infers that they may have been there historically, as they do occur in the Negev Hills. Possibly related trees such as the Sinai Hawthorn were used as a substitute for almond in the floral candelabrum. Nowadays, the almond is widespread in the Holy Land, one of the earliest trees to flower. In Tuscany, almond branches were reportedly used as divining rods to locate hidden treasure. There is the legendary story of Charlemagne's troops' spears (almond) sprouting in the ground overnight and shading the tents the next day. Almonds are also valued for their ornamental flowers, one of the first trees to flower in the Palestinian spring. Because of their association with spring, the flower is associated with life after death or immortality. Modern English Jews carry flowering branches into the synagogue on spring festival days, as a herald of spring in Israel (BIB; ZOH).

Common Names (Almond):

Acibadem Agaci (Tur.; EFS); Allozo (Sp.; EFS); Almendro (Peru; Sp.; Spain; EFS; EGG; USN; VAD); Almond (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; CR2; USN); Amendi (Kon.; KAB); Amygdalia (Greek; KAB); Anande (Fr.; EFS); Amandelboom (Dutch; EFS); Amandier (Fr.; EFS; USN); Amandier Commun (Fr.; USN); Amendo (Japan; USN); Amendoeira (Por.; EFS; KAB); Amendosu (Japan; TAN); Amendoeira (Por.; USN); Ametlle (Cat.; KAB); Archin (Pab; KAB); Badam (Bom.; Dec.; Guj.; Hindi; Iran; Mal.; Mar.; Nepal; Pun.; Surab; Tur.; DEP; EFS; KAB; SUW); Badama (Sanskrit; EFS; NAD); Badamamu (Tel.; KAB); Badami (Kan.; DEP; KAB); Badamitte (Sanskrit; DEP); Badamo (Oriya; KAB); Badamshi-rin (Urdu; KAB); Badamu (Kan.; NAD); Badamvittilu (Tel.; DEP); Badan (Burma; DEP; KAB); Bademi (Tur.; EB54:155); Bilatibadam (Beng.; DEP; KAB; NAD); Bitter Almond (Eng.; USN); Bittermandelbaum (Ger.; USN); Emmellie (Fr.; KAB); Hadankyo (Japan; TAN); Kahero (Wad; KAB); Karamomo (Japan; TAN); Lauz (Arab.; GHA); Lawz (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Lawz Myrr (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Louz (Arab.; DEP); Louza (Arab.; EFS; NAD); Loz (Arab.; GHA); Lujaalhulu (Arab.; KAB); Luz (Arab.; Aramaic; Heb.; ZOH); Mandelbaum (Ger.; EFS; USN); Mandorlo (It.; EFS; KAB); Man-dulafa (Hun.; KAB); Migdal (Pol.; Rom.; KAB); Mindalnoi Dyerevo (Rus.; KAB); Pa Tan Hsing (China; KAB); Parsivadumai (Tam.; KAB); Rattokotamba (Sih.; KAB); Shaged (Heb.; KAB); Shaked (Heb.; ZOH); Sweet Almond (Eng.; USN); Tatlibadem Agaci (Tur.; EFS); Vadamkottai (Tam.; DEP); Vadumai (Tam.; SKJ); Vatamkotta (Mal.; DEP); Vatavairi (Sanskrit; KAB). Many countries recognize a sweet (low cyanide) var. dulcis and a bitter (high cyanide) var. amara, appending their adjective for bitter or sweet to their word for almond. AH2 used bitter almond and sweet almond as other common names for the standardized common name "almond."

Activities (Almond):

Allergenic (1; JAF49:2131); Alterative (f; BIB); Antifeedant (1; X11902971); Antiinflammatory, Antispasmodic (f1; BOW; FNF; VAD); Antitussive (f1; FNF; VAD); Aphrodisiac (f; BIB; GHA); Astringent (f; BIB; DEP); Bactericide (1; APA; MPI); Carminative (f; BIB); Cerebrotonic (f; NAD); Cyanogenic (f; BIB); Demulcent (f1; APA; BIB; EFS; PH2); Deobstruent (f; DEP); Discutient (f; BIB; WOI); Diuretic (f; BIB; DEP); Emollient (f1; APA; BIB; EFS); Expectorant (f1; FNF; VAD); Hepatoprotective (f; VAD); Hypocholesterolemic (1; X15746835); Hypotensive (f; VAD); Laxative (f1; APA; BIB; VAD); Insectifuge (1; X11902971); Lipolytic (1; X15746835); Litholytic (f; BIB; DEP; WOI); Memorigenic (f; GHA); Nervine (f; BIB; SUW; WOI); Pectoral (f; VAD); Pediculicide

FIGURE 1.87 Almond (Prunus dulcis). Source: KAB

(f; DEP); Sedative (f; BIB); Spermatogenic (f; NAD); Stimulant (f; BIB); Sudorific (f; VAD); Tonic (f; BIB); Vermifuge (f; GHA); Vulnerary (f; KAB).

Indications (Almond):

Acne (f; BIB); Adenopathy (1; JLH); Ascites (f; BIB); Asthma (f; BIB); Biliousness (f; BIB; KAB); Bronchosis (f; BIB; NAD); Burn (f; VAD); Callus (f; BIB; JLH); Cancer (f; BIB; JLH); Cancer, bladder (f1; APA); Cancer, breast (f1; APA; JLH); Cancer, colon (f1; FNF); Cancer, gland (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, liver (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, mouth (f1; APA); Cancer, spleen (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, stomach (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, uterus (f1; FNF; JLH); Cardiopathy (1; APA; FNF; X15469659); Chafing (f; GAZ); Cold (f; BIB; FNF); Colic (f; BIB); Condyloma (f; BIB; JLH); Constipation (f1; APA); Corn (f; BIB; JLH); Cough (f1; BIB; DEP; FNF; GHA; PH2); Cramp (f; BIB); Cystosis (f; BIB; JLH); Delirium (f; BIB); Dermatosis (f; BIB; PH2; WOI); Diabetes (f; DAA; NAD); Dysmenorrhea (f; DEP); Dyspnea (f; BIB; GHA); Dysuria (f; NAD); Earache (f; BIB); Enterosis (f; DEP); Furuncle (f; BIB); Gallstone (f; BOW); Gastrosis (f; JLH); Gingivosis (f; BIB; DEP); Gleet (f; BIB; KAB); Gravel (f; BIB); Headache (f; BIB; DEP); Heartburn (f; BIB); Hepatosis (f; BIB; DEP; JLH); Herpes (f; GHA); High Blood Pressure (f; VAD); High Cholesterol (1; APA; X15746835); Hoarseness (f; NAD); Hydrophobia (f; BIB); Ichthyosis (f; VAD); Impotence (f; BIB; GHA); Induration (f; BIB; JLH); Infection (f; NAD); Inflammation (f; BIB; JLH); Itch (f; BIB; WOI); Kidney stone (f; BOW); Leukoderma (f; BIB); Mastosis (f; JLH); Nausea (f; PH2); Nephrosis (f; BIB; NAD); Neuralgia (f; DEP; KAB); Obesity (1; X15746835); Ophthalmia (f; DEP); Pain (f; DEP; KAB); Pediculosis (f; KAB); Polyuria (f; NAD); Psoriasis (f; VAD); Pulmonosis (f; BIB); Respirosis (f; EFS); Sclerosis (f; JLH); Sore (f; BIB; JLH); Sore Throat (f; BIB; KAB); Splenosis (f; BIB; DEP; JLH); Staphylococcus (1; MPI); Stomatosis (f; BIB; DEP; JLH); Stone (f; BOW); Streptococcus (1; MPI); Swelling (f; JLH); Ulcer (f; BIB); Uterosis (f; JLH); Venereal Disease (f; BIB); Vomiting (f; PH2); Worm (f; GHA).

