Indian Film Kroki Phrs

Curcuma domestica Valeton Notes (Turmeric):

Thy plants are an orchard of pomegranates, with pleasant fruits; camphire, with spikenard, Spikenard and saffron; calamus and cinnamon, with all trees of frankincense; myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices.

Song of Solomon 4:13-14 (KJV)

Your shoots are an orchard of pomegranates with all choicest fruits, henna with nard, nard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon, with all trees of frankincense, myrrh and aloes, with all chief spices.

Song of Solomon 4:13-14 (RSV)

Your skin is a paradise of pomegranates, with the choicest fruits, henna plants along with spikenard plants; spikenard and saffron, cane and cinnamon, along with all sorts of trees of frankincense, myrrh and aloes, along with all the finest perfumes.

Song of Solomon 4:13-14 (NWT)

Haldi Ped Photo
FIGURE 1.40 Turmeric (Curcuma longa).

Israeli authors such as Zohary, more familiar with the Israeli flora and the Bible than am I, should be better equipped to speculate as to which herbs were really meant in some elusive passages. I am both pleased and displeased to note that Zohary like me, leaves a few, perhaps insoluble problems unresolved, including one involving two major medicinal plants — saffron and turmeric — and one minor medicinal — safflower— all sources of yellow dyes, and all used culinarily. All three can be grown in warmer regions of Israel, but the turmeric would be most difficult. Saffron and safflower would both be easy. Here are points that Zohary makes. "Saffron (in Hebrew, karkom) is mentioned only once in the Bible." (ZOH) Some commentators identify it with turmeric, which "was never grown" in this country, others with saffron, which was probably grown only in postbiblical times. There is linguistic support for both possibilities. "There is no doubt that the sown karkom fields mentioned in the Mishnah (of the Talmud) refer to Crocus sativus." (ZOH)Other data he presents point "to the identification of biblical karkom as turmeric and not as crocus But doubt arises when one considers another widely cultivated annual yielding numerous heads of orange flowers" (safflower, Carthamus tinctorius; (ZOH). Where does this leave me? Should I include just one or all three of the candidates for the one mention of saffron in the Bible? From the medicinal point of view, turmeric seems even more important than saffron, which appears even more important than safflower. Ditto from the likelihood point of view, based on the views of Zohary. Expansively, I have included all three in this account. Regardless of if and when it is cultivated in Israel, Xia et al. (2005) tell us that turmeric has been in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) since Su Song in 627-649. In China it is commonly used for dysmenorrhea, epilepsy, hepatitis, pain, rheumatism, and traumatic diseases. The essential oil has antitumor and antiviral properties (X16028990).

Common Names (Turmeric):

Agafrao da India (Por.; AVP); Aneshta (Sanskrit; KAB); Angai (Pam.; KAB); Arazó (Chiriguano; DLZ); Arishina (Kan.; DEP); Aurukesafar (Arab.; DEP; B12); Azafrán (Peru; EGG; DAV; MDD); Azafrán Bastardo (Bol.; DLZ); Azafrán Cimarrón (Peru; EGG); Azafrán de la India (Sp.; USN); Azafrán Indio (Peru; RAR); Bahula (Sanskrit; KAB); Banley (Cam.; KAB); Batatilla (Sal.; AVP); Besar (Chepang; Danuwar; Magar; Nepal; Tharu; NPM); Bhadra (Sanskrit; KAB); Calanag (Vis.; KAB); Calavaga (Vis.; KAB); Camagüey Amarillo (Cuba; AVP); Camotillo (Cr.; Sal.; AVP); Chiang Huang (China; KAB); Chichima (St. Lucia; AVP); Chobah (Iran; EFS); Chukurayo (Aym.; Bol.; DLZ); Common Turmeric (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2); Coron (Peru; Shipibo/Conibo; EGG); Culalao (Pam.; KAB); Culiao (Ilo.; KAB); Cucurma (Sp.; SAR); Cunig (Ilo.; KAB); Curcuma (Cr.; Fr.; Mart.; Pr.; AHL; AVP; USN); Cúrcuma (Peru; RAR); Cucurma di Levante (It.; EFS); Cucurma Indiano (It.; EFS); Curcuma Long (Fr.; EFS); Curry (Eng.; EGG); Dar Sard (Iran; DEP); Darzardi (Iran; KAB); Dilao (Tag.; KAB); Dirgharaga (Sanskrit; KAB); Djavé (Tur.; AVP); Dragón (Cuba; AVP); Dulao (Vis.; KAB); Erouqsoir (Arab.; AVP); Gandhapashika (Sanskrit; KAB); Gangamau (Hausa; KAB); Gauri (Sanskrit; KAB); Gauriz Kamal (Sanskrit; EFS); Gelbwurzel (Ger.; AVP; EFS; USN); Gengibre Cimarrón (Dr.; AHL); Gengibrillo (Dr.; AHL); Gharshani (Sanskrit; KAB); G-n-we'ka (Siona; SAR); Guisador (Peru; DAV; DAV; MDD); Gurgemeie (Swe.; EFS); Gurkmeje (Den.; AVP); Guskmeja (Swe.; AVP); Halada (Guj.; DEP; KAB); Haladi (Sanskrit; Urdu; KAB); Haldar (Beng.; Pun.; DEP); Halde (India; EFS); Haldi (Hindi; Tamang; DEP; NPM); Halede (Mar.; DEP); Haledo (Nepal; NPM; SUW); Halja (Pun.; DEP); Halu (Nepal; NPM); Halud (Beng.; DEP); Harandi (Limbu; NPM); Hardi (Bhojpuri; Mooshar; Sunwar; NPM); Haridra (Sanskrit; AH2; KAB); Haridra Etta (Sanskrit; EFS); Hardithuli (Rai; NPM); Haridra (Sanskrit; DEP); Harita (Sanskrit; KAB); Hatusasang (Mun.; KAB); Hawa Hawa (Ese'Eja; EGG); Hemaragi (Sanskrit; KAB); Hemaragini (Sanskrit; KAB); Hohomich (Sunwar; NPM); Holodi (India; EFS); Hridivilasina (Sanskrit; KAB); Hsa-nwen (Burma; DEP; KAB); Huang Chiang (China; EFS); Idi (Culina; RAR); Indian Saffron (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2; USN); Jayanti (Sanskrit; KAB); Jengibrillo (Dr.; Pr.; AVP); Jiang huang (Pin.; AH2; DAA); Juquillo (Pr.; AVP); Jvarantika (Sanskrit; KAB); Kaha (Sing.; Ari.; AVP; DEP); Kahu Halu (Nepal; SUW); Kalo Haledo (Nepal; SUW); Kanchani (Sanskrit; KAB); Karkom? (Heb.; ZOH); Keveri (Sanskrit; KAB); Kiaong Hoang (China; DEP); Koenir (Sur.; AVP); Korkoom (Arab.; AVP); Krimighni (Sanskrit; KAB); Kshanada (Sanskrit; KAB); Kshapa (Sanskrit; KAB); Kunjit (Malaya; EFS); Kunyit (Malaya; EFS); Kurkum (Arab.; Heb.; BI2; DEP; ZOH); Kurkuma (Ger.; EFS; USN); Kürküma Uzun (Tur.; EFS); Kurkumel (Pol.; AVP); Lakshmi (Sanskrit; KAB); Lange Curcuma (Dutch; EFS); Lange Kurkuma (Ger.; EFS); Lisangay (Zambalese; KAB); Long Root Turmeric (Jam.; AHL; AVP); Mandiwinshi (Amahuaca; Peru; EGG); Mangalaprada (Sanskrit; KAB); Mangalya (Sanskrit; KAB); Manjal (Tam.; DEP); Mannal (Mal.; DEP; KAB); Marinalu (Mal.; DEP; KAB); Mbaemboyubá (Chiriguano; Iguembo; DLZ); Mehaghni (Sanskrit; JFM); Nghe (Vn.; AVP); Nisa (Sanskrit; DEP); Nisha (Sanskrit; EFS); Nishakhya (Sanskrit; KAB); Nishavha (Sanskrit; KAB); Ollod (Kon.; KAB); Ollodi (Kon.; KAB); Palillo (Peru; DAV); Palillo Cholón (Peru; EGG; RAR); Palillo Chuncho (Peru; RAR); Pampi (Tel.; DEP); Pangas (Pam.; KAB); Pasupu (Tel.; DEP); Pavitra (Sanskrit; KAB); Pinga (Sanskrit; KAB); Pinja (Sanskrit; KAB); Pita (Sanskrit; KAB); Pitavaluka (Sanskrit; KAB); Pitika (Sanskrit; KAB); Pitras (Beng.; DEP; KAB); Ponly (Cam.; KAB); Porenki (Machiguenga; EGG); Pwalojir Pagi (Piro; Yine; EGG); Quinamboy (Vis.; KAB); Rabhangavasa (Sanskrit; KAB); Racine Safrán (Fr.; AHL); Rajani (Sanskrit; EFS); Ranjani (Sanskrit; KAB); Ratrinamika (Sanskrit; KAB); Romiet (Cam.; KAB); Safrán (Haiti; AVP; TRA); Safrán Cooli (Mart.; AHL); Safrán des Antilles (Guad.; AHL); Safrán des Indes (Fr.; AHL; USN); Safrán de St. Domingue (Fr.; AHL); Safrán du Pays (Fr.; AHL); Safrán Pays (Mart.; AHL); Sanae (Burma; KAB); Sanoe (Burma; DEP); Sarsud (Arab.; DEP); Ser-po (Tibet; NPM); Shifa (Sanskrit;

