Cicutaria vulgaris Clus; Conium major Bauh.; Conium vulgaris major Park Notes (Poison Hemlock):
... Judgment springeth up as hemlock in the furrows of the field ...
[F]or you have turned judgment into gall, and the fruit of righteousness into hemlock.
These are the only citations for hemlock in the King James Version online. The poison that Socrates took, hemlock, is too dangerous for herbal administration by the uninitiated. Some authors (e.g., Walker) relate the biblical hemlock to Conium, a truly dangerous medicinal plant, while Moldenke and Moldenke relate it to a more innocuous herb, closer to wormwood. Zohary, admitting that the Hebrew word rosh, generally meaning poison, more likely means a "bitter and poisonous drink or food." Without saying definitively that hemlock is intended, Zohary does recount that the plant is poisonous, and quite possibly the poison drink of Socrates, yet praised by Avicennia for breast tumors (BIB).
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