Dosages (Almond):

Nuts widely eaten, raw or roasted; seeds can be blended into almond milk or almond butter; used in baked goods and candies; seed oil quite delectable, used in flavoring baked goods, the bitter almond oils ending up in confections such as Maraschino cherries and liqueurs such as amaretto. Benzaldehyde may be used for almond flavoring, usually being cheaper than almond oil (BIB; FAC; TAN; EB54:155). 2-4 tsp oil as laxative (VAD).

• Arabians believe the seed kernels will improve sexual potency (GHA).

• Asian Indians suggest "almond nut cream" for "brain workers" (three almonds, two walnuts, two ounces of pine kernels crushed and steeped overnight in orange or lemon juice) (NAD).

• Ayurvedics consider the fruit, the seed, and its oil aphrodisiac, using the oil for biliousness, headache, and the seed as a laxative (KAB).

• Icelanders take bitter almonds (imported I suppose) for hepatic and splenic indurations (JLH).

• Iranians make an ointment from bitter almonds for furuncles (BIB).

• Lebanese believe that almonds and/or almond oil restore virility (HJP).

• Lebanese use the oil for skin trouble, including white leukoderma-like patches (HJP).

• Middle Easterners use the oil as an emollient to alleviate itching. Raw oil from the bitter variety is used for acne. Almond and honey was given for cough. Thin almond paste was added to wheat porridge to pass gravel or stone (BIB; DEP; HJP).

• Mohammedens recommend a plaster of bitter almonds with vinegar for neuralgia, with starch and peppermint for cough (DEP).

• Pakistanis eat five, seven, or eleven almonds before breakfast to improve the memory (GHA).

• Unani use the seed for ascites, bronchitis, colic, cough, delirium, earache, gleet, hepatitis, headache, hydrophobia, inflammation, renitis, skin ailments, sore throat, and weak eyes (KAB).

Downsides (Almond):

No health hazards or side effects known with proper therapeutic dosages (PH2) (PH2 designates no dosage! JAD). Ten bitter almonds said to be fatal to children, 60 to an adult (PH2). 0.5% of United States citizens show sensitivity to tree nuts, 0.6% to peanuts, and an additional 0.3% allergic to nuts but not specifying or differentiating between tree nut and peanut allergy.

Natural History (Almond):

Prominent diseases in India include "shot hole" caused by Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lev.) Aderh., "white spongy rot" due to Fomes lividus K1, "brown patchy leaf rot" due to Phyllosticta prunicola (Spiz) Sacc., "brown rot" due to Sphaerotheca pannosa (Wallr.) Lev., and a mosaic disease due to virus plague almond. The chrysomelid Mimastra cyanura Hope and the almond weevil Myllocerus laetivirens Marshall feed on the leaves. The San Jose scale Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comstock is a minor problem. The almond moth Ephestia cautella Wlk. infests shelled almonds and dried apricot, currant, date, fig, peach, and plum (HOE). Resistance to the buprestid beetle, Capnoidis tenebrionis, may be proportional to the prunasin content of the roots (X11902971).

Extracts (Almond):

Amandin (almond major protein) is a complex protein with at least 28 peptides and accounts for circa 65% of total aqueous extractable almond protein (JAF49:2131). De Pascual et al. (1998) note that green almond extracts contain two monomers — (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin — and 15 oligomeric procyanidins (six dimers, seven trimers, and two tetramers) (J. Am. Diet. Assoc., 105(3):449-454, 2005). Almonds in the diet simultaneously improve plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations and reduce plasma lipids (X15746835). The objective of this study was to assess the dose-response effect of almond intake on plasma and red blood cell tocopherol concentrations in healthy adults enrolled in a randomized, crossover feeding trial. Participants were 16 healthy men and women, aged 41 ± 13 years. After a 2-week run-in period, participants were fed three diets for 4 weeks each: a control diet, a low-almond diet, and a high-almond diet, in which almonds contributed 0, 10, and 20% of total energy, respectively. Changes in blood tocopherol levels were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Incorporating almonds into the diet helped meet the revised Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 15 mg/day alpha-tocopherol and increased lipid-adjusted plasma and red blood cell alpha-tocopherol concentrations. A significant dose-response effect was observed between percent energy in the diet from almonds and plasma ratio of alpha-tocopherol to total cholesterol (X15746835). Those who know me have probably heard me urging a Gatesian computerized approach, analyzing 1000 of the important food farmacy plants, for 1000 important phytochemicals, so we could then, via computer, determine which foods were best for which malady of mankind. Phillips et al. (2005) certainly dampen my enthusiasm for such an approach, showing that just the nuts present huge analytical challenges. My decades of compiling have shown me what megavariation there is in the quantitation of phytochemicals within a single species. I fear a megagatesian megacybernetic quandary. "The results of this study also illustrate the complexity that can be involved in evaluating food phytochemical data. Determination of the phytosterol composition of nuts and seeds is not amenable to 'production-scale' analysis of predetermined components using existing standard values" (X16302759). What is the most efficacious mix of the subinfinite combinations of the various phytosterols in a given nut, the phytosterols alone or with all the other phytochemicals, or in a biblical seven-nut/grain mixture, some possibly synergic, some probably additive, some possibly even antagonistic? I still optimistically suspect that all these sterols have been known to our genes for millions of years of co-evolution, and hence the body homeostatically grabs those it needs from the sterol mix, if they are needed, excluding them if unneeded. Fortunately for nut lovers, Phillips et al. (2005) quantified the phytosterols in nuts and seeds commonly consumed in the United States. Such phytosterols are medicinally important, for example, in BPH and in high cholesterol (X16302759). Here is what they found in almonds, based on four accessions: delta5-avenasterol (197 ppm), campestanol (33 ppm), campesterol (49 ppm) phytosterols (1930-2080 ppm), poriferasta-7,25-dienol (101 ppm), sitostanol (32 ppm), beta-sitosterol (1434 ppm), and stigmastanol (50 ppm) (X16302759).

red sandalwood (pterocarpus santalinus l. f.) ++ fabaceae

Notes (Red Sandalwood):

And the king made of the almug trees pillars for the house of the LORD, and for the king's house, harps also and psalteries for singers: there came no such almug trees, nor were seen unto this day.