KAB); Shiva (Sanskrit; KAB); Shobhana (Sanskrit; KAB); Shyma (Sanskrit; KAB); Souchet (Fr.; AHL); Souchet Long (Fr.; KAB); Souchet Odorant (Fr.; KAB); Subgavavhaya (Sanskrit; KAB); Suvarna (Sanskrit; KAB); Suvarnavarna (Sanskrit; KAB); Tamasini (Sanskrit; KAB); Tambrick (Jam.; AHL; AVP); Tamotamo (Malagasy; KAB); Tanun (Burma; DEP; KAB); Terre Mérite (Fr.; KAB); Timmer (Egypt; AVP); Tjitjima (St. Lucia; TRA); Tumeric (Jam.; AHL); Tumerico (Pr.; AVP); Turmeric (Eng.; Scn.; Trin.; AH2; AVP; NPM; USN); Turmero (Ven.; AVP); Ukon (Japan; TAN); Uma (Sanskrit; KAB); Unkwisi Manya (Siona; SAR); Urakya (Gurung; NPM); Uruk es Saba Ghin (Arab.; DEP); Uruk es Subr (Arab.; DEP); Urukus Safé (Arab.; EFS); Vara (Sanskrit; KAB); Varangi (Sanskrit; KAB); Varavarnini (Sanskrit; KAB); Varnadatri (Sanskrit; KAB); Varnavât (Sanskrit; EFS); Varnavati (Sanskrit; KAB); Varnini (Sanskrit; KAB); Vishaghni (Sanskrit; KAB); Wat Kam (Malaya; KAB); Wong Keong (Malaya; KAB); Wong Keung (Canton; KAB); Yamini (Sanskrit; KAB); Yellow Ginger (Bel.; Eng.; Ocn.; AH2; BNA); Yoshitapriya (Sanskrit; KAB); Yü chin (China; EFS); Yu Chiu (China; USN); Yu Jin (Pin.; AH2; DAA); Yü Kin (China; EFS); Yü Lin (China; EFS); Yuet Kam (Canton; KAB); Yungs-ba (Tibet; NPM); Yuquilla (Cr.; Cuba; AVP); Yuvati (Sanskrit; KAB); Zafran al Hend (Arab.; AVP); Zard (Iran; EFS); Zard Choba (Iran; DEP); Zard Chubah (Iran; DEP); Zerdé (Tur.; AVP); Zirand (Arab.; EFS); Zirsood (Arab.; AVP).

Activities (Turmeric):

