Stone pine pinus pinea l abietaceae

Notes (Stone Pine):

He heweth him down cedars, and taketh the cypress and the oak, which he strengtheneth for himself among the trees of the forest: he planteth an ash, and the rain doth nourish it.

Isaiah 44:14 (KJV)

He cuts down cedars; or he chooses a holm tree or an oak and lets it grow strong among the trees of the forest; he plants a cedar and the rain nourishes it.

Isaiah 44:14 (RSV)

There is one whose business is to cut down cedars; and he takes a certain species of tree, even a massive tree, and he lets it become strong for himself among the trees of the forest. He planted the laurel tree, and the pouring rain itself keeps making it get big.

Isaiah 44:14 (NWT)

There is much ambiguity between the versions above, and you will not find "pine" in any of them, although you will find cedar in all three passage versions. Working with the RSV, which translated "holm" rather than the underlined "cypress" above, Zohary notes that this is the only place where the Hebrew word tirzah occurs in the scriptures. He notes that this may have led Saadia Gaon, translator of the Bible into its first Arabic version (10th century), to render tirzah as "stone pine." Indeed, in Arabic, as in many languages, the names of several conifers include the radical rz or arz. Jewish villages in north Kurdistan, where closely related Pinus brutia forms natural stands, have probably preserved the name etz shemen for that pine, perhaps since the Babylonian exile. That was partly why I included Pinus brutia in my first biblical book. Meanwhile, stone pine was reportedly common in the coastal plain of Palestine, forming extensive forests during the last century. Groves of stone pine at Yarka on the coastal plain of Galilee and on Mt. Carmel may represent remnants of extensive old groves, planted or spontaneous. At one time, the nuts were exported as pignolia nuts (ZOH). More than just edible, the nuts are considered aphrodisiac. The Roman poet Ovid (born in the 1st century B.C.), in his The Art of Love, lists aphrodisiacs including pine nuts. The Greek physician Galen (2nd century a.d.) suggests pine seeds, honey, and almonds, taken before bedtime three nights in a row, to increase potency. Apicius, a Roman celebrity, recommended pine nuts, cooked onions, white mustard, and pepper as an aphrodisiac. Some Arabian sources suggest popularly 20 almonds and 100 pine nuts with a glassful of thick honey three nights before bedtime (CJE).

Common Names (Stone Pine):

Cypress (Eng.; ZOH); Holm (Eng.; ZOH); Italian Stone Pine (Eng.; FAC; USN); Nuces de Pino (JLH); Parasol Pine (Eng.; USN); Pignolia-nut Pine (Eng.; USN); Pin Parasol (Fr.; USN); Pin Pignon (Fr.; USN); Pinheiro Manso (Mad.; Por.; JAD); Pinie (Ger.; USN); Schirmkiefer (Ger.; USN); Stone Pine (Eng.; HJP; USN; ZOH); Tirzah (Heb.; ZOH); Umbrella Pine (Eng.; USN); Nscn.

Activities (Stone Pine):

Acaricide (1; X12137480); Allergenic (1; X12911512); Antiseptic (f; HJP); Aphrodisiac (f; CJE); Culicide (1; X15662650); Fungicide (f; HJP); Hemostat (f; HJP); Insecticide (1; X15662650); Insec-tifuge (1; X15662650); Larvicide (1; X15662650); Purgative (f; HJP).

Indications (Stone Pine):

Arteriosclerosis (f1; HOC); Arthrosis (f; JLH); Bleeding (f; HJP); Burn (f; HJP); Callus (f; JLH); Cancer (f; JLH); Cancer, breast (f; JLH); Cancer, bladder (f; JLH); Cancer, kidney (f; JLH); Cancer, liver (f; JLH); Cancer, throat (f; JLH); Cancer, uterus (f; JLH); Condyloma (f; JLH); Constipation (f; HJP); Cystosis (f; JLH); Fungus (f; HJP); Hepatosis (f; JLH); Impotence (f; CJE); Induration (f; JLH); Infection (f; HJP); Mastosis (f; JLH); Mycosis (f; HJP); Nephrosis (f; JLH); Phymata (f; JLH); Ringworm (f; HJP); Tumor (f; JLH); Uterosis (f; JLH); Worm (f; HJP).

Dosages (Stone Pine):

One of the best of edible pine seeds, eaten raw or roasted or used in cakes, cookies, dolmas, pesto, picada, pilaf, sauces, soups. Romanians grind up whole green pine cones as a spice for game dishes. Gourmet oils produced from seeds in France (BIB; FAC).

• Druse apply the oil and resin to circumcision wounds (HJP).

• Early Greeks and Romans suggested almonds, honey, and pine nuts for aphrodisia (CJE).

• Lebanese use the sap or oil (called "priest's oil") as a purgative and an emollient for burns (HJP).

Downsides (Stone Pine):

Several abstracts refer to anaphylactic reactions to these nuts. Extracts (Stone Pine):

Macchioni et al. (2002), "studying essential oils of four pine species", found that P. pinea oil and its two constituents (1,8-cineole and limonene) were most effective, showing 100% acaricidal activity at 6 and 8 ^l, respectively (X12137480). Traboulsi et al. (2005) found extracts against fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus and some repelled mosquito bites. Terpineol and 1,8-cineole were the most effective at preventing bites, offering complete protection for 1.6 and 2 h, respectively (X15662650). Fortunately for nut-lovers, Phillips et al. (2005) quantified the phytoster-ols in five accesions of nuts. Such phytosterols are medicinally important, for example, in BPH and in high cholesterol (X16302759). The phytosterols in pine nuts (not necessarily P. pinea) based on five accessions were as follows: delta-5-avenasterol, 139-403 ppm; campestanol, 26—38 ppm; campes-terol, 137-198 ppm; phytosterols 1470-2370 ppm; poriferasta-7,25-dienol, 66-177 ppm; sitostanol, <17-59 ppm; beta-sitosterol, 1044-1320 ppm; and stigmasterol, <17 ppm (X16302759).

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