Many biblical scholars, including Zohary, believe the "almug" of Kings was the red sandalwood or red saunders Pterocarpus santalinus L. Anyhow, it is consistently called almug in KJV, NWT, RSV; and its hard and heavy wood, red to garnet colored, takes a good polish, well suited for Solomon's purposes. It was used in construction of the House of the Lord, and is still used for lyres and other musical instruments (ZOH). The wood is extremely hard and resistant to termites. Recently, the wood has been more important as a dye source, used for imprinting a red or pink color to calico, cotton, or silk. Red sandalwood is well known in Europe as an ingredient of "French polish" (BIB). JLH and IHB combined medicinal activities of P. indicus and P santalinus.

Common Names (Red Sandalwood):

Agaru Gandhamu (Ap.; SKJ); Algum (Eng.; Heb.; ZOH); Almug (Eng.; Heb.; BIB; ZOH); Atti (Tam-ilnadu; SKJ); Buckum (Iran; DEP); Caliatur Wood Tree (Eng.; EFS); Chan Chandanam (Mal.; NAD); Chandana (India; Sanskrit; EFS; JLH); Chandan Lal (Pun.; DEP); Chendana Dangi (Malaya; IHB); Chendana Mera (Malaya; EFS); Dul Surkh (Iran; DEP); Dunkelroche (Ger.; NAD); Erra Chandanam (Tel.; DEP); Erra Gandhapu-chekka (Tel.; DEP); Erra Gandhamu (Tel.; NAD); Flugal Frucht (Ger.; NAD); Gerra Chandan (Tel.; DEP); Honne (Karnataka; SKJ); Kaliaturholzbaum (Ger.; EFS); Kirmizi santal (Tur.; EFS); Kuchandana (Sanskrit; DEP); Kuchunduna (Beng.; DEP); Kuchandanam (Tel.; DEP); Lal Chandan (Tel.; DEP); Lala Chandan (Hindi; SKJ); Lalachandana (Bom.; DEP); Lalchan-dana (Hindi; NAD); Lenyo Caliatur (Sp.; EFS); Patrangan (Kerala; SKJ); Nasa-Ni (Burma; DEP); Rachandana (Kon.; NAD); Rakta Chandan (Nepal; Sanskrit; SKJ; SUW); Rakta Chandana (India; Sanskrit; DEP; EFS); Raktachandau (Nepal; SUW) Ratanjali (Guj.; SKJ); Sanders Tree (Eng.; EFS); Ragat Chandan (Hindi; DEP); Rakta Chandan (Nepal; SUW); Rakta Chandana (Beng.; SUW); Rakta Gandhamu (Tel.; NAD); Rakta Sandana (Beng.; Hindi; Kan.; Mah.; Sanskrit; NAD); Rangana (Beng.; DEP); Ratanili (Bom.; Guj.; NAD); Ratanjli (Bom.; Guj.; DEP); Red Sandalwood (Eng.; CR2; EFS); Red Sanders (Eng.; SKJ); Red Sanders Tree (Eng.; EFS); Red Sanders Wood (Eng.; SUW); Red Saunders (Eng.; USN; ZOH); Rod Sandel (Den.; EFS); Rood Sandelhoutboom (Dutch; EFS); Rotes Sandelholz (Ger.; EFS); Sandaku (Burma; DEP); Sandale Ahmar (Arab.; DEP); Sandale Surkh (Iran; EFS; NAD); Sandalia (Sp.; EFS); Sandalo (It.; EFS); Sandalo Rose (It.; DEP); Sandalo Vermelho (Por.; JLH); Sandel Hout (Den.; DEP); Santal Rouge (Fr.; DEP; EFS; NAD); Seyapu Chandanum (Tam.; DEP); Shen Chandanam (Tam.; NAD); Sun (Iran; DEP); Tilaparni (Beng.; DEP); Tambada Chandana (Mar.; DEP); Tambada Gand-hacha-chekka (Mar.; DEP); Tilapari (Sanskrit; DEP); Tjendana Djenggi (Malaya; EFS); Tzu T'an (China; EFS); Undum (Arab.; Hindi; Iran; DEP); Uruttah Chundanum (Mal.; DEP).

Activities (Red Sandalwood):

Alexiteric (f; KAB); Allergenic (1; X8789238); Analgesic (f; HHB); Anthelmintic (f; KAB); Anticonvulsant (1; HH3); Antidiabetic (1; PH2; X11137350); Antiexudative (1; PH2); Antihyperglycemic

(1; X12033810); Antiinflammatory (f1; SKJ; X12413723); Antiproliferant (1; X11217086); Antispasmodic (1; PH2); Aphrodisiac (f; KAB); Astringent (f; SUW; WOI); Chemopreventive (1; X12413723); COX-2 Inhibitor (1; X12413723); CNS Depressant (1; HH3; PH2); Collagenic (1; X15866805); Depurative (f; EFS; KAB); Diaphoretic (f; SUW; WOI); Diuretic (f; BIB); Emetic (f; BIB); Expectorant (f; KAB); Febrifuge (f; KAB); Fungicide (1; WOI); Hemostat (1; NAD); Hypoglycemic (1; HHB); Insecticide (1; PH2); Nematicide (1; HH3); Refrigerant (f; SUW); TNF-alpha Inhibitor (1; X11217086); Tonic (f; NAD; SUW; WOI); Tranquilizer (1; HH3); Vulnerary (f1; X15866805; X15866819).