Abeta-Blocker (1; X15974909); Alterative (f; DAD; SUW); Amebicide (1; MPI); Analgesic (f1; BIB; COX; X16028990); Antacid (f; BIB; DAD); Anthelmintic (f; KAB; SUW); Antiaflatoxin (1; X1394115); Antiadenomic (1; X7954412); Antiaggregant (f1; AKT; MAB; SKY; VAD); Antialzhei-meran (1; X15974909); Antiamyloid (1; X15974909); Antiangiogenic (1; MAB); Antiarthritic (f1; APA; PED; WHO); Anticholeretic (f1; DAD); Antidiabetic (f1; BOW; JMF8:251); Antidote (arsenic) (f; DAD); AntiEBV (1; X10389986); Antiedemic (f1; WHO); Antifertility (1; PH2; PNC); Antifibri-nolytic (1; PR14:443); Antiflatulent (f1; WHO); Antihistaminic (1; MAB; MPI; SKY); AntiHIV (1; MAB); Antihyperlipidemic (12; PHR; JMF8:256); Antiinflammatory (f12; APA; KOM; PH2; TRA; WAM); Antiintegrase (1; MAB; WHO); Antileishmanic (1; X10865470); Antileukemic (1; AKT); Antileukotriene (1; BGB; PR14:443); Antilipoperoxidant (1; X7714712); Antilymphomic (1; APA; JAD; MAB); Antimutagenic (1; BGB; LIB; MAB); Antinitrosation (1; X3054526); Antioxidant (1; PHR; PH2; WAM; WHO); Antipapillomic (1; X8879271); Antiparasitic (f; DAD); Antiplatelet (1; MAB); Antiprostaglandin (1; PH2); Antipsoriatic (1; FNF); Antiscorbutic (f; DLZ); Antiseptic (f1; MAB; PH2; PNC); Antispasmodic (f1; BIB; SHT; VAD); Antithromboxane (1; MAB); Antitumor (f1; APA; MAB; PH2; TRA); Antitumor promoter (1; X7586157); Antiulcer (f1; TRA; WHO); Anti-venom (1; JAF51:6802); Antiviral (1; X10389986); Aperitive (f; DLZ); Apoptotic (1; X15356994); Astringent (f; BIB); Bactericide (1; APA; MAB; MPI; VAD); Bitter (f1; AKT); Cardioprotective (1; MAB; X15622377); Carminative (f1; APA; MAB; SUW; WHO); Chemopreventive (1; MAB); Cho-lagogue (f1; AHL; BGB; SHT; TRA); Choleretic (f12; KOM; SHT; TRA; WHO); Cholecystokinetic (2; KOM; SHT; WHO); Cicatrizant (f; EGG); Circulotonic (1; BOW); COX-2 Inhibitor (1; COX); Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor (1; MAB; PNC); Cytotoxic (1; MAB); Decongestant (f; BIB); Depurative (f; MAB; SUW); Digestive (f1; MAB); Diuretic (f; APA; BIB); Dysgeusia (f; KAB); EGF Inhibitor(1; X15356994); Emmenagogue (f1; AHP; DAD; LIB); Expectorant (f; BIB); Febrifuge (f1; BIB; COX); Fibrinolytic (1; MAB); Fungicide (f1; KAB; MAB; X8824742); Gastroprotective (1; WHO); Glu-tathiogenic (1; JAC7:405); Gram(+)-icide (1; X16277395); Heme-Oxidase Inducer (1; X15356994); Hemostat (f; DAD); Hepatoprotective (12; AKT; APA; DAD; PH2; PNC; TRA); Hepatotoxic (1; MAB); Hypocholesterolemic (1; APA; MAB; TRA; WAM); Hypoglycemic (1; X16277395); Hypolipidemic (f1; MAB; VAD); Hypotriglyceridemic (1; TRA); Immunostimulant (1; BGB; TRA); Insectifuge (f1; PHR); I-Kappa-B-Kinase Inhibitor (1; X15356994); Laxative (f; BIB); Lice (f; HAD); Lipase Promoter (1; JEB50:167); Lipolytic (f; PH2); Litholytic (f1; HHB; MAB); Maltase Promoter (1; JEB50:167); Mucogenic (1; WHO); Mucolytic (f; AKT); Myorelaxant (f1; WHO); Nematocide (f1; MAB; X8221978); NF-Kappa-B Inhibitor (1; X15356994); NO-genic (1; PR14:443); NO Scavenger

(1; MAB); iNOS Inhibitor (1; X15356994); Oncogene Inhibitor (1; X15356994); Orexigenic (f12; BIB; PHR); Ornithine-Decarboxylase Inhibitor (1; MAB); Parasiticide (f; SUW); Phagocytotic (1; BGB: WHO); PKC Inhibitor (1; X15356994); Plasmodicide (1; X10865470); Protisticide (1; APA; MPI; PNC); Radioprotective (1; X10775394); Respiratonic (f; BOW); Secretogogue (1; TRA); Secre-tolytic (1; TRA); Sortase-A Inhibitor (1; X16277395); Stimulant (f; BIB; DEP; SUW); Stomachic (f; BIB); Sucrase Promoter (1; JEB50:167); TNF Inhibitor (1; MAB); Tonic (f1; SUW); Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (1; X15356994); Ubiquitin-Proteasome Inhibitor (1; X15356994); Ulcerogenic (1; APA; MAB; WHO); Uterotonic (1; AHP; LIB); Vulnerary (f1; AKT; KAB).

Indications (Turmeric):