Indications (Red Sandalwood):

Biliousness (f; SUW; WOI); Bleeding (f; KAB); Blepharosis (f; BIB); Boil (f; BIB; DEP; IHB; SUW); Burn (f1; X15866805); Cancer (f1; JLH; X12033810); Cancer, abdomen (f; JLH); Cancer, breast (f1; X12033810); Cancer, colon (f; JLH); Cancer, mouth (f; JLH); Cerebrosis (f; KAB); Cho-lecocystosis (f; HH3; PH2); Conjunctivosis (f; NAD); Debility (f; HH3); Dermatosis (f; SUW; WOI); Diabetes (1; PNC; X11137350); Diarrhea (f; PH2); Dysentery (f; DEP; KAB; SKJ; WOI); Enterosis (f; JLH); Fever (f; DEP; HH3; PH2; SUW); Fungus (1; WOI); Gastrosis (f; PH2); Genitosis (f; NAD); Headache (f; DEP; HHB; PH2; SUW; WOI); Hemicrania (f; KAB); Hemorrhoid (f; NAD); Impotence (f; KAB); Inflammation (f1; SKJ; SUW; WOI; X12413723); Mastosis (f1; X12033810); Metrorrhagia (f; KAB); Mycosis (1; WOI); Neck ache (f; KAB); Ophthalmia (f; DEP; PH2; SUW); Prickly Heat (f; IHB); Snakebite (f; PH2); Sore (f; BIB; IHB); Sting (f; BIB); Stomatosis (f; IHB JLH); Swelling (f; JLH; SUW); Syphilis (f; IHB); Thrush (1; IHB); Toothache (f; KAB; PH2); Ulcer (f; PH2); Vaginosis (f; BIB); Venereal Disease (f; IHB); Vomiting (f; PH2); Wound (f1; X15866805; X15866819).

Dosages (Red Sandalwood):

Powdered redwood used as a red food dye in commercial spice mixes and sauces; in Old England, it is used to dye gingerbread, jelly, pottages, etc. (FAC); 5 g tincture (200 parts powdered wood/1000 parts ethanol, PH2).

• Asians use the plant in bolmes, enemas, ghees, or powders for abdominal tumors (JLH).

• Asian Indians use the wood, lathered up in water, to wash blepharitis and superficial excoriations of the genital organs (BIB).

• Ayurvedics, regarding the wood as alexiteric, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, and refrigerant, use it for biliousness, blood disorders, eye ailments, fever, mental aberrations, and ulcers (KAB).

• Indonesians consider it a secret remedy for poisoning (BIB).

• Iranians sells chips of the wood for use against dysentery (BIB).

• Unani use seeds for dysentery and urethral hemorrhage; applying the wood externally for fever, headache, hemicrania, inflammation, neckache, and toothache (KAB).

Downsides (Red Sandalwood):

Class 1. In the United States, allowable as flavor in alcoholic beverages only (AHP). No health hazards or contraindications with proper administration of suggested therapeutic dosages (PH2).

Extracts (Red Sandalwood):

Extracts potently inhibited COX-2 (IC >80% = 10 ^g/ml) (X12413723). Compared with diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide, the antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic bark extract at 20 mg/kg was more effective (X11137350). Biswas et al. (2004) report a vulnerary ointment from the bark, effective and with no toxic effects (X15866819).

pomegranate (punica granatum l.) +++ punicaceae

Synonyms:

Granatum punicum St.-Lag., Punica florida Salisb., Punica multiflora Hort. ex Siebold & Voss, Punica nana L., Punica spinosa Lam. fide POR

Notes (Pomegranate):

I would cause thee to drink of spiced wine of the juice of my pomegranate

Song of Solomon 8:2 (KSV)

I would give you spiced wine to drink, the juice of my pomegranates.

Song of Solomon 8:2 (RSV)

I would give you a drink of spiced wine, the fresh juice of pomegranates.

Song of Solomon 8:2 (NWT)

It is nice to see near unanimity in the three versions of this rather sexy story in Song of Solomon. "Pomegranate" literally means "apple with grains," the reference being to the many clear, ruby-colored seeds, covered with a thin skin and full of juice, found in each fruit. Jewish legends suggest that the pomegranate has about 613 seeds, the same number of laws God gave to Israel. I have come to believe, unlike other scholars, including Zohary, that this estrogenic fertility-symbolizing fruit could well be the tree of knowledge. If you wish to read some of the sexiest passages in the Bible, look up the verses mentioning the pomegranate in the Song of Solomon. Zohary clearly thinks it important, if not the tree of knowledge. Commenting on some Solomon references, he says "the woman's beauty is likened to its beautiful shape, its many seeds symbolize fertility," (ZOH) the red juice is viewed as lover's nectar, and the aromatic flowers stand for the beautiful awakening of spring. I have one plant of this "yin" species that is hardy on my south-facing "yang" slope here in the Green Farmacy Garden. Rinds are used for tanning Morocco leather, giving a yellow color. Flowers give a red dye. Plants make a good ornamental hedge, especially in dry climates. Cut flowers are long lasting in arrangements. Pomegranate is the national flower emblem of Spain. Wood, although scanty, is hard and can be used for small objects and for walking sticks. Flowers are used by some women to give a red color to the teeth, and rind is used in Polynesia to give shining black color to teeth. In some areas, nonfading ink is made from the rind. Dried rind, called Malicorium, is sold in curved brittle fragments. In China, the pomegranate symbolizes fertility; women offer pomegranates to the Goddess of Mercy in the hope of being blessed with children. Boulos reports that the seed oil is estrogenic, perhaps providing a rationale for the Chinese beliefs (BIB). Other scientists report human-identical estrone, some at levels such that one fruit would provide a 2-day dosage of ERT (estrogen replacement therapy), but such quantities need to be verified. Most important is the specificity of the root bark for tapeworm.

Common Names (Pomegranate):

Aboda (Ewe; KAB); Al Lufan (Arab.; Syria; HJP); An Shih Liu (China; EFS; KAB); An Thatch Luu (Ic.; KAB); Anangani (Sinjawi; KAB); Anar (Bhojpuri; Dec.; Hindi; Kas.; Kotra; Lepcha; Mooshar; Nepal; Nwp.; Tharu; KAB; MKK; NAD; NPM; SUW); Anar Dakum (Sin.; KAB); Anar

India Images Bhojpuri Alba

FIGURE 1.88 Pomegranate (Punica granatum).