Abscess (f1; FNF; TRA); Adenoma (1; X7954412); Adenopathy (1; DAD; JLH; X7954412); Allergy (f1; WAM); Alzheimer's (1; COX; FNF); Amenorrhea (f1; BGB; PH2; WHO); Anorexia (f12; BGB; BRU; PHR; PH2); Arthrosis (f1; COX; KAP; MAB; WAM; WHO); Asthma (f1; MAB; WHO); Atherosclerosis (1; MAB; SKY; VAD; JMF8:246); Athlete's Foot (1; FNF); Atony (f; DEP); Bacillus (1; X10552805); Bacteria (1; X10552805); Biliousness (f1; KAB; VAD); Bite (f; BIB; DEP; PH2); Bleeding (f; PH2); Boils (f1; DAD; WHO); Bowen's Disease (1; X11712783); Bronchosis (f; BIB; DEP; PH2); Bruise (f; DAV; DEP; PED; PH2; WHO); Bursitis (1; SKY); Cancer (f1; JLH; MAB); Cancer, abdomen (1; COX; FNF; JLH); Cancer, bladder (f1; X11712783); Cancer, breast (f1; COX; FNF; MAB); Cancer, cervix (f1; X11712783); Cancer, colon (f1; COX; FNF; JLH; JNU); Cancer, duodenum (f1; X7954412); Cancer, esophagus (f1; JAC7:405); Cancer, joint (f1; JLH; MAB); Cancer, liver (f1; JAC7:405); Cancer, mouth (f1; COX; FNF; JLH); Cancer, nose (f1; COX; FNF; JLH); Cancer, sinew (f1; COX; FNF; JLH); Cancer, skin (f1; X7954412); Cancer, stomach (f1; JAC7:405); Cancer, uterus (f1; X11712783); Cardiopathy (f1; AKT; MAB; X15622377); Cataracts (f1; MAB); Catarrh (f; DEP; UPW); Chest ache (f; PH2); Childbirth (f; DAD); Cholecocystosis (12; APA; PHR; VAD; JAF51:6802); Circulosis (f; BOW); Cold (f; DEP; KAP; NPM; PH2); Colic (f; APA; PED; PH2); Coma (f; DAD); Congestion (f; APA; BIB; DEP); Conjunctivosis (f; KAB; MAB; PH2; SUW), Constipation (f; PH2); Coryza (f; DEP; KAB); Cough (f; NPM); Cramp (f1; AKT; BIB; DAD); Cystosis (f; PH2); Dermatosis (f1; AKT; DEP; MAB; PH2; SUW; WHO; WOI); Diabetes (f1; BOW; JMF8:251); Diarrhea (f1; APA; DEP; WHO); Dropsy (f; DAD); Duodenosis (1; X7954412); Dysgeusia (f; KAB); Dyskinesia (f; VAD); Dysmenorrhea (f1; AKT; APA; DLZ; PED; WHO); Dyspepsia (f12; KOM; MAB; PH2; WHO); Dysuria (f; DAD); Eczema (f1; BGB; KAP; MAB); Edema (f1; KAP; PH2); Elephantiasis (f; DAD); Enterosis (f1; AKT; DAD; PH2; WHO); Epilepsy (f; WHO; X16028990); Epistaxis (f; DAD; PH2); Esophagosis (1; JAC7:405); Fever (f1; APA; BIB; DEP; COX); Fibrosis (1; BGB; MAB); Fit (f; DEP); Fungus (f; BIB; PH2); Gallstones (f1; APA; MAB); Gas (f1; APA; PH2); Gastrosis (f1; PH2; VAD); Gonorrhea (f; BIB; KAB); Gray Hair (f; HAD); Fungus (1; LIB); Headache (f; PH2); Hematemesis (f; DAD; PH2); Hematuria (f; DAD); Hemorrhage (f; PED); Hemorrhoids (f; MAB); Hepatosis (f12; DEP; MAB; PED; PHR; PH2; TRA); Herpes (f; EGG); High Blood Pressure (1; KAP); High Cholesterol (1; AKT; APA; MAB; TRA; VAD; JMF8:246); High Triglycerides (1; MAB; TRA); Hyperhomocysteinemia (1; X15622377); Hyperlipidemia (1; MAB; JMF8:256); Hysteria (f; DAD; DEP); IBS (1; PED); Infection (f12; MAB; MPI; PH2); Inflammation (f1; DEP; PHR; PH2; WAM; WHO); Itch (f; APA; KAP; PH2); Jaundice (f1; DEP; MAB; TRA); Laryngitis (f1; BIB; COX); Leprosy (f; PH2); Leishmania (1; X10865470); Leukemia (1; AKT); Leukoderma (f; DAD); Leukoplakia (1; X11712783); Lymphoma (1; BIB; COX; FNF); Malaria (f; KAB; KAP; PH2); Morning Sickness (f1; MAB); Mucososis (f; PH2); Mycosis (f1; DEP; PH2; X8824742); Nematode (1; X8221978); Nephrosis (f1; AKT; PH2); Ophthalmia (f1; AKT; DAD; DEP; PH2); Orbital Pseudotumor (1; PR14:443); Osteoarthrosis (1; MAB); Otorrhea (f; DEP); Ozoena (f; KAB); Pain (f1; BIB; DEP; COX; WHO; X16028990); Parasite (f; BIB; DAD; KAP LIB); Plasmodicide (1; X10865470); Polyp (f1; COX; JLH; JNU); Psoriasis (1; FNF; MAB); Puerperium (f; MAB); Radiation (1; AKT); Restenosis (1; MAB); Rheumatism (f1: BIB; COX; SKY); Rhinosis (f1; COX; JLH); Ringworm (f; APA; BIB; DEP; KAP; PH2); Scabies (f2; BGB;

DEP); Smallpox (f; DAD); Snakebite (1; JAF51:6802); Sore (f; PH2); Sore Throat (f; PH2); Sprain (f1; DEP; MAB; SUW); Staphylococcus (1; MPI; UPW); Sting (f; DEP); Stone (f1; HHB; MAB); Stroke (f; BOW; PH2); Swelling (f1; AKT; COX; NPM; PH2); Syphilis (f; DAD); Thrombosis (f1; VAD); Tonsilosis (f; NPM); Trauma (f; AKT; X16028990); Ulcer (f1; BIB; COX; PED; WHO); Uve-osis (2; AKT); Venereal Disease (f; BIB; DAD); Vertigo (f; BIB; DEP; DAD); Virus (1; X10389986); Vomiting (f; PH2); Wart (f; JLH); Whitlow (f; JLH); Worm (f1; DEP; X8221978); Wound (f1; APA; BGB; PH2; SUW; WAM); Yeast (f1; PED).

Dosages (Turmeric):

Rhizomes widely consumed as foods. 4.5-9 g/day, as tea (AHP); 0.5-1 g several x/day, between meals; or 1.5-3 g/day, often with warm milk (APA); 300-mg capsules, to 3 x/day (APA); 1 tsp/cup warm milk (APA); 300-mg capsule, 3 x/day (APA); 1200 mg curcumin (APA); one 445-mg StX capsule 2-3 x/day (JAD); 0.1 g up to 20 g day (HHB); 1.5-3 g rhizome (KOM); 4 g turmeric powder in water, 1-2 x/day (MAB); 5-14 ml fluid extract (1:1), divided in 4 or 5 doses (MAB). 0.5 tsp turmeric powder boiled with 2 cups water for 5 minutes, cooled to lukewarm and gargled for colds, cough, and tonsillitis (NPM). 3-5 g fresh herb (PED); 0.3-0.5 g dry herb (PED); 0.4 g dry herb:2 ml alcohol/2 ml water (PED); 1.5-3 g/day crude drug (SHT); 400 mg curcumin, 3 x/day (SKY); 3-9 g crude turmeric/day (WHO); 1.5-3 g powdered plant; 0.5-1 ml tincture (1:10) 3 x/day; 0.5-1 g oral infusion 3 x/day (WHO).

Ayurvedics consider the rhizome alexiteric, anthelmintic, depurative, emollient, laxative, tonic, vulnerary, and useful for biliousness, boils, bruises, complexion, dysgeusia, dyspepsia, dysuria, elephantiasis, inflammation, leukoderma, ozoena, smallpox, sprains, and swelling (KAB).

• Bolivians, considering the rhizome antiscorbutic, aperitive, diuretic, stimulant, and tonic, use it in childbirth and dysmenorrhea (DLZ).

• Chinese use for amenorrhea, colic, congestion, and externally for dermatosis (KAB).

• Haitians use the cholagogue root for fever with jaundice (AHL).

• Madagascans use rhizome as aperient, astringent, carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue, stimulant, and tonic (KAB).

• Mohammedens, following doctrine of signature, use for hepatosis and jaundice (KAB).

• Nepali boil 1/2 tsp 5 minutes in 2 cups water and gargle with the lukewarm tea for colds, coughs, and tonsillitis (NPM).

• Peruvians apply grated root to herpes, rheumatism, and wounds, as a cicatrizant (EGG).

• Peruvians take a tablespoon of grated root for malaria and take the root decoction for infectious hepatitis, 1 or 2 (child or adult) spoonfuls a day for 10 to 15 days (DAV; EGG).

• Unani consider the rhizome useful for bruises, dysuria, hepatosis, jaundice, scabies, and strangury (KAB).

Downsides (Turmeric):

Class 2b. Emmenagogue; uterotonic. Counterindicated in patients with bile duct obstruction, gallstones, hyperacidity, stomach ulcers (AHP, 1997; AEH). While in moderate doses, turmeric is said to inhibit cancers, lymphomas, and ulcers, overdoses of curcuminoids may possibly be cytotoxic and ulcerogenic and may lead to dimunition of red and white corpuscles. Still, Commission E approves 1.5 to 3 g/day, not nearly enough to provide 1200 mg curcumin. Commission E also reports contraindications: biliary obstruction, adverse effects: GI-irritation from continued use; consult physicians before using with gallstones (BIS; KOM). At 10% of diet, turmeric caused some loss of hair in rats (MAB). Care should be taken in women who wish to conceive or patients complaining of alopecia (MAB). Women who are pregnant or children with gallbladder or liver disease or ulcers should avoid turmeric (WAM); limit internal use to 10 days (WAM). Rather frightening what one reads in UPW (2000): "Laboratory animals treated with it are reported to have been rendered entirely infertile."

Extracts (Turmeric):

Fond as I am of synergy and food farmacy, I like the following comments from Verma et al. (1997). Curcumin and genistein can inhibit estrogen-positive human breast cells induced by estradiol or pesticides individually or mixed. Curcumin and genistein were synergic, totally inhibiting induction in vitro (X9168916). Curcuminoids inhibit cancer at initiation, promotion, and progression in vitro and in vivo (MAB). Viva the curried bean soup I am having for lunch! Reportedly as effective as hydrocortisone acetate or indomethacin in experimental inflammation (WHO); both natural antiinflammatory curcumin (1200 mg/day) and unnatural phenylbutazone (30 mg/day) improved joint swelling, morning stiffness, and walking time in rheumatoid arthritics, both better than placebo (WHO). Bruneton notes that the antiinflammatory ED50 or curcumin orally in rats is 48 mg/kg (= 4.8 g for me) and apparently devoid of side effects (BRU) while the ipr ED50 is only 2.1 mg/kg, suggesting that the ipr route is 20 times more effective. But I am not into injecting herbs. Enjoy your curried beans, counting on those synergies. Duke suggests that curcumin needs to be compared with Celebrex and Vioxx as a COX-2 inhibitor. Essential oil showed significant antihistaminic and antiinflammatory activity, the latter at 0.1 ml/kg, which translates to 10 ml for me, a rather dangerous dose. At doses of 1.5 g/day for 30 days, turmeric reduced urinary excretion of mutagens in an uncontrolled trial of 16 chronic smokers. In six non-smoking controls, there was no change in urinary secretion. Turmeric had no effect on serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate amino transferase, blood glucose, creatinine, and lipid profile (MAB). Turmeric extract (circa 20 mg curcumin/day) for 45 days dramatically decreased blood lipid peroxide levels in 18 male subjects (MAB). Curcumin is poorly absorbed (some 15 to 35% max in rats) orally; but if administered with piperine (from black and long pepper), absorption improves more than 150% in rats. However, in human volunteers, 20 mg piperine increases the bioavailability of curcumin 20-fold (MAB). One study indicated that curcumin and sodium curcuminate were more potent than phenylabutazone in acute and chronic arthritic models, while another found it only 1/10th as effective as ibuprofen. While ulcerogenic in large doses, curcumin is only about 1/3 as ulcerogenic as the phenylbutazone. In low doses, cur-cumin had antiulcer activity, protecting against the ulcerogenic activity of phenylbutazone (MAB). 1-Phenylhydroxy-N-pentane stimulates the secretion of secretin, gastrin, and bicarbonate, thus helping maintain the gastric pH, in dogs and humans (TRA). LD50 ether extracts 12,200 mg/kg orl rat (MAB); LDlo curcumin >2000 mg/kg orl mus (MAB); LDlo curcumin >5000 mg/kg orl rat (MAB); curcumin more potent against Leishmania than pentamidine (JAF51:6604).

palmarosa (cymbopogon martini (roxb.) j.f. watson) ++ poaceae

Synonyms:

Andropogon martini Roxb.; Andropogon schoenanthus var. martini Hook. f. Notes (Palmarosa):

Take thou also unto thee principal spices, of pure myrrh five hundred shekels, and of sweet cinnamon half so much, even two hundred and fifty shekels, and of sweet calamus two hundred and fifty shekels.

Exodus 30:23 (KJV)

Take the finest spices: of liquid myrrh five hundred shekels, and of sweet-smelling cinnamon half as much, that is, two hundred and fifty, and of aromatic cane two hundred and fifty.

Exodus 30:23 (RSV)

As for you, take to yourself the choicest perfumes: myrrh in congealed drops five hundred units, and sweet cinnamon in half that amount, two hundred and fifty units, and sweet calamus two hundred and fifty units.

Exodus 30:23 (NWT)

To what purpose cometh there to me incense from Sheba, and the sweet cane from a far country? Your burnt offerings are not acceptable, nor your sacrifices sweet unto me.

Jeremiah 6:20 (KJV)

To what purpose does frankincense come to me from Sheba, or sweet cane from a distant land? Your burnt offerings are not acceptable, nor your sacrifices pleasing to me.

Jeremiah 6:20 (RSV)

What does this matter to me that you bring in even frankincense from Sheba, and the good cane from the land far away? The whole burnt offerings of you people serve for no pleasure, and your very sacrifices have not been gratifying to me.