ke per (Hindi; NAD); Anara (Bom.; KAB; NAD); Anarbedama (Quetta; KAB); Anardaru (Mun.; KAB); Anarthamitha (Urdu; KAB); Apencoya (Peru; EGG); Apinhoya (Andes; ROE); Apongabe-andanitra (Hova; KAB); Armoun (Ber.; BOU); Aroumane (Ber.; BOU); Balaaustier (Fr.; KAB); Balustier (Fr.; EFS); Bijapura (Sanskrit; KAB); Carthagian Apple (Eng.; EFS); Cay Luu (Annam; KAB); Daariim (Nepal; POR); Dadam (Guj.; KAB; WOI); Dadima (Ayu.; Sanskrit; Tel.; AH2; JLH; NAD); Dadima Phalima (Sanskrit; EFS; NAD); Dadiman (Mal.; KAB); Dahrun (Sibi; KAB); Dalim (Assam; Beng.; Dec.; KAB; NAD); Dalima (Java; Jolo; Malaya; IHB; KAB); Dalimba (Bom..; Tel.; Kon.; Mah.; KAB); Dalimbay (Kan.; KAB); Dalimbu Hannu (Kan.; KAB); Dalimgachh (Beng.; KAB); Dallimbini (Kon.; KAB); Danimma (Tel.; WOI); Danoi (Jaunsar; KAB); Darakhtenar (Iran; KAB); Daraknar (Iran; KAB); Darim (Beng.; Danuwar; Dec.; Gurung; Magar; Nwp.; Sunwar; Swe.; Tamang; AVP; KAB; NPM); Darimba (Sanskrit; NAD); Daru (Pun.; KAB); Datema (Rus.; AVP); Delima (Bali; Malaya; Tag.; IHB; POR); Delumgaha (Sin.; NAD); Delungaha (Sin.; KAB); Dhale (Nepal; Newari; NPM); Dhalim (Hindi; NAD); Dhaun (Kas.; NAD); Djolanar (Arab.; BOU); Drzewo Granatowe (Pol.; KAB); Dulim (Iran; IHB); Dulima (Iran; IHB); Gemeiner Granatbaum (Ger.; TAN); Gharnangoi (Pushtu; KAB); Graanatapfel (Ma.; Sur.; AVP; JFM); Granaatappel (Dutch; POR); Granaatboom (Dutch; AVP); Granada (Sp.; Peru; Pi.; Pr.; KAB; DAV; LWW; ROE); Granada Agria (Ma.; Sp.; JFM; ROE); Granada de China (Sp.; ROE); Granadero (Ma.; Pr.; JFM; LWW); Granado de China (Mex.; KAB); Granado Enano (Ma.; JFM); Granat (Den.; Rus.; EFS;

POR); Granatele (Den.; POR); Granatappel (Dwi.; Ma.; JFM; LWW); Granatäpple (Swe.; POR); Granatbaum (Ger.; AVP; NAD; MAD); Granatboom (Dutch; KAB); Granate (Ger.; AVP); Granat-nik (Rus.; AVP); Granátovník (Cze.; POR); Granatowiec (Pol.; AVP); Granatrad (Swe.; KAB); Granattraee (Den.; KAB); Grenad (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Grenade (Fr.; Ma.; JFM; LWW); Grenadier (Haiti; Ma.; AVP; JFM); Grenadier Comun (Fr.; TAN); Grenadier Cultive (Fr.; NAD); Gre-nadyé (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Gronuto (Potenza; KAB); Gulnar (Iran; EFS; KAB); Hanor (Kharan; KAB); Jaman (Pun.; KAB); Kanthakasi (Rai; NPM); Karakamu (Tel.; KAB); Kok Mak Phi La (Laos; POR); Komamanga (Swahili; POR); Kuchaphala (Sanskrit; EFS; KAB); Kudhumani (Swahili; POR); Lalimse (Limbu; NPM); Liépou Pi (China; AVP); Ma Ko (Thai; POR); Madala (Michi; KAB); Madalai (Tam.; KAB); Madalam (Tam.; KAB); Madalangkai (Tam.; KAB); Madhubiija (Sanskrit; POR); Madulai (Tam.; WOI); Madulam (Tam.; KAB); Magragnar (Verona; KAB); Magraner (Cat.; KAB); Mangano (Sp.; USN); Mangrano (Sp.; EFS); Matalam (Mal.; KAB; POR; WOI); Melagranato (It.; AVP; KAB); Melgarne (Romagna; KAB); Melograno (It.; EFS; KAB); Migraine (Fr.; KAB); Miouganier (Fr.; EFS); Nar (Tur.; AVP); Nara Aci (Tur.; EFS; KAB); Nar-gosa (Shahrig; KAB); Narumschk (Arab.; JLH); Naspal (Hindi; Mah.; KAB); Oschnoe Derewoe (Rus.; AVP); Pitligean (Rom.; KAB); Pomanzeira (Por.; EFS); Pomegranate (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; CR2; JFM; NPM); Pomeira (Por.; EFS); Pyé Grenad (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Rannua (Arab.; AVP); Rimani (Hausa; KAB); Rimaus (Heb.; KAB); Rimmon (Heb.; Isr.; ZOH); Roia (Greek; KAB); Roma (Brazil; Ma.; JFM; KAB; POR); Roman (Por.; AVP); Romanzeira (Ma.; Por.; AVP; JFM; KAB); Romazeira (Mad.; JAD); Romeira (Ma.; Por.; AVP; JFM); Rommana (Tun.; AVP); Roum-man (Arab.; AVP; BOU); Rum N (Arab.; GHA); Rumman (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Rumman Hamid (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Rummien (Malta; KAB); Sale Bin (Burma; KAB); Se-Bru (Tibet; NPM); Seok Ryu (Korea; POR); Shajratur Rumman (Arab.; EFS; KAB); Shak Liu (Malaya; KAB); Shih liu (China; AH2; POR; TAN); Shi Liu Hua (Pin.; AH2); Shi Liu Pi (Pin.; AH2; DAA); Shi Liu Ye (Pin.; AH2); Shi Liu Zi (Pin.; AH2); Shukadana (Sanskrit; NAD); Sor (Jhalawan; KAB); Tab Tin (Thai; IHB); Talibin (Burma; KAB); Tarmint (Ber.; BOU); Taroumant (Ber.; BOU); Thap Thim (Thai; POR); Yanuko (Ma.; JFM); Zakuro (Japan; TAN; USN).