Jeremiah 6:20 (NWT)

Zohary informs us that aromatic grasses were used daily in the biblical world, imported from the Near East or India, for cosmetics, flavorings, medicines, and perfumery. To wit, when they opened the tombs of the Pharaohs (20th and 21st dynasty) in 1881, circa 3000 years after burial, the aroma of Cymbopogon was still obvious. The Hebrew words kanev hatov, knei bosem, and sometimes kaneh alone were often used to convey the broad semi-taxonomic concept of aromatic grass, sweet cane, sweet grass. Admitting that it is hopeless to speculate about which of the possible species (Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martinii, or Cymbopogon schoenanthus) was intended by the biblical writers, Zohary led his discussion with ginger grass. One of them does grow wild in the Holy Land. Zohary quotes from the Revised Standard Version of the Bible (RSV© 1946, 1952, 1971, and 1973), which renders the Cymbopogon in the first quote above as aromatic grass (ZOH), whereas my KJV renders it as sweet calamus. In my first Bible book, I followed the Moldenke's suggestion that it could be Andropogon schoenanthus or Andropogon muricatus (which is apparently Vetiveria) and they leaned toward the vetiver. After reading Zohary, I am more inclined to side with him. No one seems to push Acorus calamus, which did not apparently occur in the Holy Land. It seems less likely to have been imported than the Cymbopogon or Vetiveria, to either of which the alternative translation "sweet cane" seems more appropriate. The aromatic grasses share many chemicals and activities. According to WOI, "Two varieties are known, motia and sofia, which are morphologically indistinguishable." Some of the activities and indications, even common names, might as well refer to C. schoenanthus, which EFS treated as synonymous with A. martinii. BOU and UPW entries below apply to North African C. schoenanthus (including C. proximum). Remains of C. schoenanthus have been found in Egyptian tombs. Hippocrates, the "Father of Medicine," is said to have used it circa 440 B.c. Further, it is said to have been used in the toilet and burial preparation of the Prophet Mohammed.

Common Names (Palmarosa):

Afar (Arab.; Mauritania; UPW); Agyaghas (Beng.; Hindi; NAD); Bhustrina (Sanskrit; EFS); Bhutrina (Sanskrit; NAD); Buluuje (Upper Volta; UPW); Camel Grass (Eng.; UPW); Camel's Hay (Arab.; BOU); Chiendent Pied de Poule (Fr.; UPW); Citronelle (Fr.; BOU); Gandhabena (Beng.; Hindi; India; EFS; NAD); Gandh Bel (Hindi; WOI); Geranium Grass (Eng.; BOU; FAC);

Geraniumgras (Ger.; HHB); Gingergras (Ger.; USN); Gingergrass (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2; ZOH); Halfet Hashma (Arab.; BOU); Idhkir (Arab.; BOU); Indian Geranium (Eng.; EFS); Jonc Aromatique (Fr.; BOU); Jonc Odorant (Fr.; BOU); Kaneh (Heb.; ZOH); Kanev Hatov (Heb.; ZOH); Kavatham Pillu (Tam.; WOI); Knei Bosem (Heb.; ZOH); Lemmad (Arab.; Mali; BOU; UPW); Mahareb (Arab.; Nig.; BOU; UPW); Makkah (Arab.; BOU); Mao Hsiang (China; EFS); Motiya (India; USN); Namar Grass (Eng.; EFS); Nangule (Bambara; Sen.; UPW); Nard (Fr.; EFS); Nemour Grass (Eng.; EFS); Nimar Grass (Eng.; EFS); Nobi (Hausa; (Niger; UPW); Oost Indische Geranium (Dutch; EFS); Ostindisches Geraniumgras (Ger.; EFS); Paille de la Mecue (Fr.; BOU); Palmarosa (Eng.; Ger.; Scn.; Sp.; AH2; HHB; USN); Palmarosa Indien (Fr.; EFS); Palmarosagras (Ger.; HHB); Palmaroza (Tur.; EFS); Rauuns (Guj.; WOI); Robisa (Ayu.; AH2); Rohisa (Sanskrit; WOI); Roosa Grass (Eng.; EFS); Rosha (India; USN); Rosha Grass (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2); Roshegavat (Mar.; WOI); Ruaghas (Hindi; India; EFS; NAD); Rusa (Eng.; EFS); Rusagras (Ger.; EFS); Rusha (India; USN); Russagras (Ger.; HHB); Scenanth (Eng.; BOU); Schoenanthe (Fr.; BOU); Schoenanthe Officinal (Fr.; BOU); Shakanarupillu (Tam.; NAD); Sha'ret et Trab (Arab.; BOU); Sofiya (India; USN); Sumpiga (Ghana; UPW); Sweet Calamus (Eng.; KJV; ZOH); Sweet Cane (Eng.; KJV); Tiberrimt (Ber.; BOU); Tibn Makkah (Arab.; BOU); Turkse Geranium (Dutch; EFS).

Activities (Palmarosa):

Abortifacient (f; UPW); Analgesic (f; UPW); Anthelmintic (1; X13680833); Antiseptic (1; X12809717); Antispasmodic (f; EFS); Aphrodisiac (f; UPW); Astringent (f; BOU); Carminative (f; BOU; EFS); Emmenagogue (f; BOU); Insectifuge (f1; WOI; X15119079); Nematicide (1; X13680833); Stimulant (f; EFS); Sudorific (f; BOU; EFS); Vulnerary (f; BOU).

Indications (Palmarosa):

Ache (f; UPW); Alopecia (f; WOI); Amenorrhea (f; BOU); Arthritis (f; WOI); Biliousness (f; WO2); Bleeding (f; BOU); Cancer, liver (f; UPW); Cancer, spleen (f; UPW); Cancer, stomach (f; UPW); Dermatosis (f; WOI); Enterosis (f; NAD); Fever (f; BOU; UPW); Gas (f; BOU; NAD); Guineaworm (f; UPW); Impotence (f; UPW); Infection (1; X12809717); Lumbago (f; WOI); Mania (f; UPW); Pain (f; UPW); Parasite (f; UPW); Rheumatism (f; BOU); Snakebite (f; UPW); Sore (f; UPW); Spasm (f; EFS); Worm (1; X13680833); Wound (f; BOU); Yeast (1; X12809717).

Dosages (Palmarosa):

Essential oil used in baked goods, chewing gum, deserts, gelatin, and ice creams (FAC). Some Northeast Africans eat the inner core of the rhizome as an aphrodisiac (UPW).

• Ghanans apply leaves, pounded in a little water, to body aches and pains (UPW).

• Ghanans mash flowers to apply, or poultice ashes to guineaworm sores (UPW). Maybe I should try that on the next bot fly I get. The last one cost me more than a thousand dollars.

• Ghanans take a tea of the inflorescence for fever (UPW).

• Nigerians inhale the burning smoke to treat temporary mania (UPW).

• Togo and north Ghanan natives use the grass for snakebite (UPW).

Extracts (Palmarosa):

Containing up to 2250 ppm perillyl-alcohol, this species could well be important.

maltese mushroom (cynomorium coccineum l.) ++ balanophoraceae

Notes (Maltese Mushroom):

Who cut up mallows by the bushes, and juniper roots for their meat.

They pick mallow and the leaves of bushes, and to warm themselves the roots of the broom.

They were plucking the salt herb by the bushes, And the root of broom trees was their food.