Activities (Pomegranate):

Abortifacient (f; PH2; WBB); ACE Inhibitor (2; X11500191); Alpha-amylase inhibitor (1; X11223231); Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitor (1; X15894133); Amebicide (1; HH2; PH2); Anodyne (f; BIB); Anthelmintic (1; HH2; KAP; PH2; SUW; VVG; WBB); Antiaging (1; X12570329); Antiatherogenic (12; X10799367; X12224378; X11500191); Antibiotic (1; VVG; WBB); Anticancer (1; X12002340); Antieicosanoid (1; X14585180); Antienteric (1; X15476301); Antifertility (1; MPI); Antiherpetic (1; X8679095; X15478204; JAF50:81); Antileukemic (1; X14585180); AntiMDR (1; X15882206); Antimutagenic (1; X12570329); Antimycobacterial (1; PR14:303); Antioxidant (1; X10799367); Antiprostaglandin (1; X14585180); Antiseptic (1; X10548758); Antispasmodic (f1; WOI); Antitubercular (1; WOI); Antiulcer (1; PR14:581); Antiviral (1; VVG; WOI; X11788838); Apopotic (1; X14585180); Aphrodisiac (f; BIB); Astringent (2; BIB; NPM; PH2; SUW; WBB); Bactericide (1; BIB; VGG; WBB; X10548758); Bechic (f; BOU); Cardiotonic (f; BIB; SUW; VOD; WOI); Cata-lase-genic (1; X15752628); Chemopreventive (1; X12002340; X14585180); CNS Stimulant (1; PHR); Collyrium (f; GHA; VOD); Contraceptive (f; JAF50:81); COX-2 Inhibitor (1; X14585180); Cytotoxic (1; HH2); Diuretic (1; VVG); Fungicide (1; MPI; WOI); Emmenagogue (f; WBB); Estrogenic (1; FNF; VOD); Febrifuge (1; HH2; NPM; SUW; VVG); Fungicide (1; MPI; WOI); Glutathione-perox-idase-genic (1; X15752628); Hemolytic (1; WOI); Hemostat (1; BIB; GHA); Hepatotoxic (1; VOD); Hypocholesterolemic (2; JNU); Hypoglycemic (1; HH2; VVG; X10837992; X15894133); Lipogenic (f; KAB); Lipoxygenase Inhibitor (1; X14585180); Molluscicide (1; X11050667); Nematicide (f; PH2); Orexigenic (f; KAB); Ornithine-Decarboxylase Inhibitor (1; X14585180); Paraoxonasigenic (1; JNU); Parastiticide (f; BIB); Pectoral (f; BOU); Phospholipase-A2 Inhibitor (1; X14585180); Radioprotective (1; X12570329; X15493960); Refrigerant (f; BIB; EFS; NPM; SUW); SOD-genic

(1; X15752628); Stimulant (f; BIB); Stomachic (1; DEP; MPI; SUW; WOI); Taenicide (f1; BIB; HH2; KAP; NAD; PH2; SUW; VOD); Uterorelaxant (f; BOU); Uterotonic (1; HH2; MPI); Vermifuge (f; BIB; NPM; SUW; VOD).

Indications (Pomegranate):

Abortion (f; SOU); Acne (1; JAF50:81); Ameba (1; X2131771); Amygdalosis (f; BIB); Anorexia (f; KAB); Asthma (f; BIB; VOD); Atherosclerosis (12; JNU; X10799367; X12224378; X11500191); Bacillus (1; X10548758); Bacteria (1; VVG; X2636992); Biliousness (f; BIB; KAB; NAD; ROE); Bleeding (f1; BIB; DEP; FNF); Bronchosis (1; BIB; KAB; KAP; MPI; NPM; WOI); Burn (f; GHA; NPM); Cancer (1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, abdomen (1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, anus (1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, breast (1; X12002340); Cancer, colon (f1; JLH; X16448212); Cancer, ear (1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, genital (1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, gum (1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, mouth (1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, neck (1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, prostate (1; X15744587); Cancer, skin (1; X14585180); Cancer, stomach (1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, throat (1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, uterus (1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, uvula (1; FNF; JLH); Candida (1; X12801361); Cardiopathy (f12; BIB; KAB; VOD; WOI; X11500191); Cerebro-sis (f; BIB; KAB); Childbirth (f; JFM); Cholera (1; MPI; X8018898); Colic (f; BIB; KAB); Colitis (1; KAB; WBB); Condyloma (f; JLH); Conjunctivosis (f; BIB; IHB; KAP; MPI); Consumption (f; NAD); Corn (f; JLH); Cough (f; BIB; ROE); Cramp (f1; WOI); Dermatosis (f; GHA; IHB; ROE); Diabetes (1; VVG; X10837992; X15894133); Diarrhea (f1; BIB; EGG; HH2; KAP; NPM; PHR; PH2; SUW; VVG); Dysentery (f1; BIB; DEP; HH2; HJP; KAP; NPM; PHR; PH2; SUW; VVG); Dysmenorrhea (f; BIB); Dyspepsia (1; DEP; KAB; MPI; WOI); Earache (f; BIB); Endometriosis (f; MAD); Enterosis (f1; KAB; PH2; VOD; X15476301); Epistaxis (1; BIB; DEP; NAD; ROE); Escherichia (1; X10548758); Fever (1; BIB; HH2; VVG); Folliculosis (1; JAF50:81); Fungus (1; KAP; MPI; X2801361); Gall (f; JLH); Gastrosis (f; JLH; MPI; PH2); Gingivosis (f; JLH; KAB; VOD); Gonorrhea (f; WBB); Heartburn (f; MPI); Hemophilia (f; DEP); Hematuria (f; KAP; MPI; NAD); Hemoptysis (f; MPI; NAD); Hemorrhoid (f1; BIB; JLH; KAP; NAD; NPM; PHR; VOD); Hepatosis (f; GHA; KAB); Herpes (1; JAF50:81); High Cholesterol (2; JNU); HIV (1; Herpes (1; X8679095); Impotence (f; ROE); Infection (f1; MPI; VOD; X12636992); Infertility (f; JNU); Inflammation (f; BIB; NPM; VOD; WBB); Jaundice (f; GHA); Keratosis (f; BIB); Leukemia (1; X14585180); Leukor-rhea (f; BIB; KAB; KAP; WBB); Malaria (f; BIB; KAB); Mastosis (f; BIB; JAF50:81); Melanoma (1; HH2); Menopause (1; FNF); Menorrhagia (1; BIB); Metrorrhagia (1; BIB); Mycosis (1; MPI; X12801361); Nausea (1; BIB); Nephrosis (f; KAB); Neurosis (f; MAD); Night sweats (f; BIB); Ophthalmia (f; BIB; KAB); Oxyuriasis (f; BIB); Pain (f; BIB; JFM); Paralysis (f; BIB); Pimple (f; BIB); Plague (f; BOU); Pneumonia (1; MPI); Proctosis (f; JLH; KAP); Prolapse (f; BIB; KAP); Pterygia (f; JLH); Pulmonosis (f; JFM; KAB); Rhinosis (f; JLH); Ringworm (1; PH2); Salmonella (1; MPI; X15476301); Scabies (f; BIB; KAB); Shigella (1; MPI); Snakebite (f; BIB); Sore (f; GHA; JFM; WBB); Sore Throat (f1; BIB; DEP; PHR; PH2; VOD); Splenosis (f; BIB; KAB); Staphylococcus (1; X2636992; X15882206); Stomachache (1; KAB; WBB; VVG); Stomatosis (1; BIB; JFM; KAB; X12801361); Swelling (f; ROE); Tapeworm (1; BIB; PHR; VVG); Thirst (f; NPM); Throat (f; ROE); Tonsilosis (f; VOD); Tuberculosis (f1; NAD; WOI; PR14:303); Tympanosis (f; JAF50:81); Ulcer (f1; BOU; PR14:581); Urogenitosis (f; BIB); Uterosis (f; DEP; JLH; KAP); Uvulosis (f; JLH); Vaginosis (f; BOU; JAF50:81); Venereal Disease (1; JAF50:81); Vertigo (f; ROE); Virus (1; VVG; WOI; JAF50:81); Vomiting (f; KAB; PH2); Wart (f; JLH); Water Retention (1; VVG); Whitlow (f; JLH); Worm (f1; BIB; KAP; PH2; SUW; VOD); Wound (f; EGG); Yeast (1; X10548758).

Dosages (Pomegranate):

Fruits and cooked leaves food farmacy (FAC; JAD; TAN). The first sherbet may well have been a preparation of pomegranate juice mixed with snow. The acid pulp surrounding the seeds is the edible portion of the fruit, used as a salad or table fruit, or made into beverages or jellies. In Syria and Iran, fruit is cut open, seeded, strewn with sugar, and sprinkled with rose water. Wine is made from fruits, and seeds are used in syrups, preserves, gelatin desserts, icings, puddings, and sauces. As fruits ferment easily, they are used in Egypt to make a wine. Grenadine is a soft drink based on pomegranate, and grenadine syrup is used to flavor drinks (BIB). 1-2 g day (HHB). 7 g fl/300 cc water for inflamed mouth and throat (JFM). 4-5 g powdered flower (KAP). 1-3 g powdered root (KAP). 1-3 g powdered stem bark (KAP). 4-8 g powdered fruit (KAP). 1 part pericarp, root, or stem bark to 5 parts water (PH2). 250 parts powdered bark in 1500 parts water and boiled for 30 minutes (PH2).

• Asian Indians chew fruit rind with belleric for bronchosis and bronchorrhea (WOI).

• Ayurvedics use the fruit rind, appropriately enough, for diarrhea, dysentery, and worms; the root for worms; the flowers for epistaxis; the bark and seeds for bronchitis; and the ripe fruit, considered astringent, aphrodisiac and tonic, for biliousness, burning sensations, fever, heart disease, sore throat, and stomatitis (KAB).

• Cubans apply grated fruit rind to ulcers (JFM).

• Haitians take the flower tea for asthma, the root and stem decoction for intestinal worms, and the rind infusion for diarrhea and dysentery (VOD).

• Iranians use powdered flowers with Nummulites sp. and Rhus coriaria for painful gums (BIB).

• Latinos take 5-12 g bark (RB or SB) in 240 cc water boiled until 1/3 gone; in 3 hourly doses on empty stomach 2 hours after taking 40 cc castor oil for tapeworms (JFM).

• Nepalese take 5 tsp rind juice 2 x/day for diarrhea and dysentery (NPM).

• Peruvians take the bark tea as a genital tonic (EGG), using the fruit and bark for cancer and nasal polyps (JLH).

• Filipinos gargle with the leaf decoction for mouth problems (BIB).

• Puerto Ricans take juice sacs with mashed seeds to expel worms (JFM).

• North Africans (Cairo; Rabat) use fruit rind for bleeding, dentifrice, diarrhea, ulcers, with the decoction a specific vaginal plug for treating leukorrhea (BOU).

• Unani use the astringent bark for anal prolapse, colic, and piles; the flowers for biliousness, hydrocele, nausea, sore eyes, and sore throat; the green fruit for inflammation and keratitis; the ripe fruit for brain disorders, bronchitis, chest ailments, earache, scabies, sore eyes, sore throat, splenitis, and thirst; the seeds for biliousness, bowel ailments, hepatitis, liver ailments, nausea, scabies, and sore eyes (KAB).

Downsides (Pomegranate):

Bark Class 3. Pericarp Class 2d. Contraindicated with diarrhea; not to be taken with fats or oils when taken to kill parasites (AHP). Health hazards not known with proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages (PH2). Strong doses emetic, nauseant, and vertigogenic (JFM). Stronger doses (>80 g) may cause chills, collapse, dizziness, hematemesis, and visual disturbances, possibly even amaurosis and death (MAD; PH2). Even Mauritians believe the bark should be contraindi-cated in geriatrics, pediatrics, and pregnancy.

Extracts (Pomegranate):

Bark extract (with casuarinin, ellagitannin, and punicortein C cytotoxic to melanoma (ED50 = 2-- |ag/ml, cf. <0.01 |ag/ml for actinomycin) HH2. Extracts of abortive male flowers are hypoglycemic in diabetic rats (X10837992). Pomegranate juice has antiatherogenic effects in mice that may be attributable to its antioxidative properties (X10799367). Antiaging ellagitannin mixtures slowed aging-type mutations (X12570329). Huang et al. (2005) demonstrated that pomegranate flower extracts improve cardiac lipid metabolism in diabetic rat models (X15880139). Voravuthikunchai and Kitpipit (2005) (X15882206) found that ethanolic extracts inhibited all of 35 hospital isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. MIC = 200-400 mg/ml (X15882206). Sudheesh and Vijayalakshmi (2005) demonstrated that flavanoid-rich fruit fractions (10 mg/kg/day orl rat) had antiperoxidative potential, decreasing liver levels of malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides, and conjugated dienes, increasing activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. Tissue concentrations of glutathione also increased (X15752628). Azadzoi et al. (2005), studying oxidative stress in arteriogenic erectile dysfunction (ED), found pomegranate was the better free radical scavenger. The rabbit model of arteriogenic ED demonstrated decreased intracavernous blood flow, erectile dysfunction, loss of smooth muscle relaxation, decreased endothelial NOS and neuronal NOS, increased inducible NOS expression, and diffused cavernous fibrosis. Long-term pomegranate juice intake increased intracavernous blood flow, and improved erectile response and smooth muscle relaxation. Antioxidant therapy could help prevent smooth muscle dysfunction and fibrosis in ED, Erectile Dysfunction (X15947695).

tabor oak (quercus ithaburensis decne) ++ fagaceae

Synonyms:

Quercus aegilops var. ithaburensis Decne Notes (Tabor Oak):

They sacrifice upon the tops of the mountains, and burn incense upon the hills, under oaks and poplars and elms, because the shadow thereof is good: therefore your daughters shall commit whoredom, and your spouses shall commit adultery.