Because this mushroom-like parasite is edible, and has edible roots, while juniper (broom) roots are not very edible, I was influenced in my earlier version to conclude that Cynomorium constituted the juniper roots of Job. Or maybe it even grew as a root parasite among the stems and roots of the halophytes. Such "roots" are frequently eaten in times of scarcity, for example, on the Canary Islands. In Qatar, where it is given the Arabic name tarthuth, natives eat it. In Northern Africa, the roots are pulverized and used as a spice (BIB). But Zohary concludes that the juniper (broom) root of Job 3 is Retama. On Malta, where it was once considered endemic, Cynomorium was so highly prized for its supposed medicinal help in dysentery that military sentinel were posted around places where it occurred. In some cultures it is considered an aphrodisiac for males (suspected to increase the sperm count); in others, for females. Bedouins either peel the root and eat it, or grind it and make a sweetened tea for colic (BIB).

Common Names (Maltese Mushroom):

Abushal (Arab.; BOU); Afdad (Ber.; BOU); Champignon de Malte (Fr.; BOU); Cynomoir Acarlate (Fr.; BOU); Hawkal (Arab.; BOU); Maltese Mushroom (Eng.; BOU); Marshoush (Arab.; BOU); Masrut (Arab.; BOU); Mazrour (Arab.; BOU); Mousowrar (Arab.; BOU); Raetem (?; TAN); Scarlet Cynomorium (Eng.; BOU); Tarthoorth (Arab.; GHA); Tarthuth (Arab.; Oman; Qatar; Saudi; BIB; GHA); Tartous (Ber.; BOU); Tartout (Arab.; BOU); Tartout el Beni Edem (Arab.; BOU); Terzous (Ber.; BOU); Zobb el Ard (Arab.; BOU); Zobb el Ghaba (Arab.; BOU); Zobb el Qa'a (Arab.; BOU); Zobb el Tourki (Arab.; BOU).

Activities (Maltese Mushroom):

Aphrodisiac (f; BOU; PR14:288); Astringent (f; BOU); Deobstruent (f; BOU); Gonadotrophic (1; PR14:288); Hypotensive (f; X683693); Laxative (f; GHA); Narcotic (f; PR14:288); Spermatogenic (f1; BOU; PR14:288; X11282435); Tonic (f; BOU; PR14:288).

Indications (Maltese Mushroom):

Arthrosis (f; BIB); Back (f; BIB); Biliousness (f; BIB); Colic (f; BIB); Constipation (f; BIB; GHA); Dysentery (f; BIB); High Blood Pressure (f; X683693); Impotence (f1; BIB; PR14:288); Infertility (1; BIB; PR14:288); Nephrosis (f; BIB); Sterility (f; BIB; PR14:288).

Dosages (Maltese Mushroom):

Tuareg used pulverized root as a spice; root apparently eaten by biblical Job. In Qatar, where it is given the Arabic name tarthuth, natives eat it (Batanouny, 1981). In Northern Africa, the roots are pulverized and used as a spice.

• Bedouins eat, or grind the peeled root to make a sweetened tea for colic (BIB).

• Chinese regard the herb for the back, kidney, and knee, using it for constipation, impo-tency, and sterility (BIB).

• Maltese prize the plant for dysentery (BIB).

• North Africans mix powdered plants with butter for biliary obstructions (BIB; TAN) Extracts (Maltese Mushroom):

A Chinese species of this genus proved more estrogenic than kudzu, following after Polygonum cuspidatum, Rheumpalmatum, Cassia obtusifolia, Polygonum multiflorum, Epimedium brevicor-num, and Psoralea corylifolia (X15814262). On Malta, where it was once considered endemic, In some cultures it is considered an aphrodisiac for males (suspected to increase the sperm count); in others, for females. Bedouins either peel the root and eat it or grind it and make a sweetened tea for colic. North Africans mix powdered plants with butter for biliary obstructions (BIB).

papyrus (cyperus papyrus l.) ++ cyperaceae

Synonyms:

Cyperus olivaris Targioni-Tozzetti, Cyperus tuberosus Roxn., Pycreus rotundus (L.) Hayek Notes (Papyrus):

That sendeth ambassadors by the sea, even in vessels of bulrushes upon the waters, saying, Go, ye swift messengers, to a nation scattered and peeled, to a people terrible from their beginning hitherto; a nation meted out and trodden down, whose land the rivers have spoiled!

Isaiah 18:2 (KJV)

First described by Theophrastus (circa 372-287 B.c.) from cultivated material on the Nile delta, the inflorescences were described as useful only for "garlands for the shrines of the Gods." But boats were made from the stalks, which were also important sources of parchment paper. Moses was laid in a cradle woven from the bulrushes of papyrus growing in the rivers of lower Egypt. Among these same bulrushes the ark was placed, to be discovered by Pharaoh's daughter who brought Moses up as her son. Galen, Dioscorides, and later Islamic pharmacologists (e.g., Ibn Gulgul and El Ghafiqi) included papyrus among medicinal plants. Common in the upper Jordan valley, the papyrus reaches its northern natural limits in Israel (BIB; UPW; ZOH).

Common Names (Papyrus):

Bardi (Arab.; BOU); Birdi (Arab.; Nig.; UPW); Bulrush (Eng.; UPW); Burdi (Arab.; Nig.; UPW); Castañuela (Sp.; POR); Coco-Grass (Eng.; POR); Coquito (Sp.; POR); Fole (Kanuri; Nig.; UPW); Gemi (Heb.; ZOH); Gomeh (Heb.; ZOH); Hamasuge (Japan; POR); Herbe-a-Oignon (Fr.; POR); Jonc du Nil (Fr.; BOU); Junga (Por.; POR); Kotolo (Kanuri; Nig.; UPW); Mothe (Nepal; POR); Nile Papyrus (Eng.; BOU); Paper Reed (Eng.; BOU); Papier du Nil (Fr.; BOU; USN); Papiro (Por.; USN); Papyrus (Eng.; Fr.; JLH; UPW; USN); Papyrusstaude (Ger.; USN); Souchet a Papier (Fr.; USN);

FIGURE 1.41 Papyrus (Cyperus papyrus).

Herbe-a-Oignon (Fr.; POR); Juncia (Sp.; POR); Qasab el Bardi (Arab.; BOU); Rundes Zypergras (Ger.; POR); Souchet a Papier (Fr.; BOU); Souchet a Tubercules (Fr.; POR); Souchet Rond (Fr.; POR); Suo Cao (China; POR); Umm Ganagan (Nig.; UPW); Xiang Fu Zi (China; POR); Ya Haeo Mu (Thai; POR); Ya Khon Mu (Thai; POR); Zigolo Infestante (It.; POR). Nscn.

Activities (Papyrus):

Indications (Papyrus):

Burn (f; JLH); Callus (f; JLH); Cancer (f; JLH); Dermatosis (f; JLH); Fistula (f; BIB); Induration (f; JLH); Ophthalmia (f; BIB); Sore (f; BIB); Stomatosis (f; BIB; BOU); Wound (f; BIB; BOU).