They sacrifice on the tops of the mountains, and make offerings upon the hills, under oak, poplar, and terebinth, because their shade is good. Therefore your daughters play the harlot, and your brides commit adultery.

On the tops of the mountain they sacrifice and on the hills they make sacrificial smoke, under massive tree and storax tree and big tree because its shade is good. That is why your daughters commit fornication and your own daughters in law commit adultery.

Going with the flow in my first crack at Medicinal Plants of the Bible, I selected the three oak species that other non-Israeli writers had selected as probably representing the oak of the Bible. Now armed with Zohary's Flora of Palestine (FP1, 1966) and Zohary's Plants of the Bible (ZOH, 1992), I will go with the Israeli flow. Zohary notes that of some 500 oak species worldwide, there are only three species that occur in Israel. They can be keyed as follows:

• Leaves evergreen, 2-4 cm long, sometimes prickly: Q. calliprinos

• Leaves deciduous, 4-10 cm long, margin not prickly, although dentate:

• — Adult leaves glabrous on both sides; cupule circa 1 cm diameter: Q. boissieri

• — Adult leaves tomentose below; cupules broader than 1 cm diameter: Q. ithaburensis

Zohary favors the deciduous Tabor Oak (Q. ithaburensis) and the evergreen oak (Q. calliprinos) as the rendition of the Hebrew allon and elon. The evergreen oak was discussed in my Medicinal

Plants of the Bible, under the name Quercus coccifera. Under good environmental conditions, both can grow to huge trees, symbolic of longevity, power, pride, and splendor. They were often involved in burials, offerings, and religious, reverent, and ritual customs and worship. And the wood had many uses. Zohary notes that "many translators and exegetes, unacquainted with the flora of the Holy Land, and embarrassed by the frequent occurrence in the Bible of elah, elon, el, alah, and allon, have seriously misapplied these names There are too many variations in the translations of different authors, and (as in the RSV) much inconsistency even within any given translation." (ZOH) Zohary concludes that in general allon and elon should be rendered as oak, and elah and alah should be rendered as terebinth.

Common Names (Tabor Oak):

Allon (Heb.; ZOH); Elon (Heb.; ZOH); Tabor Oak (Eng.; ZOH). Activities (Other Oaks):

Anthelmintic (1; PH2); Antiinflammatory (2; KOM; SHT); Antiperspirant (1; APA; MAD); Antiseptic (1; APA; PNC); Antitumor (1; FAD); Antiviral (1; SHT); Astringent (f1; APA; MAD; SHT; VAD); Bactericide (1; BGB); Carcinogenic (1; FAD); Cicatrizant (f1; VAD); Diuretic (f1; VAD); Emetic (f; PED); Expectorant (1; BGB); Hemostatic (f1; APA; PNC; VAD); Immunostimulant (1; PHR); Litholytic (1; BGB); Vasoconstrictor (f1; VAD); Vulnerary (1; APA).

Indications (Other Oaks):

Adenopathy (f; JLH); Albuminuria (f; MAD); Anemia (f; MAD); Angina (f; MAD); Apoplexy (f; MAD); Asthma (f; MAD); Bacteria (1; VAD); Bleeding (f1; PH2; MAD; VAD); Blennorrhagia (f; MAD); Blepharosis (f; VAD); Bronchosis (2; MAD; PHR; PH2); Bruise (1; APA); Burns (f; FAD; HJP); Cacoethes (f; JLH); Callus (f; JLH); Cancer (f; FAD; JLH); Cancer, anus (f; JLH); Cancer, brain (f; JLH); Cancer, breast (f; JLH); Cancer, colon (f; JLH); Cancer, ear (f; JLH); Cancer, gum (f; JLH); Cancer, intestine (f; JLH); Cancer, lip (f; JLH); Cancer, liver (f; JLH); Cancer, mouth (f; JLH); Cancer, neck (f; JLH); Cancer, nose (f; JLH); Cancer, stomach (f; JLH); Cancer, tonsil (f; JLH); Cancer, uterus (f; JLH); Cancer, uvula (f; JLH); Carbuncle (f; MAD); Chilblain (f; VAD); Chilblains (1; APA); Chlorosis (f; MAD); Cirrhosis (f; MAD); Cold (2; PHR); Colitis (f; VAD); Consyloma (f; JLH); Conjunctivosis (1; APA; PH2; VAD); Cough (2; PHR; PH2); Cystosis (f; VAD); Debility (f; MAD); Dermatosis (f12; BGB; KOM; PH2; SHT); Diarrhea (f12; APA; KOM; MAD; PED; PH2; SHT; VAD); Dysentery (1; BBG; BIS; FAD); Dysmenorrhea (f; VAD); Dysuria (f; VAD); Eczema (1; APA; MAD; PH2; VAD); Encephalosis (f; JLH); Enterocolitis (1; APA; BIS); Entero-sis (1; APA; MAD; VAD); Enuresis (f; MAD); Epistaxis (f; VAD); Fever (f12; HJP; PHR; VAD); Fibroma (f; JLH; MAD); Gastroenterosis (1; BIS); Gastrosis (f1; MAD; VAD); Genitalitis (2; APA; KOM); Gingivosis (f1; APA; JLH); Gout (f; MAD); Hematuria (1; MAD); Hemoptysis (1; MAD); Hemorrhage (1; BGB); Hemorrhoid (f1; APA; PED; PH2; PNC; VAD); Hepatosis (f; JLH; MAD); Hyperhidrosis (f; PH2); Incontinence (f; VAD); Induration (f; JLH); Infection (12; APA; PHR); Inflammation (12; BGB; VAD); Intertrigo (f; MAD; PH2); Itch (1; APA); Kidney stone (f; BGB); Leukorrhea (1; BGB; MAD); Malaria (f; BGB); Marasmus (f; MAD); Mastosis (f; GAZ); Metrorrhagia (f; VAD); Mucososis (1; APA); Mumps (f; VAD); Nephrosis (f; MAD); Nipple (f; GAZ); Pain (f; BGB; JLH); Periodontosis (f1; VAD); Pharyngosis (f12; KOM; PH2; VAD); Phthisis (f; MAD); Poison Ivy (f; FAD); Polyp (f; JLH); Pr

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  • greg
    What is jardal dry fruit called in English?
    3 years ago
  • Syed
    Which christian died in kilasaifulla?
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