Dosages (Papyrus):

Pith commonly eaten, raw or cooked. Starchy rhizomes and lowermost parts of the stem cut off and consumed raw, boiled, or roasted, or just chewed like sugarcane. Roasted rhizomes were once a fairly common food. The Roman poet Martial joked about the fiber left in the mouth after chewing it (BIB; IHB).

• Gabonese chew the dried rhizomes for use in warding off evil spirits (UPW).

• Old World inhabitants use ashes of burned papyrus like charcoal in ophthalmia (BIB).

• Old World inhabitants sometimes used the pith to widen fistulae (BIB).

• North Africans steeped the plant in vinegar, then dried and burned it, and used the ashes for preventing the spread of oral ulcers or to heal wounds (BIB; BOU).

• Tanganyikan women take root decoction with leaf sap from Maytenus senegalensis for sterility (UPW).

Extracts (Papyrus):

Octopamine and tyramine reported from the leaves.

ceylon ebony (diospyros ebenum koenig.) + ebenaceae

Synonyms:

Diospyros assimilis Bedd.; Diospyros glaberrima Rottb.; Diospyros hebecarpa A. Cunn.; Diospy-ros sapota Roxb.

Notes (Ceylon Ebony):

The men of Dedan were thy merchants; many isles were the merchandise of thine hand: they brought thee for a present horns of ivory and ebony.

Ezekiel 27:15 (KJV)

The men of Rhodes traded with you; many coastlands were your own special markets, they brought you in payment ivory tusks and ebony.

Ezekiel 27:15 (RSV)

The sons of De'dan were your traders; many islands were merchants in your employ; horns of ivory and ebony they have paid back as gift to you.

Ezekiel 27:15 (NWT)

All three versions in my trilogy call it ebony, a very important timber in the same genus with our eastern persimmon (Diospyros virginianum). Its puckery fruits are quite astringent, even eaten after frost. Many of the tropical persimmons are also astringent. More importantly, the heartwood of several tropical species is the source of ebony, a hard black wood used for piano keys. Ebony was used, of old as it is today, frequently inlaid with ivory. We read that 200 logs of ebony presented to the kings of Persia every year by the Ethiopians were originally from India or Sri Lanka. The royal throne of Pluto, king of the mythical underworld, was made of ebony, as were carvings of many Egyptian gods and goddesses, especially those of Darkness, Night, and Sorrow. D. ebenum is viewed as the best ebony timber, the only one that yields jet black heartwood without streaks or marking (BIB). Zohary identifies the biblical ebony, hovenium in Hebrew, hbu in Egyptian, as D. ebenum, admitting that many species of Diospyros yield this expensive wood (ZOH). The Bible is sketchy about commercial routes in biblical times. Although not sure that ebony and ivory reached Israel from India, Zohary seems sure that both Asian and African merchandise were shipped to the Phoenician commercial Dedan, on the Arabian coast (ZOH). Common names below can be viewed as more generic than specific, the EFS names applying to Diospyros ebenum, D. embryopteris, and other species. I have left out any I am sure apply to our eastern persimmon.

Common Names (Ceylon Ebony):

Abnes e Hindi (Arab.; EFS); Abnus (Arab.; Hindi; DEP; WOI); Abnush (Nepal; POR); Acha (Tam.; DEP); Avolio (It.; EFS); Bale (Kan.; KAB); Bois Noir (Fr.; KAB); Ceylon Ebony (Eng.; USN); Ceylon

Bhutruna Tilam Leafs
FIGURE 1.42 Ceylon Ebony (Diospyros ebenum).

Persimmon (Eng.; POR); Chara (Sri.; KAB); Chernoe Ebenovoe Derevo (Rus.; POR); Ebenuz (Sp.; POR); Ch'i Shih (China; EFS); Diosupirosu Ebenumu (Japan; POR); East Indian Ebony (Eng.; SKJ); Ebano (It.; Sp.; EFS); Ebans (Hindi; WOI); Ebbenhoutboom (Dutch; EFS); Ebene (Fr.; POR); Ebenier (Fr.; KAB; POR); Ebenier de Ceylan (Fr.; POR); Ebenier de Maurice (Fr.; POR); Ebenus (Latin; DEP); Ebenuz (Sp.; USN); Ebony (Eng.; POR; USN); Ebony Persimmon (Eng.; POR; USN); Echter Ebenholzbaum (Ger.; POR; USN); Gab (India; EFS); Hbu (Arab.; Egypt; ZOH); Hovenum (Heb.; ZOH); Indian Ebony (Eng.; IHB); Kaju Arang (Malaya; EFS); Kakkayttali (Tam.; KAB); Kaletja (Malaya; EFS); Kaluwara (Sing.; DEP); Kanka (Sanskrit; EFS); Karai (Tam.; WOI); Kare (Kan.; DEP); Kare-mara (Kan.; Mysore; SKJ; WOI); Karu (Mal.; KAB; WOI); Karunkali (Tam.; DEP; WOI); Kendhu (Oriya; WOI); Khenda (Oriya; DEP; KAB); Kinkini (Sanskrit; EFS); Legno Santo (It.; EFS); Malabar Ebony (Eng.; KAB); Mallali (Mancharabad; DEP); Mauritius Ebony (Eng.; POR); Mishatumpi (Mal.; KAB); Mushtumpi (Mal.; WOI); Nallavalludu (Tel.; WOI); Nalluti (Tel.; WOI); Pei Shih (China; EFS); Tai (Mar.; DEP); Temru (India; EFS); Tendu (Hindi; India; DEP; EFS); Tinduka (Sanskrit; EFS); Tseilonskoe Ebenovoe Derevo (Rus.; POR); Tumbi (Tam.; WOI); Tumbiri (Sanskrit; EFS); Tumiki (Tel.; KAB; WOI); Vayari (Kerala; Mal.; SKJ; WOI); Wu Mu (China; POR); Nscn.

Activities (Ceylon Ebony):

Astringent (f; EFS; SKJ; WOI); Attenuant (f; SKJ; WOI); Litholytic (f; SKJ; WOI); Piscicide (f; BIB; PCS).

Indications (Ceylon Ebony):

Cancer (f; JLH); Dermatosis (f; BIB); Excrescence (f; JLH); Itch (f; PCS); Leprosy (f; PCS); Infection (f; PCS); Mycosis (f; PCS); Ringworm (f; PCS); Stone (f; WOI).

Dosages (Ceylon Ebony):

Fruits edible (BIB).

• Unani consider the plant astringent, attenuant, and litholytic (KAB).

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment